Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

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Date 197-, descending sort earliest first

date event tags firsts
1979 29 Dec Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 4 April 1923 in 'Abdu'l-'Azím) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See BWNS353 for news of the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of his passing in Quito.
  • See also Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Írán Furútan Muhájir.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For stories about Dr Mahájir see Bahá'í Memories.
  • See Academic Wikipedia.
  • See Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity by Richard Francis.
  • A photo.
  • See as well LoF455-461.
  • The 25th anniversary of Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir's death was marked in Ecuador by a Growth and Victories conference and graveside ceremony, including a talk by his daughter Gisu Mohadjer Cook. BWNS353]
  • Rahmatullah Muhajir; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahá'u'lláh; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Quito, Ecuador; Ecuador; `Abdu'l-Azím, Iran; Iran
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which did not give recognition to the Bahá'í Faith, was adopted by referendum. [BI11]
  • See Mess63-68p462.
  • See Constitutional Coherence and the Legal Status of the Bahá'í Community of Iran by Salim A. Nakhjavani.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Human rights; - Persecution; Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Human Rights; Iranian revolution; Iran
    1979 Dec 'Azamatu'lláh Fahandizh was executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz was resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255]
  • Several attempts had been made to demolish the House and several times they had to stop because there were freak accidents where people were hurt or killed in trying to knock it down. Finally it was completely demolished during the night in December. [OFM69]
  • See video Sacred Space - 40 Years Since the Destruction of the House of the Báb.
  • Wikipedia The Báb's House.
  • After the authorities demolished the House of the Báb, they decided to construct a Islamic religious center on that site. Ironically the new structure was named "Bayt-al-Mahdi" or "The House of the Mahdi (Promised One)". [The House of the Báb, Shiraz, Iran]
  • A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith p315 says, "A road and a public square were later built over the site."
  • Báb, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Destruction; - Persecution; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1979 21 Nov The assets of three smaller institutions owned by the Bahá'í community, the Vahhaj, Matla and Huqúq companies, institutions that had served as holding companies for various types of funds and properties, were formally confiscated as well as those of the Trustees Company and the Children's Savings Company, (Shirkat-i Nawnahalan) in verdicts handed down by the Central Islamic Revolutionary Court, Branch 1. [Bahá'í Teachings 4 Oct 2012; BW18:252; Documentation (Page 3 and 5)]

    The Bahá'í Hospital, the Missaghie Hospital, in Tehran was confiscated. See the documentation (page 7) for the list of charges against it.

    Persecution, Iran; Vahhaj Company; Matla Company; Huquq Company; Trustees Company; Childrens Savings Company; Nawnahalan; Missaghie Hospital; Iran
    1979 11 Nov Starting just months after the revolution, seven members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran were disappeared. Only years later was it learned that they had been tried in a sham trial by a revolutionary court on charges of espionage, had been sentenced to death, and had been executed by firing squad. [Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; NSA; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 11 Nov Dr 'Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, was kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed to be dead. [BW18:254, 294] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; NSA; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 Nov Bahá'í meetings were prohibited in Shasavár, Iran. [BW18:255] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Shasavar, Iran; Iran
    1979 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This compilation was published as a book by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] Inspiring the Heart (compilation); * Publications; - Compilations; Universal House of Justice; - Bahá'í World Centre; United Kingdom
    1979 Oct In Iran, Bahá'ís in the ministries of education, health and social administration were dismissed from their jobs. [BW18:255] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; - Persecution, Education; Iran
    1979 Oct The first Bahá'í summer school for Quechua-speakers was held in Cachaco, Imbabura, Ecuador. [BW17:170] First summer and winter schools; Cachaco, Ecuador; Ecuador first Bahá’í summer school for Quechua-speakers in Ecuador
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá'u'lláh—his wife and three of his children were murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633; LoF471-472]
  • He was buried near the grave of Hand of the Cause Mr Banání with the graves of his wife and children nearby. [CG132]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
  • See Bahá'í Blog for a tribute to his life.
  • Early in May soldiers had invaded his home and thoroughly sacked it. The president of Uganda was a Nilotic and a native of northern Uganda as were a majority of his army. After taking control of the country they began to take reprisals from rival tribes and those who they thought had supported Idi Amin. [CG127]
  • On the morning of the murders Mr. Olinga and his family had participated in a work detail at the Temple grounds. After the evening meal, a group of soldiers entered their compound and murdered him as well as his wife Elizabeth the children Táhirih and Lennie. [CG130-132]
  • Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", had had an extraordinarily accurate dream and had warned Mr. Olinga of his danger. [CG163]
  • See Enoch Olinga, Knight of Baha'u'llah, Father of Victories and Hand of the Cause of God, Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4
  • See as well Glimpse of the life of Enoch Olinga as told by 'Ali Nakhjavani.
  • Enoch Olinga; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahá'u'lláh; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Dreams and visions; Kampala, Uganda; Uganda
    1979 15 - 16 Sep The second Baha'i Studies Seminar on Ethics and Methodology was held at St. John's College in Cambridge, England.
  • The proceedings.
  • Bahá'í studies; Ethics and Methodology; Cambridge, England
    1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253]
  • See BW18p253p253 for an idea of the size of the house.
  • A photo of the destruction.
  • Báb, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Destruction; - Persecution; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, 'Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, ordered the arrest of Bahá'ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested were members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
  • Bahá'í homes in Tabríz were raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Shahsavar, Iran; Ábádan, Iran; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání was executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Mahabad (Iran); Iran
    1979 25 – 26 Aug An Administrative Committee for Uganda was appointed by the Universal House of Justice to prepare the Bahá'í community for the re-establishment of the national spiritual assembly. [LoF471] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Uganda
    1979 21 Aug The arrest of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran by an unknown armed group "claiming authority". They were accused of "plotting against the security of the State".

    Subsequently, on 11 September 1980, the Universal House of Justice sent a message to all National Assemblies informing them of an article published in the 29 August edition of Le Monde, by a non-Bahá'í contributor, Eric Rouleau condemning Iran for the complete disappearance of these nine Bahá'ís.

  • See the reference for both the message from the Universal House of Justice and the article titled "The Bahá'ís: An Accursed Community". [11 September 1980]
  • Persecution, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 4 Jul The Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of a fourth Counsellor to the International Teaching Centre, Counsellor Anneliese Bopp. [Mess63-86p421] International Teaching Centre; Anneliese Bopp; Counsellors; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1979 29 Jun The Universal House of Justice announced that the term of service for the members of the Continental Board of Counsellors will be five years as of the 26th of November, 1980, the Day of the Covenant. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 29 June, 1979, BW19:27] Counsellors; Appointed arm; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1979 (early June) In Iran, the offices of Nawnahálán and the Umaná' Corporation were taken over by Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:252]

    The Bahá'í Children's Savings Company, known in Iran as Shirkat-i Nawnahalan, began as a savings bank for Bahá'í children in 1917. As successive generations of Bahá'í children grew up, they kept their savings–primarily intended for their future educations–with the company, and local and national Bahá'í institutions also placed their deposit funds there. The Iranian government raided and took over the offices of this company in early June of 1979, freezing and then confiscating all of its assets, estimated at $5 million—literally stealing money from children. [Bahá'í Teachings 4 Oct 2012]

    Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Nawnahalan; Iran
    1979 12 Jun The UN Conference entitled "The Human Factor in Science and Technology for Development" was held in New York. Those attending on behalf of the Bahá'í International Community were: Dr. Will C. van den Hoonaard, Alternative Representative of the Baha'i International Community; Dr. K.H. Standke, Director, UN Office of Science and Technology for Development; Mr. Jurge Mahner, Special Fellow, UN Institute for Training and Research; Mr. John Edmonds, Engineer, Baha'i; and Ms. Susan Berge, Economist, Baha'i. [BIC History Science and Technology for Development] Bahá'í International Community; United Nations conferences; New York, USA; USA
    1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá'í, was kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 6 May Bernard Howell Leach CBE, (b.5 Jan 1887 Hong Kong), internationally known potter, artist and author, passed away in St Ives, Cornwall. He was buried in the Barnoon Cemetery in St Ives. [BW18:669–71]
  • See AY50 for the significance of the name of the village of St. Ives.
  • Find a grave
  • Wikipedia.
  • Leach Pottery.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • He was the author of A Potter's Book, A Potter in Japan as well as Beyond East and West: Memoirs, Portraits and Essays, and Drawings, Verse and Belief. [Collins10.892-10.985]
  • See Bernard Leach, Potter:A Biographical Sketch by Robert Weinberg.
  • See Remembering Bernard Leach by Trudi Scott (Published in BW18 pp929-931).
  • See Traces that Remain p216-218.
  • See the tribute to Bernard Leach and Shoki Hamada entitled Pioneering Pottery Sought Unity of East and West on the centenary of the founding of Leach Pottery in St. Ives, England.
  • Bernard Leach; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; St. Ives, England; Cornwall, England; United Kingdom
    1979 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Lapland was formed in Kemi, Finland. Local Spiritual Assembly; Kemi, Finland; Finland; Sápmi first Local Spiritual Assembly in Lapland
    1979 -1982 In the period Riḍván 1979 to Riḍván 1982 the Association for Bahá'í Studies played an increasingly important role in the affairs of the international Bahá'í community and through its conferences and publications has provided an exciting forum for intellectual and spiritual development.

    A change of name which was recommended by the Canadian National Assembly and approved by the Universal House of Justice in April 1981 reflecting the emerging nature of the Association's membership and activities with national affiliates established in a number of countries. lts executive committee included, for the first time, members from the United States as well as Canada. Serving on the Executive Committee were Hossain Danesh, Glen Eyford, Richard Gagnon, Jane Goldstone, William Hatcher, Douglas Martin, Peter Morgan, Nasser Sabet and Christine Zerbinis, of Canada. Firuz Kazemzadeh and Dorothy Nelson served as liaison officers in the United States. [BW18p194]

    See Wikipedia for a current list of association for Bahá'í Studies worldwide.

    In 1979 the Universal House of Justice gave a further goal to the Canadian community for the Seven Year Plan: 'Expand the opportunities for teaching in Canadian institutions of higher learning and further develop the Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá'í Faith.'

    And in 1981, when the second phase of the Seven Year Plan was launched, the Universal House of Justice restated this goal and divided it into two parts: 'Foster the development of the Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá'í Faith' and "Expand and intensify the teaching of the Faith in Canadian institutions of higher learning.'

    The goal of cultivating opportunities for formal presentations and courses remained a primary objective of the Association, but the Universal House of Justice also encouraged specific attention to the development of the Association itself. The Association had become a significant feature of the intellectual, social and spiritual life of the Canadian community, and for increasing numbers of Bahá'ís worldwide.

    In March of 1981 the Association for Bahá'í Studies announced the acquisition of a property in the heart of the University of Ottawa campus, the first such centre in the world. It is located at 34 Copernicus Street Ottawa, Ontario KIN 7K4. [BW18p195]

    Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Canada; USA
    1979 Ridván The Seven Year Plan was launched. (1979-1986) [BBD181; BBRSM159; BW17:71]
  • See Bahá'í News No 676 July 1987 p2-7 for the achievements of the Seven Year Plan.
  • See the publication The Seven Year Plan 1979-1986: Statistical Report Ridván 1983.
  • Seven Year Plan (1979-1986); - Teaching Plans; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1979 20 Apr The Bahá'í World Centre reported that ten countries or territories had a Bahá'í population that exceeded one percent of the general population. [BW17:99]

    The world population of Bahá'ís was estimated to be 3,217,000. [BW19p67]

    Statistics
    1979 17 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Greenland was formed in Nuuk (Godthåb) the capital city. Members of the Assembly were: Lillen Bente Delevran, James Milne, Henning Jensen, Carsten Lind, Else Boesen Jensen, Lotos Nielsen, John Berthelsen Lyberth, Ole Berthelsen, and Linda Milne. [BN No 585 December 1979 p15]

    For a picture of this first Local Spiritual Assembly see the for the National Community.

    Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Nuuk; Greenland first LSA in Greenland
    1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupied the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá'í properties, explaining that it was a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Báb, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá'í Faith in Uganda was lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala was re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Kampala; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Persecution, Uganda; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Kampala, Uganda; Uganda
    1979 1 Apr The declaration of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran after a referendum with a 98.2% supporting vote.
  • And part of that constitution...

        Iran's Army and Revolutionary Guards "will be responsible not only for guarding and preserving the frontiers of the country, but also for fulfilling the ideological mission of (Shiite) jihad in God's way; that is, extending the sovereignty of God's (Shiite) law throughout the world ... in the hope that this century will witness the establishment of a universal holy government and the downfall of all others."
  • The IRGC is also the backbone of the clerical establishment in Iran. The senior cadres of the IRGC and the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei enjoy the final say in Iran's domestic and foreign policy and support for proxies. The IRGC, in addition, is engaged in the domestic repression of dissidents; the suppression of freedom of speech, press and assembly, and imprisoning political opponents. The Washington office of an Iranian opposition group, the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), has released a 175-page book, "The Rise of the Revolutionary Guards Corps Financial Empire," demonstrating that the IRGC controls more than half Iran's GDP and owns several major economic powerhouses and religious endowments, such as Astan-e Qods Razavi, in the northeastern city of Mashad. The NCRI also published another detailed book on 15 Iranian terrorist training centers, where the IRGC provides ideological, military and tactical training to foreign recruits, who are later dispatched to conduct terrorist activities in the Middle East and beyond. [Gatestone Institue 18 December 2021]
  • The formalization of the concept of Governance of the Jurisconsult (also known as "Wilayat al-Faqih" in Arabic) in the Iranian constitution solidified Khomeini's ideas and provided the framework for the political structure and governance in Iran, with Khomeini himself becoming the first Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic. The main aspects of this doctrine in Twelver Shia Islam were: 1. Supreme Authority of the Jurisconsult (Faqih), 2. Guardianship and Leadership in the place of the 12th Imam until his return, 3. The establishment of an Islamic State where the Jurisconsult (Faqih) would hold ultimate authority, 4. The Faqih would be legitimized through popular vote, 5. The Faqih would have the authority to interpret and enforce Islamic law in all aspect of society, 6. Social justice, equity and the welfare of the people would be implemented, 7. Resistance against oppression both from within and outside the country would be a duty, 8. Islamic jurisprudence would evolve and adapt to the changing times. [Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran]
  • Constitutions (general); Iranian constitution; Iranian revolution; Iran, General history; Iran
    1979 (Spring) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tákur, Iran, was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Takur); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Takur, Iran; Iran
    1979 21 Mar The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a programme of activities to be undertaken during the second half of the Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. On that occasion, the General Assembly decided that a week of solidarity with the peoples struggling against racism and racial discrimination, beginning on 21 March, would be organized annually in all States.

      The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on the day the police in Sharpeville, South Africa, opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration against apartheid "pass laws" in 1960. [United Nations website.

  • Sharpville Massacre on 21 March 1960. This is a day which is commemorated each year in South Africa.
  • United Nations; International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination; Racism; Sharpeville, South Africa; South Africa
    1979 21 Mar The Universal House of Justice outlined the broad goals of the Seven Year Plan to he launched at Ridván 1979. [BW18:81–5] Seven Year Plan (1979-1986); - Teaching Plans; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá'í businessman, was imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Iran; Tehran, Iran
    1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu'l-Quds of Iran was seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá'ís in Iran, were confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Haziratul-Quds (Bahá'í centres); National Spiritual Assembly; Iran
    1979 Feb Revolutionary Guards raided the offices of Nawnahálán, a Bahá'í investment company, and the Umaná' Corporation, a foundation for the purchase and maintenance of Bahá'í properties, and impoundeded the keys. [BW18:252]
  • In the weeks following, the offices were occupied by the Revolutionary Guards and the staff were dismissed. [BW18:252]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Nawnahalan; Iran
    1979 Feb A mob of some 5,000 armed with hatchets, spades and pickaxes converged on Hisár, Iran, intent on harming the Bahá'ís; the mob was prevented from doing so. [BW18:275]
  • Shortly afterwards the home of Mr. Ma'naví was looted and he was carried off; it appeared he was beaten to death. [BW18:275]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Mobs; - Persecution; Hisar; Iran
    1979 1 Feb Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran from exile in France. On the 11th of February, the revolutionary government assumed power. Ayatollah Khomeini; History (general); Iran, General history; Ayatollahs; Iranian revolution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 Feb In Iran, Bahá'í representatives met with high-ranking clergy in Shíráz, Qum and Mashhad to combat the widespread accusation that the Bahá'ís of Iran had supported the regime of the Sháh. [BW18:252] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Iran
    1979 27 Jan In Samoa, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the cornerstone of the first Bahá'í House of Worship of the Pacific Islands. [BW17:188, 371; VV36]
  • For the text of the address delivered by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW17:372.
  • For excerpts from the address of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW17:373.
  • For pictures see BW17:374.
  • Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Apia; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Islands; Apia, Samoa; Samoa; Pacific
    1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; - Shahs; - Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Iranian revolution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 12 Jan Bahá'í members of the Sádát-Mahmúdí clan of the Buyr-Ahmad tribe of central Iran were driven from their homes by other clan members. [BW18:271]
  • For the report of this incident and its aftermath see BW18:271–4.
  • For a picture see BW18:272.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Iran
    1979 3 Jan In a message from the Department of the Secretariat of the Universal House of Justice "To the Participants in the Bahá'í Studies Seminar on Ethics and Methodology held in Cambridge on 30 September and 1 October 1978" the subject of the review of Bahá'í publications was clarified.
      .....it has already established the policy that doctoral theses do not have to be reviewed unless there is a proposal to publish them in larger quantities than is required by the examining body.

    Also included were comments / a small compilation from the Research Department at the World Centre on the seminar and on Bahá'í scholarship. They concluded by discussing the two particular dangers to which Bahá'í scholars are exposed.

    Scholarship; * Publications; Publishing; Review (general); Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Science; Cambridge, England; United Kingdom
    1979 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá'ís and the political instability of the country. Persecution, Afghanistan; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Afghanistan
    1979 (In the year) The government of Denmark recognized the right of the Bahá'í Community of Denmark to perform marriages and to receive other rights owning to a religious community. [SRRB14p248-250] Marriage; Denmark
    1979 (In the year) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán was confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Tihran); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1979 (In the year) Bahá'í cemeteries across Iran were confiscated, including the cemetery in Tihrán, which contains the graves of several Hands of the Cause and other distinguished Bahá'ís as well as several thousand other graves of Bahá'ís.
  • Many graves were desecrated and the gravestones smashed.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Destruction; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Cemeteries and graves; Iran
    1979 (In the year) The Síyáh-Chál in Tihrán and the houses of Quddús and Hujjat were seized and occupied by members of the revolutionary committees. [BW17:79–80] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Quddus; Hujjat; Iran; Tehran, Iran
    1979 (In the year) Five Bahá'ís were killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá'í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Iran
    1979 from 1979 After the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran, the persecution of Bahá'ís significantly intensified due to their perceived beliefs and association with the previous regime. The Iranian government viewed the Bahá'ís as heretics and threats to Islam. Bahá'ís faced severe restrictions on their religious freedom, denial of basic human rights, and discriminatory laws targeting them.

    Persecution included but was not limited to:

    Arrests and imprisonment: Bahá'ís were often arrested on false charges, including espionage or propaganda against the state, and were subjected torture and to long prison sentences.

    Discrimination in education and employment: Bahá'ís were barred from higher education and many forms of employment within the public sector initially and then it expanded to all sectors of the economy. Their business licences were often revoked or they were prevented from starting businesses.

    Property confiscation: Bahá'í properties, including holy sites, cemeteries, and religious centres, were desecrated, vandalized, confiscated or destroyed by the government.

    Denial of citizenship rights: Bahá'ís faced difficulty in obtaining identification documents, which denied them citizenship rights and access to essential services.

    Hate propaganda and vilification: Bahá'ís were subjected to hate propaganda through state-controlled media and religious leaders, portraying them as morally corrupt, enemies of Islam and the state. [Iran Press Watch]

    Physical violence and harassment: Bahá'ís were targeted for physical violence, harassment, and intimidation by both government authorities and extremist groups.

    Efforts by the international community, international human rights organizations, and individuals raised awareness of the persecution faced by Bahá'ís in Iran, urging the Iranian government to respect their human rights and provide them with the freedom to practice their religion without fear of persecution. In the early years of the Revolution about 200 Bahá'ís were executed but in the face of international pressure the regime resorted to more subtile and systematic means of oppression. On the whole the regime was defiant in the face of pressure from other countries, the United Nations and other Human Rights groups. [Iran Press Watch]

    Persecution, Iran; Human Rights; Iranian revolution; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Iran
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá'í Women's Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
  • Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Bahá'í International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
  • Women; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Women; - Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Bahá'í International Community; Monrovia, Liberia; Liberia; Africa
    1978 23 Dec Helmut Winkelbach, a German Bahá'í, arrived in Bobrujsk, in what was then called the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Ela-D Committee of Germany Records; BW95-96p48] Helmut Winkelbach; Knights of Bahá'u'lláh; Bobrujsk, Belarus; Belarus
    1978 16 - 19 Dec More than 560 Bahá'ís from 14 countries throughout Malaysia gathered for the South East Asia Bahá'í Regional Conference. [BN136 April 1979] - Conferences; South East Asia Bahá'í Regional Conference; Kuching; Sarawak, Malaysia; Malaysia
    1978 15 Dec A cabled message was sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá'ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz were in peril. [BW17:79] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; NSA; Iran
    1978 Dec Bahá'í homes in Andarún, Iran, were besieged; one Bahá'í was badly beaten. [BW18:275–6] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Andarún, Iran; Iran
    1978 Dec The first Bahá'í Winter School of Malta took place. [BW17:192] First summer and winter schools; Malta first Bahá’í Winter School of Malta
    1978 7 Nov The murder of Major-General Ali Mohammad Khademi (b. 16 December, 1913 in Jahrom, Fars.) After a brilliant career in the military he became head of Iran's national airline. In 16 years he transformed it into a world-class airline with international connections.
    General Khademi was killed in his home. Despite witness accounts by his wife and the soldiers assigned to his home, the government controlled media called his murder a "suicide", although several international media outlets, such as the New York Times, reported on his murder. Among Iranian Bahá'ís, General Khademi held the highest ranking leadership post in a public institution. His religious affiliation, which was not a secret, was the cause of fierce opposition by a number of Muslim clergy.
    An investigation into his murder named three members of "the joint anti-terror committee", one of whom was identified at the Military Command by Bahiyyih Moayyed as the shooter of her husband. Despite these individuals' identification and arrest by the Military Command, none was tried or punished. Later on, The National Security and Intelligence Agency (SAVAK) detained Bahiyyih Moayyed for about one month to force her to declare that her husband had committed suicide. She refused. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 19724; Iran News]
    `Alí Mohammad Khademi; Bahiyyih Moayyed; - Persecution; In Memoriam; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1978 Oct - Nov Mobs destroyed the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Mihán-du-´Ab followed by the burning or looting of 80 homes and the murder of two believers, a father and son who bodies were dragged through the streets, cut into pieces and consigned to the flames. Throughout the country the hostility towards the Bahá'ís resulted in 4 deaths, the loss of millions in property and the displacement of some 700 people.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran instituted a special fund for relief of the needy and suffering. [BN 136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • - Persecution; Funds; Funds, relief; Mihán-du-`Ab, Iran; Azerbaijan; Iran
    1978 Oct Three hundred Bahá'í homes near Shíráz were burned or destroyed and in another 200 homes the Bahá'ís were driven from them, property was stolen and many Bahá'ís were beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
  • At one point 700 Bahá'ís were homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79; BN136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution, Destruction; - Persecution; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1978 30 Sep - 1 Oct The Bahá'í Studies Seminar on Ethics and Methodology was held in Cambridge, UK.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the participants.
  • Bahá'í studies; Ethics and Methodology; Cambridge, England
    1978 14 - 25 Aug The first World Conference Against Racism was held in Geneva, Switzerland. A major focus on the conference was South Africa's apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination.
  • UN website
  • United Nations; Bahá'í International Community; UNESCO; Racism; Discrimination; Geneva, Switzerland
    1978 14 - 26 Aug The Bahá'í International Community participated in the first World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and sent a delegation of African, European, and Asian backgrounds to participate. A major focus on the conference was South Africa's apartheid policies of racial segregation and discrimination. [BIC History 1978]
  • See the declaration submitted by the Bahá'í International Community.
  • See the resolutions adopted.
  • Declaration and Programme of Action
  • Bahá'í International Community; Racism; United Nations; - BIC statements; Geneva, Switzerland
    1978 Aug An International Bahá'í Youth Conference was held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, attended by some 380 Bahá'ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Yaounde; Cameroon; Africa
    1978 5 Jul The passing of Ruth J. Ellis Moffet (b. 19 January 1880 in Eau Claire, Wisconsin). She was buried in Glendale Cemetery in Des Moines, Iowa. Ruth Moffet has been described as a "champion teacher for of the Cause of God" and as being "instrumental in helping establish the Bahá'í Faith in the United States". Her travels took her through Europe, the Near East, Asia, Egypt and Canada as well as the United States. [BW17p463]

    Publications:

    • Do'a: On Wings of Prayer: First published in 1933, then in 1938 and 1953 as Do'a: The Call to Prayer. It was reprinted in 1974 and later in 1984. The book has been described as "A broad Bahá'í approach to prayer and mediation of 'the practice of the presence of the Spirit of God', using quotations from the Bahá'í Faith and other religions." [BELp105] Her formula, which has become known as the "Five Steps of Prayer", and was printed in Principles of Bahá'í Administration published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1953 and was cited by the Universal House of Justice in its message of the 11 October 1978.
    • New Keys to the Book of Revelation: Published in New Delhi in 1977 and reprinted in 1989. [Collins p105] It contains a chronology of the events in the Holy Land.
    • A Pilgrimage to the Holy Land: Published in Honolulu 1980. This was also entitled Visting the Bahá'i World Centre. It consisted of notes from her pilgrimage May 17 - September 17, 1954. [Collins p105]
    • The Cause of the Rise and Fall of Civilizations: This was a chart that she produced after her pilgrimage. It is her own interpretation of history.
    • Her essay, The Dynamics of Prayer was published in SoW Vol 21 Issue 2 p47 in May 1930. A 'cleaner' PDF is available here.
  • See Bahaipedia for a detailed biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Ruth Moffett; In Memoriam; Prayer, Five Steps of; Prayer; Eau Claire, WI; Des Moines, IA
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning 'the Baha'ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast' throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá'í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá'ís were also called in.
  • Persecution, Niger; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Niger
    1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette was included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
  • For picture see BW17:165.
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Architecture; Recognition (legal); Wilmette, IL; USA
    1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands was formed on Tortola. Local Spiritual Assembly; Tortola; British Virgin Islands first Local Spiritual Assembly in the British Virgin Islands
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Qatar with its seat in Doha was formed. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 March 1977] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Doha; Qatar
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Oman with its seat in Muscat was formed. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 March 1977] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Muscat; Oman
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland was formed. [BN No 598 January 1981 p14; BN no 608 November 1981 p10]
  • A member of that Assembly was John W Allen, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for Swaziland. Mr Allen had served on National Assemblies since 1956 (Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa, then in 1967 the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique which, in 1978, became the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland. Mr Allen passed away on the 31st of August, 1981 while visiting the US. Mr Allen also served as an Auxiliary Board Member for Protection. He was among the first group appointed by the Guardian.
  • Note: In 1977 Angola and Mozambique were placed under the direct guidance of the Universal House of Justice. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Auxiliary board members and assistants; Swaziland
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi was re-formed. [BW16:137; BW17:141, 142, 347] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Burundi
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed. [BW17:174–176, 348; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Mariana Islands first National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas was formed with its seat in Nassau. [BW17:162, 348] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Nassau, Bahamas; Bahamas first The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahamas is formed
    1978 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania was formed with its seat in Nouakchott. [BW17:141, 348, BW19:491] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Nouakchott; Mauritania first National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania is formed
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cyprus was formed with its seat in Nicosia. [BW17:190, 348] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Nicosia, Cyprus; Cyprus first NSA Cyprus, the first island in the Mediterranean to form an NSA.
    1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attended a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building was completed at this stage. Chairing the event was Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines was placed in a niche specially designed for it.
  • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. [BW17p293-300]
  • Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; Báb, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1978 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fourth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. [BW17:293]
  • Those elected were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Borrah Kavelin, . [Mess63-86p381] .
  • For details of the International Convention and pictures see BW17:293–300.
  • Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1978 15 - 15 Apr At the second Seminar on Bahá'í Studies held at the University of Lancaster Denis MacEoin, a Lecturer in Islamic Studies at the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, delivered his paper Early Shaykhí Reaction to the Báb and His Claims. It has been presented in Studies in Bábí & Bahá'í History, Volume 1, edited by Moojan Momen. Bahá'í studies; Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Shaykhism; Lancaster, England; Lancashire, England; United Kingdom
    1978 Apr Dorothy Francis, an Aboriginal person from the Salteaux tribe, was awarded the Order of Canada for her services to Canadian native peoples and her efforts to preserve their culture. [BW17:103; VV29]
  • For a picture see BW17:103.
  • Dorothy Francis; Canada
    1978 27 Mar Counsellors do not have any legislative, executive or judicial authority, priestly functions, and can not make authoritative interpretations, however, the Universal House of Justice explained that they outrank Assemblies and the Assemblies are to keep them informed and consider their advice and recommendations. The relationship between the Councellors and the Assemblies is to be one characterized by love and a common desire to serve rather than by rank or station. [27 March 1978] Counsellors
    1978 4 Mar Christaline Francis, the first woman of the Caribs to become a Bahá'í, enrolled in Dominica. First Bahá'ís by country or area; Dominica first woman Carib Bahá’í in Dominica
    1978 Mar The first Bahá'í-owned school in Pakistan, the New Day Montessori, opened in Karachi. - Bahá'í inspired schools; Karachi, Pakistan; Pakistan first Bahá’í-owned school in Pakistan
    1978 Feb The government of the Congo banned the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá'í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national Hazíratu'l-Quds was confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
  • Persecution, Congo; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Haziratul-Quds (Bahá'í centres); Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire)
    1978 15 Jan The first National Bahá'í Women's Conference of Niger took place. Women; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Women; - Conferences, National; - First conferences; Niger first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá'ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá'í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu'l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to 're-education' camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Persecution, Vietnam; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Haziratul-Quds (Bahá'í centres); Vietnam
    1978 (In the year) In Iran, many local Bahá'í centres were seized by armed men of the revolutionary committees, along with files and membership lists. [BW17:79–80] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Haziratul-Quds (Bahá'í centres); Iran
    1978 (In the year) The publication of Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [TRAKA]

    It is also published under the title "Fountain of Wisdom: A Collection of Writings from Baháʼu'lláh".

    Sixteen Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during the later years of His life, including the Tablet of Carmel, the Book of the Covenant, and the Tablet of Wisdom, as well as excerpts from other Writings. Six of the tablets in this volume were translated into English and published in 1917. The translations were improved upon by Shoghi Effendi, and those not translated by him were filled in with the publication in 1978 under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice. [wikipedia]

    Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Translation; * Publications; Fountain of Wisdom (book); Akka, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1978 (In the year) Ten Bahá'ís were killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá'í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Iran see BW18:337.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution, Mobs; - Persecution; Human Rights; Iran
    1978 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Bonaire was formed.
  • It never functioned and was dissolved in 1989.
  • See also West, Letters From Bonaire.
  • Local Spiritual Assembly; Bonaire first Local Spiritual Assembly in Bonaire
    1977 27 – 30 Dec The first Bahá'í summer school of Sierra Leone was held in Magburaka. [BW17:151] First summer and winter schools; Magburaka, Sierra Leone; Sierra Leone first Bahá’í summer school of Sierra Leone
    1977 15 Dec The Hemispheric Bahá'í Radio and Television Conference was held in Panama, with 125 participants from 24 countries. [BW17:219; Mess63-86] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Other; Bahá'í Radio; Television; Media; Panama
    1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá'ís were returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith were turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Iraq
    1977 Dec The first International Conference of Bahá'í Women in South America was held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
  • For picture see BW17:211.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; - Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; - First conferences; Lima, Peru; Peru first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America
    1977 Dec The restoration of the house of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá began. [BW17:84] House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá; Restoration; Akka, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá'í Women's Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Women; New Delhi, India; India; Asia
    1977 13 – 16 Oct The Asian Bahá'í Women's Conference was held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
  • For picture see BW17:212.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Women; Women; New Delhi, India; India; Asia
    1977 12 Oct The first Bahá'í educational and cultural radio station, HCRN-1 Radio Bahá'í del Ecuador, made its inaugural broadcast at 1420kHz, 20 watts, in Spanish and Quechua from studios in Otavalo. [BBD193; BW17:169, 215–17; BW19:120; VV77; Mess63-86p373]
  • Radio Bahá'í was first housed in the Amatu'l-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum Institute in Otavalo. [BW18p226]
  • For pictures see BW17:216, 218 and VV77.
  • Full time programming (six hours a day) was initiated on the 12th of December, 1977. The 1 kiloWatt transmitter was located at Cahas, 20km south of Otavalo. [Radio Bahá'í Ecuador p23, 52]
  • On December 12th, 1979, programming was initiated in the short wave band on 2340 kHz in the 120-metre band. The 1 kilowatt transmitter was located about 30 km north of Otavalo at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In 1982 the transmission frequency was switched to 4990 kHz on the 60-meter band. [Radio Bahá'Í Ecuador p205 note 23]
  • For further details on this radio station see Radio Bahá'í Ecuador by Kurt Hein.
  • See as well the compilation entitled Use of Radio and Television in Teaching attached to the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 May 1975.
  • Pictures
  • Bahá'í Radio; Bahá'í-owned radio; Firsts, other; Education; Otavalo, Ecuador; Cahas, Ecuador; Ecuador first Bahá’í educational and cultural radio station in Ecuador makes inaugural broadcast
    1977 21 Sep The government of Idi Amin in Uganda banned all religion groups but for four. President Amin, who was a Moslem convert, granted the freedom of worship only to Islam and the Anglican, Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches. The vast majority of Christians belonged to the Anglican and Catholic churches. Some of those organizations banned had been included in previous bans imposed by President Amin in 1973 and 1975. [CG113]
  • The ban remained in place until the overthrow of the Amin government by the ousted former President Obote on the 11th of April, 1979. The Bahá'ís of Kampala formed an administrative committee until elections could be held. [CG124]
  • Persecution, Uganda; Uganda
    1977 Oct The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, were banned in Uganda. The National Assembly and 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. The ban was lifted in April of 1979 and the community began the process to re-build. [BWNS135; BW17:141]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was re-established in 1981. [BW18:553]
  • Persecution, Uganda; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Uganda
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá'í Faith, and the Bahá'í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • The Assembly was able to re-form in 1981. [The Achievements of the Seven Year Plan p2]
  • Persecution, Uganda; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; LSA; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Kampala; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Uganda
    1977 14 Sep The first Spiritual Assembly of the Galapagos was established on the island of Santa Cruz. The members of this first local Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Oyora, Santa Cruz, Galapagos were: Sr. Catlos Patino, Sr. Golo Paredes, Sta. Nilda Pena, Srta. Ester Margarlta Panedei, Sr. Gonzalo Salinas, Sra. Luzmila Villacis de Salinas, Sra. Vilma de Arguello, Sra. Soila Robaliino, and Sr. Victor Hugo Arguello. . [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p82] Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Puerto Oyora; Santa Cruz, Galápagos; Galápagos Islands, Ecuador; Ecuador the first Spiritual Assembly of the Galapagos
    1977 16 Aug The passing of Annamarie Honnold (b. 23 December 1914 in Urbana, Illinois) in Kennet Square, PA, USA. She was an American Bahá'í author, teacher and United Nations representative. Her mother became a Bahá'í a year after her birth and in 1921 the parents and their two daughters, Annamarie and Margaret Rosa, went on pilgrimage and met 'Abdu'l-Bahá.

    Her publications were:

  • 1982 - Vignettes from the Life of 'Abdu'l-Bahá
  • 1986 - Divine Therapy: Pearls of Wisdom from the Bahá'í Writings
  • 1994 - Why They Became Bahá'ís: First Generation Bahá'ís By 1963
  • In 1972 she published Glimpses of Early Bahá'í Pilgrimages, a discussion of early pilgrimages based on the resulting pilgrim's notes. Includes text from a variety of memoirs.
  • In Memoriam; Annamarie Honnold; Urbana, IL; Kennett Square, PA; Pennsylvania, USA; USA
    1977 12 – 14 Aug An International Bahá'í Youth Conference was held in Enugu, Nigeria, attended by over 250 Bahá'ís from 19 countries. [BW17:150, 153] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Enugu, Nigeria; Nigeria; Africa
    1977 5 Jul The passing of Mírzá Ahmad Khán Yazdání Kasrawí (b. April 24, 1891) in Tehran. Born into a Muslim family he learned of the Faith from a peddler and then studied under Hand of the Cause Ibni-Abhár and from the renowned teacher, Aflavén-i's-Safé and became an avowed believer at the age of twenty-two.
  • In 1919 he was commissioned by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to accompany Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhár to The Hague to take a Tablet addressed to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace along with its English translation.
  • In addition to this service for 'Abdu'l-Bahá he served on the Spiritual Assembly of the Tehran and travelled at the request of Shoghi Effendi to India and Pakistan to teach and to Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Dubai to cheer the hearts of the pioneers that had settled in those countries. He also travelled to Iráq and Hijaz as well as Turkey and Afghanistan.
  • He served as editor of the Bahá'í News of Iran for 12 years and contributed articles regularly. He was the founder and a contributor to the Bahá'í Women's Journal and contributed to the Bahá'í Youth Magazine as well as the Year Book of the Iranian Bahá'í youth. [Bahaipedia; BW17p4380439]
  • Ahmad Yazdani; In Memoriam; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1977 Jul The first Bahá'í summer school of Ecuador was held in Cuenca. [BW17:170] Cuenca, Ecuador; Ecuador first Bahá’í summer school of Ecuador
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá'u'lláh's confinement in 'Akká was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Centenaries; Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Haifa, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences were held for Persian-speaking Bahá'ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Conferences, Bahá'í; - Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahá'ís; Persian diaspora; Germany; London, England; United Kingdom; Europe
    1977 31 May Joe Rabess, the first Carib to become a Bahá'í, enrolled in Dominica. Joe Rabess; Dominica first Carib Bahá’í, in Dominica
    1977 14 May The house of a Bahá'í in Fádilábád, Iran, was attacked; the Bahá'í was killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
  • BW17:79 says this was June.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Fadilabad, Iran; Iran
    1977 May Paul and Jane Jensen arrived on Andros Island in the Bahamas, the first Bahá'ís to reside on the island. First travel teachers and pioneers; Andros Island first Bahá’ís to reside on Andros Island
    1977 May The Himalayan Conference was held in Gangtok, Sikkim. [BW17:180–2] Conferences, Bahá'í; Gangtok, Sikkim; Sikkim, India; India
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the unified nation of Vietnam was elected. [Bahaipedia] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Vietnam
    1977 Ridván The first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles was formed with its seat in Pointe a Pitre in Guadeloupe. [BW17pxviii, 336; Guadeloupe by Daniel Caillaud]
  • Its jurisdiction covered Guadeloupe and its dependencies, Iles des Saintes; Marie-Galante; St. Barthelemy; Desirade Island, St. Martin/St. Maarten.
  • Note: Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin left the union of Guadeloupe in 2007.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; French West Indies; Guadeloupe; Îles des Saintes, Guadeloupe; Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe; St. Barthélemy; Desirade Island, Guadeloupe; St. Martin Island first National Spiritual Assembly of the French Antilles is formed.
    1977 Ridván The Bahá'ís of Guyana elected an independent assembly while Surinamé and French Guiana communities organized their own national assembly. The elected members of the first National Assembly of Guyana were Sheila Dolphin, Henry Dolphin, Ellen Widmer, Frank Sheffey, Ivan Fraser, Eileen Hill, David Morris, Rooplall Doodnauth, and Krishna Seegopaul. [BN No 555 June 1977 p11] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Guyana
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Suriname and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Paramaribo. [BW16:219, 341]. National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Suriname; French Guiana first NSA Surinam and French Guiana
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greece was formed with its seat in Athens.This had been a goal of the German community. [BW16:287; BW17:190] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Athens, Greece; Greece first NSA Greece
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides was formed with its seat in Port Vila. Since 1964 it had been administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean. With the name change it became the National Spiritual Assembly of Vanuatu on 30 July 1980. [BW17:xxviii,186, 341]
  • With the independence of New Hebrides the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly, Bahá'ís of New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Port Vila, Vanuatu; Vanuatu first NSA New Hebrides
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands was formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174]
  • See letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 23 June 1995 regarding "Marshall Islands population statistics".
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Majuro, Marshall Islands; Marshall Islands first NSA Marshall Islands
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) was formed with its seat in Ouagadougou. [BW17pxviii, 141, 341]
  • The former regional assembly of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta was reformed as the National Assembly of Ivory Coast and Mali at this time.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Ouagadougou; Upper Volta first NSA Upper Volta
    1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá'í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, took place. [BW18:204] Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Firsts, other; Bahá'í studies; Conferences, Other; Lancaster, England; United Kingdom first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar England
    1977 Apr The first National Bahá'í Children's Conference of Samoa took place. [BW17:211] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Children; - First conferences; Samoa first National Bahá’í Children’s Conference of Samoa
    1977 24 Mar In a cabled message, the Universal House of Justice called upon Bahá'í women around the world to arise and play an active role in the service of the Faith. [BW17:202]
  • For the report of the response to this call see BW17:202–14.
  • Women
    1977 4 – 6 Feb An International Teaching Conference was held in Mérida, Mexico, attended by more than 2,000 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:139.
  • Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.
  • For pictures see BW17:112, 126–7.
  • VV33 says this was 2–6 Feb.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Merida, Mexico; Mexico; Latin America
    1977 27 – 30 Jan An International Teaching Conference was held in Bahia, Brazil, attended by 1,300 Bahá'ís, the largest such gathering of Bahá'ís to date in Brazil. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:137–8.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 124–5.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Bahia, Brazil; Brazil; Latin America
    1977 19 – 22 Jan An International Teaching Conference was held in Auckland, New Zealand, attended by 1,195 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:136–7.
  • For pictures see BW17:111, 122–4.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Auckland, NZ; New Zealand; Asia-Pacific
    1977 (In the year) The first Macuxi people to become Bahá'ís enrolled in the northern state of Roraima, Brazil. Macuxi; Roraima; Brazil first Macuxi Bahá’ís in Brazil
    1977 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand re-formed. National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Thailand
    1977 (In the year) The publication of Call to the Nations, by Shoghi Effendi. It was composed of selections from the writings of the Guardian's "World Order letters" chosen by the Universal House of Justice and offered as a light and a guidance to all humankind in a "dark period of our history".
  • For a download in English see Call to the Nations.
  • For a Spanish translation see Llamado a las Naciones.
  • * Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; * Publications; Call to the Nations (book); Shoghi Effendi, Works of; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1976 27 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Dominica was formed in St George. Local Spiritual Assembly; St. George, Dominica; Dominica first Local Spiritual Assembly in Dominica
    1976 Dec The first Bahá'í Winter School in Cyprus was held in Nicosia. First summer and winter schools; Nicosia, Cyprus; Cyprus first Bahá’í Winter School in Cyprus
    1976 27 – 30 Nov An International Teaching Conference was held in Hong Kong, attended by 506 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:135–6.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 111, 121–2.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Hong Kong; Asia
    1976 6 – 7 Nov The first Canadian Bahá'í Native Council was held in Tyendinaga, Ontario. [BW17:162] Tyendinaga First Nation, ON; Ontario, Canada; Canada first Canadian Bahá’í Native Council in Tyendinaga, Ontario
    1976 15 – 17 Oct An International Teaching Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya, attended by 1,363 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:133–4.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 119–21.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya; Africa
    1976 5 Oct The passing of Adelaide Sharp (b. Texas, 1896) in Tehran.
  • In 1929 she accompanied Dr Susan Moody (77) to Tehran and and took up the position of principal of the Tarbiyat School for Girls (opened 1910).
  • In 1931 she invited her mother, Clara Sharp, to come and live with her.
  • After the closing of the Tarbiyat Schools on the 6th of December, 1934, the Guardian asked her to remain in Persia. She organized study classes for both boys and girls to study English writings such as Bahá'í Administration, The Promised Day is Come, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh and other works from the Guardian. In 1954 the Guardian ruled that women could serve on Bahá'í administrative bodied in Persia. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and served in this role for the next fourteen years. She attended the First and Second International Conventions in 1963 and in 1968. Her five decade legacy of service in Iran included children's education, translating Writings, consolidating administrative institutions, serving as the"external affairs" representative for the National Assembly. Upon her passing memorial services where held in Tehran as well as other centres throughout the country. [BW17p418-420, Bahá'í Heroes & Heroines]
  • Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Tarbiyat School, Tihran; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, other; Texas, USA; USA; Tehran, Iran; Iran first woman member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran
    1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visited the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Samoa; London, England; United Kingdom
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Paris, France; France; Europe
    1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference was held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Anchorage, AK; Alaska, USA; USA
    1976 9 – 11 Jul An International Youth Conference was held in Ivory Coast, attended by nearly 200 Bahá'ís. [BW17:150, 153] Conferences, Bahá'í; - Conferences, International; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Ivory Coast; Africa
    1976 5 – 8 Jul An International Teaching Conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Helsinki, Finland; Finland
    1976 7 May Saichiro Fujita, (b. 1886) the second Japanese to become a Bahá'í, passed away in Haifa. [BW17:406; Bahá'í Canada No 294 June 1996 p6]
  • For his obituary see BW17:406–8.
  • 1903 came to California for education.
  • 1905 became a Bahá'í (Mrs. Kathryn Frankland)
  • 1912 joined 'Abdu'l-Bahá's party in Chicago as they were near departure for California.
  • 1919 came to the Holy Land after studying electricity and horticulture.
  • 1928 Shoghi Effendi sent him back to Japan with the war impending.
  • 1955 returned to the Holy Land.
  • Was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa.
  • References: Traces That Remain and Japan Will Turn Ablaze
  • Saichiro Fujita; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Haifa, Israel
    1976 May Bahá'í activities in Mali were restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Persecution, Mali; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Mali
    1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century's most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
  • His mature 'white writing' works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Bahá'í Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey "made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness." He often stated, "that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
  • An example of some of his works.
  • See World Order Vol 11 No 3 Spring 1977 for the following articles:
    • The Days with Mark Tobey by Marzieh Gail
    • Mark, Dear Mark by Bernard Leach
    • Memories of Mark Tobey by Firuz Kazemzahed
    • The Dot and the Circle by Mark Tobey
  • In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting; Centerville, WI; Wisconsin, USA; USA; Basel, Switzerland; Switzerland
    1976 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland and Mozambique was given the added responsibility of administering the Faith in Angola and therefore became the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Mozambique, and Angola. [BN no 608 November 1981 p10] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Swaziland; Mozambique; Angola
    1976 24 – 25 Mar The first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia took place in Karachi, Pakistan. [BW16:265] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Karachi, Pakistan; Pakistan; Asia first Continental Youth Conference of Western Asia
    1976 8 Mar The Bahá'í International Community was granted consultative status with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). [BIC History Consultative Status; BW16:337–8; VV54] United Nations; UNICEF; Bahá'í International Community; New York, USA; USA
    1976 Feb The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Korea was established. [BW16:237] Publishing Trusts; Korea
    1976 10 – 15 Jan The first National Bahá'í Children's School to he held in Rhodesia took place in Salisbury. [BW16:155] Bahá'í Childrens school; Salisbury (Harare), Zimbabwe; Rhodesia first National Bahá’í Children’s School in Rhodesia
    1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world was formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Local Spiritual Assembly; Superlatives; Barrow, AK; Alaska, USA; USA
    1976 Jan Bahá'ís in Jamaica initiated a weekly 15-minute radio programme. [BW16:186] Radio; Jamaica
    1976 (In the year) Elizabeth Martin with Chris Lyons made a film called Retrospective, a memoir of Hand of the Cause John Robarts. It included his reminiscences of the Guardian and of the early days of the Faith in Canada. [HNWE36] - Film; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; John Robarts; - Hands of the Cause; Toronto, ON; Canada
    1976 (In the year) The publication of Selections from the Writings of the Báb compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice and translated by Habib Taherzadeh with the assistance of a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre. [SWB] Selections from the Writings of the Báb (book); Habib Taherzadeh; * Publications; * Báb, Writings of; - Bahá'í World Centre first authorized source of the Bab’s Writings in English.
    1976 (In the year) The government of Equatorial Guinea outlawed all religions and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved.
  • It was re-formed in 1984.
  • Persecution, Equatorial Guinea; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Equatorial Guinea
    1976 (In the year) The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Norway was established. Publishing Trusts; Norway
    1976 (In the year) Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy was implemented and the Bahá'í Faith, along with all other religions, were banned. Persecution, Vietnam; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Vietnam
    1976 (In the year) The buildings for two new permanent Bahá'í institutes, at Kilifi and Mugweko, were completed, and the institutes began functioning. A large Bahá'í Centre was built in Nakuru and steps were taken towards completion of another at Tongeren. [BW16p145] Bahá'í Institutes; Kilifi; Mugweko; Nakuru; Tongeren; Kenya
    1976 to 1985 British pioneers Ron, Thelma, Simon and Suzanne Batchelor lived in Kathmandu, Nepal. [Thelma Batchelor on Bahá'í History UK] Pioneers; Kathmandu; Nepal
    1975 (End of the year) The Bahá'ís of the Central African Republic began to televise regular semi-weekly programmes. [BW16:141] Radio; Central African Republic
    1975 Dec The first International Youth School to be held in Rhodesia took place near Bulawayo. [BW16:155] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; - Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Bulawayo, Rhodesia; Rhodesia first International Youth School in Rhodesia
    1975 Dec The first National Teaching Conference to be held in Senegal took place in Dakar. [BW16:175] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; Dakar; Senegal first National Teaching Conference in Senegal
    1975 Nov In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born were destroyed on the pretext that the sites needed to be cleared. [BW17:79] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Destruction; - Persecution; Báb, House of (Shiraz); Báb, Family of; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1975 Nov The land for the Samoan House of Worship was purchased on a site overlooking Apia. [BW18:104] Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Apia; Purchases and exchanges; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Apia, Samoa; Samoa
    1975 31 Oct The Secretary of Religious Affairs in the President's Office of Uganda informed the Bahá'ís that the Bahá'í Faith was not among those religions prohibited to practise in the country. [BW16:147] Recognition (legal); Uganda
    1975 c. Oct The Icelandic Bahá'í community proclaimed the Faith to the leaders of Iceland, presenting them with literature, including The Bahá'í World,Vol. XIV.

    Presentations were made to the president of the Republic of Iceland, the Bishop of Iceland and the Rev. Arelius Nielsson, who was described as " the best beloved priest in this country and surely the most renown. [BN No 537 December 1975 p15]

    Proclamation; Iceland
    1975 Oct The New Era Rural Development Project, the first project of its kind in the world, began in the villages around Panchgani, India. [BW17:227–8] New Era Development Institute, India; Social and economic development; Firsts, other; Panchgani, India; Maharashtra, India; India first rural development project in world
    1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá'í was detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specified his religion on a form.
  • When he refused to recant his faith he was tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. [BW16:138]
  • Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Iraq
    1975 9 – 12 Jul The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Iceland took place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Njardvik; Iceland; Europe first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland
    1975 4 - 8 Jul The Ridván Message contained the phrase, "EVIDENCES GATHERING CLOUDS WIDESPREAD OPPOSITION" and the Universal House of Justice called together all the 'high ranking officers' and 'senior administrative bodies' of the Faith in North America for special consultation on the future protection of the Cause" to be held in Wilmette. It was attended by the three Hands of the Cause for North America, Mr Sears, Mr Robarts and Mr Zikrullah Khadem; the four members of the Board of Counsellors, Velma Sherrill, Lloyd Gardner, Sarah Periera, and Edna True; all the members of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Alaska, Canada and the United States as well as representative of the National Assembly of Hawaii; all of the Auxiliary Board members in North America and special guest, Counsellor 'Azíz Yazdí of the International Teaching Centre.
  • Although the primary reason for gathering was to discuss the issue of the protection of the Faith there were opportunities for members of the three National Spiritual Assemblies and the Auxiliary Boards to share teaching ideas and to lear of the goals achieved in other areas. [BN Vol 52 No 8 August, 1975 p13-14, CBN Issue 287 Aug/Sept 1975 p1-4]
  • - Conferences; Continental Conference for Protection; Wilmette, IL; Chicago, IL; USA first continental conference in North America.
    1975 Jul The first Katio Indians to become Bahá'ís enrolled in northern Colombia. [BW16:217] First believers by background; Colombia first Katio Indian Bahá’ís in northern Colombia
    1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá'ís imprisoned by 15 per cent was granted. [BW16:138] Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Iraq
    1975 24 Jun Iran became one of the first countries in the world to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The covenant spelled out clearly the concept of freedom of religion or belief.
    Article 18 states that "[e]veryone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his/her religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching." The ICCPR also spells out specific rights to due process "without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status." These include freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, the right to be "promptly informed" of charges, and the right to legal counsel. Article 9 of the ICCPR states that "[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention." It also states that "[a]nyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him." Article 14 spells out the right to legal counsel, stating everyone has the right "to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing. …"
    The Covenant was opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966 and came into force on 23 March 1976. [International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Fact Sheet]
    International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); United Nations; Human Rights; United Nations; Bahá'í International Community; New York, USA; USA; Iran
    1975 21 Jun Following the revolution in Portugal in April, the National Spiritual Assembly was officially recognized.
  • The process of incorporation began in 1951.
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Portugal
    1975 19 Jun - 2 Jul Two* Bahá'í women represented the Bahá'í International Community at the first World Conference on Women in Mexico City. It was the first international conference held by the United Nations to focus solely on women's issues and marked a turning point in policy directives. Nine Bahá'ís represented the Bahá'í International Community at the parallel NGO Tribune. Those attending were: Dorothy Nelson*; Jane Faily, Sheila Banání, Edris Rice-Wray, Carmen Burafato, Catherine Mboya, Shirin Fozdar*, Jyoti Munsiff, Elsie Austin and Shomais Afnán.
  • The purpose of the Conference was to give shape to a Ten-Year Plan of Action to promote equality between men and women in member nations by stressing better education and increased participation of women in decision-making in order to bring the neglected resources of women into the struggle for development and peace. [CBN No 287 Aug/Sep 1975 p16; Wikipedia; United Nations - Conferences]
  • The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled International Women's Year.
  • See UN Women.
  • Bahá'í International Community; - Conferences; Womens Conference; Dorothy Nelson; Jane Faily; Sheila Banani; Edris Rice-Wray; Carmen Burafato; Catherine Mboya; Shirin Fozdar; Jyoti Munsiff; Elsie Austin; Shomais Afnan; - BIC statements; Mexico City, Mexico; Mexico first World Conference on Women in Mexico City
    1975 5 Jun In a message to the Bahá'ís of the world, the Universal House of Justice recalled the "capital institutional significance" of the transference to Mount Carmel of the sacred remains of the Purest Branch and Navváb, interring them in the immediate neighbourhood of the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf some thirty-six years prior.

       Now, on the occasion of the commencement of the construction of the seat of the Universal House of Justice, they recounted the progress of the Faith in the eighteen years since the completion of the first building on the Arc, the International Archives Building in June of 1957. In the time between 1957 to 1975.......
      - National Spiritual Assemblies have increased from 26 to 119
      - Local Spiritual Assemblies have increased from 1,000 to 17,000
      - Localities have increased from 4,500 to over 70,000 [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 5 June 1975]

    Statistics; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice began. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
  • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
  • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
  • Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture; Architects; Haifa, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1975 Jun Elti Kunak of Papua New Guinea was awarded the British Empire Medal for her work with women's clubs in the Bismarck Archipelago. [BW16:278] Elti Kunak; Papua New Guinea
    1975 25 May The compilation, Use of Radio and Television in Teaching (Extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi), was sent in a message addressed to all National Spiritual Assemblies by the Universal House of Justice. [25 May 1975] Media; Bahá'í Radio; - Compilations; Teaching; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1975 2 May The first teaching institute of the Bahamas took place in Nassau. [BW16:207] Teaching institutes; Firsts, other; Islands; Nassau, Bahamas; Bahamas first teaching institute of Bahamas
    1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removed the ban on Bahá'í meetings and teaching activities. Persecution, Portugal; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Portugal
    1975 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly to be elected among the Meo tribes, Laotian refugees in northern Thailand, was formed. [BW16:262] Local Spiritual Assembly; Thailand first Local Spiritual Assembly among Meo tribes, Laotian refugees
    1975 Ridván In the chaos related to the final days of the Vietnam War, a national convention could not be held and the election of the National Spiritual Assembly was conducted by mailed ballot. At this time it was estimated that the Bahá'í population of Vietnam was around 200,000. [Bahaipedia]
  • The reunification of the country took place on the 30th of April, 1975.
  • "Vietnam was reunified under a communist government, who proscribed the practice of the religion from 1975 to 1992, leading to a sharp drop in community numbers." []
  • Conventions, National; Vietnam
    1975 Ridván The zone of Northwestern Africa was split into the two separate zones of Northern and Western Africa and to each of which were transferred parts of the Central and East African zone. The zone of Northern Africa comprised of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Spanish Sahara. The zone of Western Africa consisted of Mauritania, Sénégal, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, the Cape Verde Islands, Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Niger, Ghana, Togo, Dahomey, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. [Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 6 January 1975]
  • In 1976 there was a ban on the Faith in Mali.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1975 Ridván By this time the Bahá'í communities of Liberia and Guinea had developed sufficiently to merit their own Regional Spiritual Assembly. Previously they had been administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa which had been formed in 1964 and re-formed in 1970. This new administrative unit, the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia and Guinea, operated until 1982 when they each formed an independent national assembly. [BW98-99p54-55] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Liberia; Guinea
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Benin was formed. Prior to this the Bahá'í community in Benin was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger from 1970 to 1975.
  • It was called the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey until 1976 when it was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of Benin. [BW16:161]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Benin
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was formed with its seat in Niamey. [BW16:141]
  • Prior to this, the Bahá'í community in Niger was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger from 1970 to 1975.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Niger first NSA Niger
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jordan was formed with its seat in Amman. From 1970 it was a part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East with its seat in Lebanon and jurisdiction over Lebanon, Jordon and Syria. This left the National Spiritual Assembly of Lebanon with its seat in Beirut and jurisdiction over Syria. [BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Amman, Jordan; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria first NSA Jordan
    1975 Ridván The Universal House of Justice changed the name of the National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa to the National Spiritual Assembly of Ethiopia. The only difference in the area of jurisdiction was that it no longer included Somalia. [BW16:144] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Ethiopia first NSA Ethiopia
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia was formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Banjul (Bathurst), The Gambia; Gambia, The first NSA The Gambia
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Dakar, Senegal. The name was later changed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Senegal. [BW16:141]
  • Jurisdiction: Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau and the Cape Verde Islands.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Dakar; Senegal first NSA Upper West Africa
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Togo was formed with its seat in Lomé. [BW16:141]
  • Prior to this, the Bahá'í community in Togo was administrated by the National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger from 1970 to 1975.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Lomé; Togo first NSA Togo
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sierra Leone was formed with its seat in Freetown. [BW16:141] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Freetown, Sierra Leone; Sierra Leone first NSA Sierra Leone
    1975 20 Apr Michael Cooper, a Bahá'í from Northampton, U.K., who had never had a passport, never been out of his country , and never been on an airplane, volunteered to pioneer to Iceland. He on April 20th, just in time to become the ninth member of a Spiritual Assembly. [BN No 544 July 1975 p17] Pioneering; Michael Cooper; Iceland
    1975 29 Mar The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands was held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands; Canary Islands, Spain first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Canary Islands
    1975 Mar The only Bahá'í to visit the continent in the 1970s, John R. Peiniger, an Australian, was stationed in Antarctica for a brief time.
  • See Aníbal and Norma Soto, a couple who visited in the previous decade.
  • John R. Peiniger; Antarctica
    1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi was purchased by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; London, England; United Kingdom
    1975 Feb - Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum set out on the Green Light Expedition to visit the indigenous peoples of the Amazon Basin in South America. [VV30–2]
  • For a pictorial description of the expedition see BW16:419–48.
  • See Green Light Expedition, a film by Rodney Charters, Mark Sadan, David Walker and Anthony Worley.
  • Green Light Expedition; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Rodney Charters; Mark Sadan; David Walker; Anthony Worley; Latin America
    1975 Feb The Arab Boycott Office, at its meeting in Cairo, announced that the Bahá'í Faith had been placed on its blacklist. The decision had been taken through a misunderstanding as to the true nature and purpose of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, and was subsequently modified to state that only the businesses of individual Bahá'ís and companies owned by them would be boycotted. [BW17:78]

    See the statement released by the Bahá'í Community in New York on the 25th of February 1975.

    Persecution, Egypt; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Cairo, Egypt; Egypt
    1975 Feb The first Bahá'í Women's Conference of the Solomon Islands took place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Women; Women; - First conferences; Solomon Islands; Oceania first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Solomon Islands
    1975 Feb The first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone took place in Bo. [BW16:172] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; - First conferences; Bo, Sierra Leone; Sierra Leone first National Teaching Conference in Sierra Leone
    1975 14 Jan The house of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá was purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
  • House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá; Purchases and exchanges; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Akka, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1975 Jan A Bahá'í was arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. [BW16:138] Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Iraq
    1975 2 – 4 Jan The first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá'í Studies is held at Cedar Glen, Bolton, Ontario. [BW17:198]
  • See also BBD201–2; VV23–5.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í studies; Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Association for Bahá'í Studies (North America); Bolton, ON; Ontario, Canada; Canada first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies
    1975 1 Jan Shidan and Susan Kouchekzadeh, an Iranian-British couple pioneering in Sierra Leone, arrived in Conakry, the first Bahá'ís to settle in Guinea. First Bahá'ís by country or area; Conakry, Guinea; Guinea; Sierra Leone first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea
    1975 (In the year) The release of the film entitled Invitation produced under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada by Elizabeth Martin, with the help of Chris Lyons. It was a memoir of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum incorporating footage from Khánum's Andean trip along with memories of her childhood years in Montreal. [HNWE36]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada invited Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá to the re-opening of the Bahá'í Shrine in Montreal following the completion of renovations to the historic Bahá'í site. This film documents inspired talks she gave from August 30th to September 7th, including the on given in the Church of the Messiah, where 'Abdu'l-Bahá had given an address in 1912. She shares reminiscences related to her childhood home which was later designated by Shoghi Effendi as a Shrine.
  • The film was originally shot in 16mm and was digitally remastered in 2003.
  • - Film; Invitation (film); Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Montreal, QC; Canada; Latin America
    1975 (In the year) The first Bahá'í summer school to be held in Antigua took place. [BW16:187]
  • For picture see BW16:188.
  • First summer and winter schools; Antigua first Bahá’í summer school in Antigua
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá'ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá'í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá'ís were sentenced to five years' imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Persecution, Indonesia; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Indonesia
    1975 (In the year) Following the creation of the Rastákhíz political party by the Sháh of Iran and the refusal of the Bahá'ís to join it, although membership in it is compulsory, Bahá'ís throughout Iran are put under pressure. [BW18p391]
  • Many Bahá'ís lost their jobs. [BW18:391]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Iran
    1975 (In the year) The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Australia was established. Publishing Trusts; Australia
    1975 (In the year) The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Fiji was established. Publishing Trusts; Fiji
    1975 (In the year) The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decided that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá'í activities was constitutional and the application of the Bahá'ís for annulment of the decree was dismissed. [BW16:137]
  • Though nominally they have been guaranteed equal rights and religious freedoms under the 1971 Constitution, Bahá'ís, in practice, have retained a secondary legal status due to ongoing religious discrimination. Issues pertaining to personal status in Egypt were informed by religious rather than civil law and recognition pertained only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Aspects of religious life such as marriage, divorce and family relationships were not recognized by the state.
  • Persecution, Egypt; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Human Rights; Egypt
    1975 (In the year) The first all-Quechua Bahá'í Conference was held in Cusco, Peru, attended by Bahá'ís from Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador. [BW16p445]
  • This conference was attended by Rúhíyyih Khánum and some of her companions on the Green Light Expedition. [BW16p439]
  • The supreme deity of the Incas, Ilya-Tiqsi Viracocha Pachayachachiq ("Ancient Foundation, Lord, Teacher"), was incarnated and dwelled among men as the Inca prophet of God. Viracocha promised to return one day and that hope has been realized. [Indigenous Messengers of God by Christopher Buck and Kevin Locke p13; Native Messengers of God in Canada?: A Test Case for Bahá'í Universalism by Christopher Buck]
  • Quechua; Conferences, Bahá'í; - Conferences, International; - First conferences; Native Americans; Native American messengers; Indigenous people; Viracocha; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Green Light Expedition; Cusco, Peru; Peru first international Quechua conference in Cusco, Peru
    1975 (In the year) The ban imposed on the Bahá'í Faith in Burundi in 1974 was lifted but Bahá'í activities continued to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137] Persecution, Burundi; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Burundi
    1975 (In the year) Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá'í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies were disbanded in Indonesia. Persecution, Indonesia; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Indonesia
    1974 1 Dec The Bahá'í International Community appointed a representative in Nairobi. [BIC History 1974] Bahá'í International Community; Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya
    1974 5 - 16 Nov The United Nations World Food Conference was held in Rome. [BW16p344]
  • The Bahá'í International Community delegates to this conference presented the brochure, One World, One People - A Bahá'í View.
  • See the statement presented by the Bahá'í International Community to the Conference.
  • United Nations; Bahá'í International Community; Rome, Italy; Italy
    1974 25 Oct FUNDAEC (A Spanish acronym for Foundation for the Application and Teaching of the Sciences) was founded by a group of scientists and professionals led by Farzam Arbab, a renowned physicist who had arrived as a visiting professor to the University of Valle in 1970. The non-profit, non-governmental organization focused on training and development in the rural areas of Colombia and other countries in Latin America. [FUNDAEC website]
  • They would go on to establish SAT (Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial) which expanded across Latin America to reach more than 300,000 students, and become accredited and recognized by a number of governments.
  • The Brookings Institution, a major think tank in the United States, described SAT as "catalyzing an education revolution" by "transforming how education is conceptualized, designed, and delivered." It does this by focusing on skills that are beyond the traditional academic skills, such as moral and character development, and it conceives of learning as something much broader. The philosophy is one of nurturing socially minded young people who can support and sustain development in their own communities. It bridges theory with practice by linking classroom work with practical projects, like encouraging students to learn mathematics and science in the context of growing vegetables or using their language abilities to start small study groups to promote literacy.
  • One difference between SAT and other widely accepted classroom models is the concept of "tutors." Teachers working with SAT are referred to as tutors, and their role is defined as guiding and facilitating the learning process, rather than only imparting information. The lack of hierarchy is "an important distinction", wrote Brookings, "as it creates a culture of mutual respect and trust between tutors and students". [BWN1155]
  • FUNDAEC; SAT; Colombia
    1974 13 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of Denmark, with financial assistance from Canada, purchased a Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds for the Greenland community in the centre of Godthaab. [Bahá'í News No 527 February 1975 p5-6] Haziratul-Quds (Bahá'í centres); Denmark; Canada; Greenland
    1974 11 Sep Annemarie Krüger, a German citizen and a granddaughter of Dr Auguste Forel, arrived in Moldavia (then the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, a part of USSR) on the first of her teaching trips to Chisinau (Kishinev) as a tourist.
  • In 1985 she was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by the Universal House of Justice, although she never lived in the country. [Candle9 28 July, 2008]
  • Knights of Bahá'u'lláh; Annemarie Krüger; Moldavia (Moldova), Romania first teaching trip to Moldavia
    1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracted some 10,000 Bahá'ís, the largest gathering of Bahá'ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40]
  • See "From Badasht to Stain Louis; An Evaluation of the First Bahá'í Conference and the Largest" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK266-278.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Zikrullah Khadem; St. Louis, MO; USA; Badasht, Iran; Iran
    1974 19 - 30 Aug The 3rd World Population Conference was held in Bucharest, Romania. The Conference was attended by representatives of 135 countries. The debate focused on the relationship between population issues and development. The Conference adopted the World Population Plan of Action, which stated, among other principles, that the essential aim is the social, economic and cultural development of countries, that population variables and development are interdependent and that population policies and objectives are an integral part (constituent elements) of socio-economic development policies. [United Nations site]
  • The Bahá'í International Community delegates to this conference presented the brochure, One World, One People - A Bahá'í View.
  • The paper emphasized that 'effective medium and long-range plans for solving the world food problem must rest on a conviction, by the individual and society, of the organic oneness of humanity, and a commitment to education and work that will be of service not only to one's fellow citizens, but to mankind as a whole', and suggested, among other considerations, that 'agriculture must be acknowledged as a vital human occupation and given a position of prestige in society'.
  • Delegates to the conference included Dr. Victor de Araujo, Miss Anneliese Bopp, Dr. Marco G. Kappenberger, and Mr. André McLaughlin. [BW16p344]
  • United Nations; Bahá'í International Community; Victor de Araujo; Anneliese Bopp; Marco G. Kappenberger; Andre McLaughlin; Bucharest, Romania; Romania
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Akka between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney's Discipleship to 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá'í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445; M9YA314]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925 she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the 'Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes' and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • See A Glimpse into the Life of Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Mona Khademi for a brief biography of Laura Barney and her family.
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • See The Life of Laura Barney by Mona Khademi published by George Ronald in 2022.
    • See page 67-71 for an account of her recording of the "table talks" of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See page399 for her listing in Who's Who in America.
  • Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatul-Bahá (title); Some Answered Questions (book); Paris, France; France
    1974 11 – 18 Aug The first Teaching Conference of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe took place in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. [BW16:110]

    The conference was seen as an historic one in that it was the first to which participants had come to order to discuss the whole area of the European Arctic and sub-Arctic stretching from Finland in the west in Greenland in the east, from Svalbard in the extreme north to the Scottish islands in the south.

    Iceland is the only country in Europe that has planned and systematically carried out, year by year, a program of proclamation (now in its fourth year) that has taken the Faith throughout the entire country, north, south, east and west. (Betty Reed, Continental Board of Counsellors for Europe) [BN No 525 8 December 1974 p10-11]

    Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - First conferences; Circumpolar regions; Torshavn; Faroe Islands, Denmark; Arctic; Finland; Greenland; Svalbard; Scottish Islands first Teaching Conference of Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe
    1974 4 – 8 Aug The first International Youth Conference, the largest conference ever held in Hawaii to date, took place in Hilo. [BW16:229]<
  • For picture see BW16:232.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; - Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Hilo; Hawaii, USA first International Youth Conference in Hawaii
    1974 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in Andorra was formed at Andorra la Vella. Local Spiritual Assembly; Andorra first Local Spiritual Assembly Andorra
    1974 Aug The first Bahá'í to settle on Christmas Island, Stanley Foo, arrived from Malaysia. First travel teachers and pioneers; Christmas Island, Australia first Bahá’í to settle on Christmas Island
    1974 13 July The dedication of the Bosch Bahá'í School north of Santa Cruz, California. (Bosch Bahá'í School website, Bahá'´News page 716] Bosch Bahá'í School; - Bahá'í schools (conference centres); Bonny Doon, CA; Santa Cruz, CA; California, USA; USA
    1974 9 Jun In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iceland, the Universal House of Justice reiterated the laws not yet binding on the Bahá'ís of the West in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. [9 June 1974] Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Iceland; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1974 Jun The first Alacalufe Indians to become Bahá'ís enrolled in Puerto Eden, Chile. [BW16:215] First believers by background; Puerto Eden; Chile first Alacalufe Indian Bahá'ís in Chile
    1974 20 May The Iraqi military court tried nearly 50 Bahá'ís and handed down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá'ís, two of whom were deceased and a number of whom were of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq.
  • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá'ís had their property confiscated, one Bahá'í was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
  • Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Iraq
    1974 May c. The first National Youth Conference of Burma took place during the visit of Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [BW16:251] Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Myanmar first National Youth Conference of Burma
    1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá'ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentenced 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years' imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years' imprisonment; 13 Bahá'ís were fined and released. [BW16:138] Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei elected in 1972 was dissolved and re-constituted under the name the National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia and the territories of Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei were brought under its jurisdiction.
  • The Assembly was incorporated on the 26th of September, 1974. [BW16p225]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Malaysia
    1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, was formed. Local Spiritual Assembly; Kotzebue; Alaska, USA; USA; Arctic first Local Spiritual Assembly Kotzebue
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South East Arabia (Arabian Peninsula) was formed. [Naw Rúz Message 1974; BW16p88] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; South East Arabia; Arabian Peninsula
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hong Kong was formed with its seat in Kowloon. [BW16:233, 251; BWIM114]
  • For picture see BW16:452.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Hong Kong first NSA Hong Kong
    1974 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Japan was formed with its seat in Tokyo. [BW16:233] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Tokyo, Japan; Japan first NSA Japan
    1974 Ridván As part of the the Five Year Plan the Canadian Bahá'í Community was asked to "Cultivate opportunities for courses on the Faith in Canadian institutions of higher learning".

    In response the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada established the Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá'í Faith. From 1974 to 1979 four annual meetings were held. The Association grew in membership, published a series of high quality monographs, initiated work on a textbook on the Faith of university calibre and stimulated formal presentation at universities and colleges throughout Canada. [Analysis of the Five Year International Teaching Plan 1974-1979 p76; BW18p194]

    Bahá'í studies; Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Association for Bahá'í Studies (North America); Canada
    1974 Ridván The Universal House of Justice launched the Five Year Plan (1974-1979). [BBD181; BBRSM159; BW16:107; VV17]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice setting out the broad objectives of the Plan see BW16:107; Message Naw-Rúz 1974.
  • Three major objectives:
      -preservation and consolidation of the victories won
      -a vast and widespread expansion of the Bahá'í community
      -development of the distinctive character of Bahá'í life particularly in the local communities.   
  • Five Year Plan (1974-1979); - Teaching Plans; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1974 21 Mar In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended. [Naw-Rúz 1974.] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Teaching; Arising; Universal House of Justice; - Worldwide
    1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá'ís in Iraq, their trial opened and the Bahá'ís were exonerated.
  • The Revolutionary Council was dissatisfied with this result and the case was ordered to be reopened in a military court with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
  • Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Iraq
    1974 Mar The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of the Philippines was established in Manila. [DM318] Publishing Trusts; Manila, Philippines; Philippines
    1974 7 Feb The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73] Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
  • Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths; Florence, Italy; Italy
    1974 1 Feb The passing of Daoud Toeg (b. Baghdad, Iraq in 1897) in Hull, Quebec (now Gatineau).
  • After he had learned of the Faith he enrolled eight other persons before writing the Guardian with his own declaration.
  • He pioneered to Italy in the 1930s for about a year and a half.
  • In 1954 he was appointed Auxiliary Board Member for Iraq, on the first Auxiliary Board for Asia. He served for sixteen years.
  • He supervised the construction of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Baghdad and was helpful in securing a Temple site.
  • Mr. Toeg served the Guardian by conveying artifacts and Huqúqu'lláh payments from Persia to the Holy Land at a time when there was no direct communications.
  • He served as a representative of the Huqúqu'lláh for the believers in Iraq.
  • He was instrumental in locating and photographing the caves of Sar-Galú in Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán where Bahá'u'lláh lived for two years while in retreat.
  • He, his wife Latifa, and their sons pioneered to Kirkuk during the Ten Year Crusade but after seven years were asked to return to Baghdad to assist with the work there.
  • The family left Iraq in 1970 and settled in Hull where they helped to establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly. [BW16p527-528, Bahá'í World 16, Grave]
  • Daoud Toeg; In Memoriam; Auxiliary board members and assistants; Hull, QC; Quebec, Canada; Baghdad, Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq; Kurdistan; Iraq First Local Spiritual Assembly of Hull
    1974 (In the year) Oscar DeGruy founded Bahá'í youth workshops to reach disaffected young people battered by racism, gang violence and drug abuse. The groups aided youth to explore the social problems plaguing the world and to identify the spiritual principles that could address them. The groups created dances that creatively addressed different issues, such as ending racial prejudice, substance abuse, and the equality of men and women.
  • A generation of Baha'i youth in the U.S. were raised with the workshop model. Eventually the idea spread worldwide, and youth in other countries used the workshop model to explore the application of Bahá'í principles to the issues in their own countries.
  • The performance troupe "Beyond Words" in 2009 comprised youth from South Africa, Cuba, Taiwan, Ireland, United Kingdom. [One Country Jul-Sep 1997 Vol 9 Issue 2]
  • Dance Workshop; Oscar DeGruy
    1974 (In the year) The publication of The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller. This book was an update of his 1931 publication Bahá'ism: Its Origin, History and Teachings. Forty-three years earlier he had predicted that the Bahá'í Faith would soon only be known to students of history. Now he revised his assessment to say, "Whoever peruses the thousands of pages of the thirteen large volumes of The Bahá'í World will be impressed by the fact that the Bahá'í Faith is indeed a world faith." [MCSp766]
  • See The Cyprus Exiles p102 by Moojan Momen for information on how Miller got a great deal of material for his book.
  • See "Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith" by Douglas Martin published in Bahá'í Studies, volume 4.
  • Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Pennsylvania, USA; USA
    1974 (In the year) In Cambodia, political upheaval and a ban on the Bahá'í Faith had scattered its communities and caused some believers to be imprisoned briefly. Dempsey and Adrienne Morgan returned in 1971 and discreetly helped facilitate communication among Bahá'ís. Once the ban was lifted in 1974, he assisted in re-formation of several Local Spiritual Assemblies and instituted training classes. The foundation built by the national Bahá'í community helped it endure the devastating upheavals of subsequent years. [The American Bahá'í, Servants of the Glory page 48]
  • "All effective contact with the Cambodian Bahá'ís was lost during the period of Khmer Rouge rule (1975-79), and apart from contact with Bahá'ís subsequently found in refugee camps in Thailand, the community had to be completely re-established in the 1980s." [Religious Freedom in the Asia Pacific: The Experience of the Bahá'í Community p87 by Graham Hassall]
  • "With the conclusion of warfare and the establishment of the new regime all Bahá'í activity in Cambodia is at a standstill, as far as can be ascertained. For a time the national Teaching Committee secretary wrote of continuing teaching activity among the believers and enquirers but there are now no available channels of communication and there has been no recent news of the fate of the Khmer Bahá'ís". [BW16 p.138]
  • Dempsey Morgan; Adrienne Morgan; Ban; Persecution, Cambodia; Cambodia; Thailand
    1974 (In the year) The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá'í Faith was created. [BW16:200]
  • For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
  • Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Association for Bahá'í Studies (North America); Canada
    1974 (In the year) The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Malaysia was established. Publishing Trusts; Malaysia
    1974 (In the year) The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Japan was established. Publishing Trusts; Japan
    1974 (In the year) The first Native Council took place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá'ís. Firsts, other; Haines, AK; Alaska, USA; USA first Native Council in Haines, Alaska
    1974 (In the year) Owing to difficulties within the Bahá'í community, the National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was disbanded. National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Thailand
    1974 (In the year) Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá'ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructed that the national convention not be held. Persecution, Indonesia; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Conventions, National; Indonesia
    1974 (In the year) The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference to be held in Botswana took place in Mahalapye. [BW16:150] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; - Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Mahalapye, Botswana; Botswana first International Bahá’í Youth Conference in Botswana
    1974 (In the year) As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d'affaires, Bahá'í activities in Burundi were banned. [BW16:137]
  • At the request of the Universal House of Justice and through the able intervention of Dr. 'Aziz Navidi, several representations were made to the Government.
  • Persecution, Burundi; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Aziz Navidi; Burundi
    1974 (In the year) The National Television Network of Ghana broadcasted an interview with Dr William Maxwell, the first mention of the Bahá'í Faith on television in the country. [BW16:168] William Maxwell; Ghana first mention Faith on television Ghana
    1974 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands held its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; - First conferences; Leeward Islands; Virgin Islands, US first annual National Teaching Conference Leeward and Virgin Islands
    1973 4 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122] Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Bahji, Israel
    1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defended the Bahá'í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá'í girl students.
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá'ís were arrested. [BW16:137]
  • Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1973 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico held its first Bahá'í school. [BW16:194] Puerto Rico first Bahá’í school Puerto Rico
    1973 Nov The first youth conference of Papua New Guinea took place in Sogeri with 40 youth and visitors. [BW16:276] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Sogeri, Papua New Guinea; Papua New Guinea first youth conference of Papua New Guinea
    1973 7 Oct The Universal House of Justice announced that the number of Auxiliary Board members throughout the world was to be raised to 270, of whom 81 will serve on the Auxiliary Boards for the Protection of the Faith and 189 will serve on the Auxiliary Boards for the Propagation of the Faith. In all there will be 54 Auxiliary Board members in Africa, 81 in the Western Hemisphere, 81 in Asia, 18 in Australasia and 36 in Europe.
  • Each Continental Board of Counsellors was given the discretion to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants and given broad latitude in this matter. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 7 October, 1973]
  • Counsellors; Auxiliary board members and assistants; Assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat was appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
  • Wikipedia.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • He was the author of All Things Made New published in 1960 by Allen & Unwin, London.
  • John Ferraby; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Cambridge, England; United Kingdom
    1973 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was formed. [BW16:141]
  • Owing to local circumstances, it was disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Equatorial Guinea first NSA Equatorial Guinea
    1973 14 Jun The International Teaching Centre met for the first time. [VV16] International Teaching Centre; Haifa, Israel first meeting ITC
    1973 8 Jun The Universal House of Justice permitted the Continental Boards of Counsellors to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants. [BW17:322]
  • Mrs. Zena Sorabjee was appointed Trustee of the new Continental Fund of South Central Asia, while Mr. Hushang Ahdieh and Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí were appointed the new Trustees of the Continental Funds of Central and East Africa and South America respectively. 8 June, 1973
  • Counsellors; Auxiliary board members and assistants; Assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Funds, Continental; Funds; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1973 5 Jun The Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'ís to commemorate on the Feast of Núr, the one hundredth anniversary of Bahá'u'lláh's departure from 'Akká and move to Mazra'ih. [VV21] Centenaries; Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Mazraih, Iran; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Mazraih)
    1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre was established at the Bahá'í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16, CEBF200; Wikipedia]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
  • Hands of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, 'Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu'l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí were appointed. [BW16:413]
  • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
  • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
  • See Wikipedia article for the names of the Counsellor members since its inception.
  • International Teaching Centre; International Teaching Centre, Members of; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Counsellors; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; `Alí-Akbar Furútan; Paul Haney; Abu'l-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1973 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Equatorial Guinea was formed (The actual formation took place in July). Owing to local circumstances, it was disbanded within the year. [BW16:141]
  • The Assembly was re-established in 1984 with its seat in Malabo. [Bahaipedia; BW19;147]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Malabo, Equatorial Guinea; Equatorial Guinea
    1973 Localities: 54,102

    Local Assemblies: 13,737

    National Assemblies: 113

    Tribes and minorities represented: 1,191

    Literature translated into 567 languages

    Schools and Institutes: 153

    Independent countries and important territories opened to the Bahá'í Faith: 317 [from a pamphlet published by the NSA of Canada "Baha'i A New Man A New World Order"]

    Statistics
    1973 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Island. [BW15p702] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas; St. Thomas Island
    1973 - 1974 1973 - 1974 was a Year of Preparation. [Mess63-86pxli] - Teaching Plans
    1973 Ridván The Nine Year Plan was successfully completed. [BW16:131]
  • For the growth of the Bahá'í Faith in this period see BW16:130.
  • Also see The Nine Year Plan, 1964-1973: Statistical Report, Ridván 1973 by the Universal House of Justice.
  • See as well the document entitled Analysis of the Nine Year International Teaching Plan of the Bahá'í Faith published by the Universal House of Justice in April, 1964.
  • "Tribute must be paid to the host of Bahá'í youth from many countries whose travels in Africa hastened and ensured the success of the Nine Year Plan in that continent, and in particular to the international "rescue squad" of youth from Persia, India, the Philippines, Malaysia and other countries who in the closing hours of the Plan sealed its triumphant conclusion in Africa." [BW15p184]
  • "The friends in several countries of Africa are also indebted to the outstanding services of Dr. 'Aziz Navidi, an international lawyer and Baha'i International Community Representative for Africa, who assisted the Bahá'í communities in these countries in obtaining official recognition and performed other valuable services." [BW15p185-186]
  • Nine Year Plan (1964-1973); - Teaching Plans; Youth; Travel Teaching; Aziz Navidi; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1973 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the third time. The conference was attended by 472 National Spiritual Assembly members of the possible 1,017 from the 113 National and Regional Assemblies. Members of 14 Assemblies were prevented from attending for circumstances beyond their control but at least one person attended from the remaining 99 Assemblies. [VV14, SDSC296]
  • The newly elected members of the Universal House of Justice were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Hofman, Charles Wolcott, Borrah Kavelin, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86]
  • Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1973 Ridván The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BBRSM138; MUHJ105; VV14; BW15:169]
  • In 1953 Shoghi Effendi had included, as one of the goals of the Ten Year Plan, the preparation of a Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas as an essential prelude to the translation of Kitáb-i-Aqdas itself. In 1955 Shoghi Effendi initiated steps to this end and had made considerable progress when he passed in 1957. The task was continued on the basis of his work and the resulting volume was released. [Universal House of Justice Message 5 March, 1993]
  • The Synopsis and Codification covered the text of both the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Questions and Answers which constitutes an appendix to the Aqdas.
  • Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); * Publications; Questions and Answers (Kitáb-i-Aqdas); - Bahá'í World Centre
    1973 7 Apr Following the return to stability in Burundi, the Bahá'í Faith was granted formal recognition by the government. [BW16:137] Recognition (legal); Burundi
    1973 1 Apr The Bahá'ís of the Central African Republic broadcasted the first of their weekly radio programs on Radio Bangui. The Bahá'í community along with the other major religions in the country was accorded the privilege of presenting weekly radio broadcasts over Radio Bangui, whose programmes reach not only all of the Central African Republic but the neighbouring countries of Equatorial Africa as well. The first programme was entitled "What is the Bahá'í Faith?" and was presented by Gbaguene Robert and Toleque-Koy Michel. [BW16:141]
  • See also...A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p10-11]
  • Radio; Firsts, other; Central African Republic first weekly radio programme Central African Republic
    1973 13 Mar The mansion at Mazra'ih was purchased. [BW15:169; BW16:136; BW19-779-782, DH94; VV14]
  • From the Ridván message of the Universal House of Justice ...

    "The Mansion of Mazra`ih, often referred to by the beloved Guardian as one of the "twin mansions" in which the Blessed Beauty resided after nine years within the walled prison-city of `Akká, and dear to the hearts of the believers by reason of its associations with their Lord, has at last been purchased together with 24,000 square metres of land extending into the plain on its eastward side." [MUHJ68-73p112]

  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Mazraih, Iran; Akka, Israel
    1973 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání completed their tour of Africa.
  • For details of the safari see BW15:593–607.
  • They drove some 36,000 miles to visit more than 30 countries. [BW15:596; VV12]
  • See BW15:606–7 for the countries, islands and territories visited and the heads of state and other dignitaries who received them.
  • Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari; Africa; Haifa, Israel
    1973 Jan The Bahá'ís of The Gambia were granted freedom of worship by the Secretary-General of the Gambian government. [BW15:193] Recognition (legal); Gambia, The
    1973 (In the year) Leonora Armstrong was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors. [Biographical Profile] Counsellors; Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Brazil
    1973 (In the year) The first International Youth Conference of Mexico took place in Puebla City, was attended by 200 youth from five countries. [BW15:343] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; North America; Puebla, Mexico; Mexico first International Youth Conference of Mexico
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes was formed in Tórshavn. Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Torshavn; Faroe Islands, Denmark first LSA in Faroes
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in St Helena was formed. Local Spiritual Assembly; St. Helena first Local Spiritual Assembly in St Helena
    1973 (In the year) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) were completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. House of Bahá'u'lláh (Tihran); Restoration; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá'í Youth conference was held in The Gambia.

    The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá'í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigeria, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá'í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended. [Bahá'í News 504]

    Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Banjul (Bathurst), The Gambia; Gambia, The; Africa first West African Bahá’í Youth conference
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Washington Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan. His place of burial is unknown.
  • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.

    • See this newspaper clipping which implies that he may have been subjected to rough treatment by the opposing Princeton team.
  • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
  • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
  • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
  • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
  • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
  • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
  • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
  • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
  • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
  • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
  • Find a grave
  • See a biographical article in the Evertt Independent.
  • In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Dabney, NC; Detroit, MI; USA
    1972 Dec The first winter school in Bangladesh took place. [BW15:245] First summer and winter schools; Bangladesh first winter school in Bangladesh
    1972 Dec The first International Youth Conference of Surinam took places in Paramaribo. [BW15:341] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Paramaribo, Suriname; Suriname; Latin America first International Youth Conference of Suriname
    1972 26 Nov The constitution of the Universal House of Justice was adopted. [BW15:169; BBRSM132, 138; VV14; Message 26 November 1972]
  • For full text of the constitution see BW15:555–64, The Constitution of the Universal House of Justice.
  • Universal House of Justice, Constitution of; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Constitutions (Bahá'í); - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1972 The first Winter School of Luxembourg was held in Pétange. [BW15:284] First summer and winter schools; Petange; Luxembourg first Winter School of Luxembourg
    1972 Nov Thirty–two people enrolled in Corsica. Corsica, France
    1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands was formed. [BW15:650] Local Spiritual Assembly; Falkland Islands first Local Spiritual Assembly in Falkland Islands
    1972 (Fall) The duo "Seals and Crofts" were on tour in Boston. Their fourth album, "Summer Breeze", had been released a couple of months previously but the album and the title song they had worked so hard to perfect were not catching on in the music charts and their label had stopped promoting it. Their manager, Marcia Day, through a personal connection with a DJ on one of the city's most popular radio stations, arranged for them play the song. He was impressed and put the song into rotation. This proved to be the career break they were looking for. They went on to release more than a dozen albums. Their hit singles from this period also included "Diamond Girl," "We May Never Pass This Way (Again)," and "Get Closer". A number of their songs began to include references to and passages from the Bahá'í scriptures. When they appeared in concert, they often remained on stage after the performance to talk about the Faith.

    They became embroiled in controversy in 1974 due to the title track of their Unborn Child album, an anti-abortion song written from the fetus' point of view. The album was a critical failure, while the single flopped and outraged abortion advocates, who held demonstrations at many of the duo's shows. [Article in the TexasMonthly, February, 2020 entitled The Secret Oil Patch Roots of 'Summer Breeze'; Biography by Steve Huey]

    Seals and Crofts; - Famous Bahá'ís; Boston, MA
    1972 7 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Malta was formed. Local Spiritual Assembly; Malta first Local Spiritual Assembly in Malta
    1972 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Taiwan was established and registered. [BW15:262] Publishing Trusts; Taiwan
    1972 6 Aug 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Iranian scholar, author, translator and promoter of the Bahá'í Faith, passed away. [BW15:520]
  • For his obituary see BW15:518–20.
  • Wikipedia page.
  • `Abdu'l-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahá'í scholars; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1972 30 Jul Parvíz Sádiqí, Farámarz Vujdání and Parvíz Furúghí, Iranian youth pioneers, were murdered near Mindanao, Philippines, by Muslims. [BW15:257; DM316–17]
  • The three were found in a shallow grave. All had been shot, grievously mutilated and two had been decapitated. The bodies were removed and given a Bahá'í burial in a beautiful plot donated for the purpose. [CBN261September1972p1]
  • For their obituaries see BW15:514–16.
  • Persecution, Philippines; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Cemeteries and graves; Philippines
    1972 summer Over 150 American youth join European youth in Operation Hand-in-Hand, a joint teaching project. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:347.
  • Teaching campaigns; Youth; USA
    1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirmed the ban on the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá'ís lost their jobs.
  • Persecution, Indonesia; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Indonesia
    1972 9 Jun A National Spiritual Assembly had been formed in Zaire at Ridván 1970 but the Faith did not receive the required official recognition to function in the country. Dr Navidi spent one year in Kinshasa preparing the file for presentation to the government but in March 1972 when the names of the officially recognized religions were announced, the Bahá'í Faith was not among them. Through the intervention of Dr Amin'u'lláh Jazab, President Mobutu's personal physician, official recognition of the Faith was approved. [A Remarkable Response Film 33:50-35:50] Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire)
    1972 7 Jun The Universal House of Justice announced the decision to construct its Seat. [DH172; MUHJ98–9; VV37] Universal House of Justice, Seat of; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1972 5 - 16 Jun The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm. It was attended by some 1,500 representatives and 600 observers. The BIC Representatives were Dr Arthur Lyon Dahl, a marine ecologist and Mr Torleif Ingelog, a forest ecologist. A special pamphlet, The Environment and Human Values: A Bahá'í View was prepared and distributed. [BW15p368]

    The Stockholm Declaration provided the first global set of principles for future international cooperation on environmental issues.

    Bahá'í International Community; Arthur Dahl; Torleif Ingelog; Environment; United Nations; - BIC statements; Stockholm, Sweden; Sweden
    1972 The first Summer School of Jamaica was held. [BW15:218] First summer and winter schools; Jamaica first Summer School of Jamaica
    1972 11 May - 24 Feb 1973 Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe), at the start of the fourth leg of the 'Great African Safari'. This leg of the tour ended in Kenya. [BW15:594–607]

    The itinerary was as follows:

  • May 11 - Jun 8, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)
  • June 4, 1972, Zambia
  • June 9 - 28, 1972, Botswana
  • June 29 - July 6, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • July 7 - 11, 1972, South West Africa (Namibia)
  • July 12 - 19, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • July 19 - Aug 4, 1972, Lesotho
  • Aug 4 - 14, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • Aug 15 - Sept 19, 1972, Swaziland
  • Sept 20 - 21, 1972, Mozambique
  • Sept 22 - 23, 1972, Swaziland
  • Sept 24 - 27, 1972, Republic of South Africa
  • Oct 2 - 10, 1972, Kenya
  • Oct 11 - Nov 2,1972, Malawi
  • Nov 3 - 8, 1972, Kenya
  • Nov 9 - 24, 1972, Seychelles
  • Nov 25 - Dec 12, 1972, Kenya
  • Dec 5 - 18, 1972, Rwanda
  • Dec 13 - 14, 1972, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
  • Dec 19, 1972 - Jan 13, 1973, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
  • Jan 14 - 22,1973, Rwanda
  • Jan 23 - 24, 1973, Burundi
  • Jan 25 - Feb 2, 1973, Tanzania (And Mafia Island)
  • Feb 2 - 24, 1973, Kenya [BW15p606-607]
  • Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari; Harare; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Botswana; South Africa; z11; Lesotho, South Africa; Swaziland; Mozambique; Malawi; Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya; Seychelles; Rwanda; Tanzania; Mafia Island; Burundi
    1972 May The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí were completed and the southern gardens were extended to 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tea House. Bahji, Israel; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Tea House of; Akka, Israel
    1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opened. [BW15:635]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Panama; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Teaching; - Conferences, International; Panama
    1972 30 Apr The House of Worship in Panama was publicly dedicated by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in two sessions. [BW15:634] Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Panama; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Panama
    1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama, the Mother Temple of Latin America, was dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru'lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá'ís. [BW15:634; VV14]
  • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
  • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.

    Specifics

      Location:Panama City, Panama (On the Cerro Sonsonate (Singing Hill), a few miles north of Panama City)
      Foundation Stone: 8 October 1967 (Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
      Construction Period: 1969-1972
      Site Dedication: 29 April, 1972 (Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
      Architect: Peter Tillotson
      Seating: 550
      Dimensions:
      Cost:
      Dependencies:
      References: BW14p493, BW15p632-649
  • * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); - Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Mother Temples; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Quick facts; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Panama; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem; Peter Tillotson; Architects; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Panama City, Panama; Panama
    1972 28 Apr - 2 May An international teaching conference was held in conjunction with the dedication of the Mother Temple of Latin America in Panama. [BW15:633–42]
  • For pictures see BW15:632–49.
  • Some 3,000 Bahá'ís attend. [TG191]
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Panama; Conferences, Bahá'í; - Conferences, International; Conferences, Teaching; Panama
    1972 Ridván Due to intensifying conflict throughout the country, the National Spiritual Assembly of Viet Nam reported that it has lost contact with a number of localities, including those in the regions of Binh Long, Binh Dinh, Kontum, Pleiku, Quang Tri, Thua Thien and Chuong Thien. [BN497 August 1972; Bahaipedia] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Vietnam
    1972 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Republic of San Marino was formed. Local Spiritual Assembly; San Marino, Italy first Local Spiritual Assembly Republic of San Marino
    1972 Ridván The Spiritual Assembly of Phuntsholing town was formed. It was the first assembly of Bhutan. [Bahá'í Collections] Local Spiritual Assembly; Phuntsholing; Bhutan first Local Spiritual Assembly in Bhutan.
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritius was formed. [Bahaipedia; BW15p295]
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Port Louis, Mauritius; Mauritius
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of the Congo was formed with its seat in Brazzaville. [BW15p206] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo; Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire)
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tunisia was formed. [no substantiation can be found) iiiii National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Tunisia first NSA Tunisia
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Windward Islands was formed with its seat in St Lawrence, Barbados. It was responsible for administrating the Faith in St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, and Barbados. [BW15:220; BN No 496 July 1972 p17]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • Note: In 1975 the name was changed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Barbados and the Windward Islands in order to assists with the process of incorporation. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; St. Lawrence, Barbados; Barbados first NSA Barbados and the Windward Islands
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore was formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Singapore first NSA Singapore
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Brunei (1966) was reconstituted as the National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern Malaysia and Brunei with its seat in Kuching, Sarawak and took on the added responsibility for Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak. [BW15:253; BN no 496 July 1972 p16]
  • For picture see BW15:254.
  • In 1974 it was dissolved with Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak coming under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia. [BW12p223]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kuching; Sarawak, Malaysia first NSA Eastern Malaysia and Brunei
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Gabon was formed. [BW15:206] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Gabon first NSA Gabon
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda was formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kigali, Rwanda; Rwanda first NSA Rwanda
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Seychelles was formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW16:156]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with Mauritius, the Chagos Archipelago, Madagascar, the Malagasy Republic, Comoros and Réunion. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Limbé, Camaroon; Seychelles first NSA Seychelles
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion was formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Reunion Island; France first NSA Réunion
    1972 Ridván The first national spiritual assembly in Micronesia, the National Spiritual Assembly of the North West Pacific Ocean, was formed with its seat in Ponape. [BW15:268]
  • Jusisdiction: Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands, and Guam.
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • For the story of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for Guam, Edgar and Cynthia Olson (and Robert Powers) see BWNS303.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Ponape; Micronesia first NSA in Micronesia; first NSA North West Pacific Ocean
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was formed with its seat in Kathmandu. [BW15:249]
  • For pictures see BW15:155, 248.
  • With Hand of the Cause Ali-Akbar Furutan representing the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'ís of Nepal held their first national convention to elect their National Spiritual Assembly in 1972 during the reign of King Mahendra. The convention had forty delegates. The members of the first national assembly were: Amar Pradhan, Shyam Maherjan, Jujubhai Sakya, Aranda Lal Shrestha, Dinesh Verma, Keith de Folo, W. F. Chaittonalla, P. N. Rai, D. K. Malla - from Buddhist, Hindu, Christian backgrounds. [Religion in Nepal website]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kathmandu; Nepal first NSA Nepal
    1972 Ridván The counties of Rwanda and Burundi were known as Ruanda-Urundi up until 1962 when the area was divided into two separate countries. From 1956 until 1964 they were administered by the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa and from 1964 to 1969 came under the Uganda and Central Africa regional assembly. The National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda and Burundi was formed in 1969 and in 1972 the National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi with its seat in Bujumbura and the National Spiritual Assembly of Rwanda with its seat in Kilgali. [BW15:205]
  • Because of disturbances in the country; the Bahá'i administration in Burundi was dissolved in the same year and the affairs of the Faith placed under an administrative committee. It re-formed in 1978. [BW15:205; BW17:141]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Bujumbura, Burundi; Burundi; Kigali, Rwanda; Rwanda first NSA Burundi
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Rico was formed with its seat in San Juan. [BW15:218]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico first NSA Puerto Rico
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) was formed with its seat in Tananarive. [BW15:199, BWNS288]
  • For pictures see BW15:153, 198.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Tananarive, Madagascar; Madagascar first NSA Malagasy Republic
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Iceland was formed with its seat in Reykjavik. Its members were: Liesel Becker, Svana Einarsdottir, Barbara Thinat, Carl John Spencer, Petur Magnusson, Johannes Stefansson, Roger Lutley, Baldur Bragasson and Larry Clarke. [BW15:225, 281]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Reykjavik, Iceland; Iceland first NSA Iceland
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Republic of Ireland was formed with its seat in Dublin. [BW15:283]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Dublin, Ireland; Ireland first NSA Republic of Ireland
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh was formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:153.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Dacca; Bangladesh first NSA Bangladesh
    1972 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of the Arabian Peninsula with its seat in Bahrayn was dissolved and the National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Arabian Peninsula was formed with its seat in Bahrayn (Bahrain) as well as the National Spiritual Assembly of Kuwait with its seat in Kuwait city. [BW15p297]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • It is assumed that the National Spiritual Assembly of the Eastern Arabian Peninsula (Bahrain) had Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (1974), Oman (1978),
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Arabian Peninsula; Bahá'u'lláh, Prison cell of; Bahrain; Kuwait first NSA Arabian Peninsula
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was formed with its seat in Kabul. [BW15:243]
  • For picture see BW15:151.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kabul, Afghanistan; Afghanistan first NSA Afghanistan
    1972 Mar A thousand children attended a Bahá'í school in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. [BW15:237] Esmeraldas, Ecuador; Ecuador
    1972 Jan The first Bahá'í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa took place in Swaziland, attended by 70 youth from eight countries. [BW15:338]
  • For picture see BW15:340.
  • First summer and winter schools; Swaziland first Bahá’í Youth Summer School in Southern Africa
    1972 (In the year) The first Bahá'í studies seminar was held in London. For an account of the development of these seminars see BW18:204 and BW19:368. Bahá'í studies; Firsts, other; Conferences, Other; London, England; United Kingdom first Bahá’í studies seminar in London
    1972 (In the year) In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirmed the 1962 ban on Bahá'í administrative institutions and added a further prohibition against organized Bahá'í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Persecution, Indonesia; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Indonesia
    1972 (In the year) Derek and Sally Dacey, the first resident pioneers on Montserrat in the East Leeward Islands, arrived at their pioneer post. First travel teachers and pioneers; Leeward Islands first resident pioneers on Montserrat
    1972 (In the year) The Louis G. Gregory Institute was founded in 1972. It was named after a native to South Carolina and the first to bring the Bahá'í Faith to the state. It is a training center owned by the Bahá'ís of the United States and managed by the Regional Baha'i Council for the Southeastern States. [Louis G. Gregory Bahá'í Institute] Louis G. Gregory; Hemingway, SC; USA
    1971 Dec - 1972 Jan The first youth summer school for southern Africa was held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries. First summer and winter schools; Mbabane, Eswatini; Swaziland first youth summer school for southern Africa
    1971 26 – 28 Nov The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
  • For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1971 Nov The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of the Antilles took place in the Dominican Republic. [BW 15:217] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Dominican Republic first Bahá’í Youth Conference of the Antilles
    1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.
  • After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.
  • The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu'l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website; Farah Pahlavi website; Wikipedia]
  • Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá'í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá'ís submitted a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree was unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
  • Persecution, Egypt; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Court cases; Egypt
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • A Bahá'í Winter and Summer School was established in the southern part of Ethiopia and named "Banání House" in honour of Hand of the Cause Músá Banání, their "spiritual father". [BW15p187]
  • Musa Banani; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Kampala, Uganda; Uganda
    1971 3 – 5 Sep The Oceanic Conference of the North Atlantic was held in Reykjavik, Iceland attended by some 800 people from 36 countries. [BW15:322–3; VV6; BN 488 November 1971 p24]
  • For pictures see BW15:309–12.
  • Oceanic Conference; - Conferences; Reykjavik, Iceland; Iceland
    1971 3 – 5 Sep The Oceanic Conference of the North Pacific was held in Sapporo, Japan. [BW15:321–2; VV6]
  • For pictures see BW15:312–14 and VV5.
  • Oceanic Conference; - Conferences; Sapporo, Japan; Japan
    1971 approx Sep The Universal House of Justice distributed a memorandum to all National Assemblies to provide clarification to the publishing review policy. The purpose of review is to protect the Faith from misrepresentation and to ensure dignity and accuracy in its presentation. In general the function of a reviewing committee is to say whether the work submitted gives an acceptable presentation of the Cause or not. [National Bahá'í Review Issue 45 September 1971 p2] Review (general); Universal House of Justice; Publishing; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1971 27 – 30 Aug The first Bahá'í Youth Conference for Western Asia took place in New Delhi. [BW15:335]
  • Two thousand people enrolled during the conference and the week following. [BW15:335]
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; - First conferences; Mass conversion; New Delhi, India; India; Asia first Bahá’í Youth Conference for Western Asia
    1971 6 Aug - 31 May 1972 Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Ghana, at the start of the third leg of the 'Great African Safari'. [BW15:594–607]

    The itinerary was as follows:

  • Aug 6 - 10, 1971, Ghana
  • Aug 11 - Sept 6, 1971, Dahomey (now Benin)
  • Sept 7 - Oct 4, 1971, Nigeria
  • Oct 5 - Nov 2, 1971, Cameroon Republic
  • By sea?
  • Dec 11, 1971 - Jan 31, 1972, Zaire (now Central African Republic)
  • Feb 1 - Mar 9, 1972, Zambia
  • Mar 10 - 31, 1972, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) [BW15p606-607]
  • Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari; Accra, Ghana; Ghana; Benin; Nigeria; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Zambia; Zimbabwe
    1971 4 Aug The first Bahá'í College Club of Latin America was formed at the University of the Americas, Puebla, Mexico. [BW15:215] Universities; Puebla, Mexico; Mexico first Bahá’í College Club of Latin America
    1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erected an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Haifa; Obelisks; Funds; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Millie Collins; - Bahá'í World Centre; Mount Carmel MERGE; Haifa, Israel
    1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference took place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
  • About 200 people enrolled in the Bahá'í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
  • For pictures see BW15:337.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Fiesch, Switzerland; Switzerland; Europe
    1971 7 Jul The "boogie board", was invented by Tom Morey who was inspired by a certain passage of a Bahá'í prayer that has been translated as ... confer upon me thoughts which may change this world into a rose garden ....[The most iconic vintage bodyboards of all time; Short Biography; Mini Documentary; Wikipedia] - Famous Bahá'ís; Tom Morey; Boogie Board; Hawaii, USA
    1971 16 - 29 June A special seminar for UN member state was held in Yaoundé in observance of the International Year for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. The Bahá'í International Community was represented by Dr 'Azíz Navídí and Counsellor Dr Mihdí Samandarí. This was the first representation of the Bahá'í International Community with their consultative status. [BW15p368] Bahá'í International Community; Aziz Navidi; Mihdi Samandari; Yaounde; Cameroon
    1971 24 May The passing of Anna Reinke (b. 15 August, 1882 Travis County, Texas) in Travis County Texas. She was buried in the Maul Cemetery in Travis County.
  • She is considered the mother of the Bahá'í community in Texas. Anna Reinke was a seamstress who lived in a converted Austin trolley from 1942 until her passing. She had learned of the Faith from her sister in Washington DC. Reinke is credited with the first racially integrated meeting ever held in Texas when she joined Gregory at Anderson High School, which was an all-African American school, where he delivered a message of racial friendship. The program eventually became the forerunner of the Louis Gregory Symposium on Race Unity that began March 27, 2007, and is held annually on Austin's Huston-Tillotson University campus. In the late 1940s, the Texas Regional Teaching Committee began an annual event, the Inter-racial Panel, that included Texan members of the Bahá'í faith, with the first event—a picnic—held at the home of Reinke, an active committee member. [The Statesman 29 October, 2019]
  • Find a grave
  • Anna Reinke; Travis County, TX; Texas, USA; USA first Baha'i in Texas. Held the first racially integrated meeting in Texas.
    1971 21 – 23 May The Oceanic Conference of the South Pacific was held in Suva, Fiji, BW15:320–1; VV6.
  • For pictures see BW15:308–9.
  • Oceanic Conference; - Conferences; Suva, Fiji; Fiji
    1971 21 – 23 May The Oceanic Conference of the Caribbean was held in Kingston, Jamaica. [BW15:218, 319–20; VV5–6]
  • For pictures see BW15:304–8 and VV6.
  • Oceanic Conference; - Conferences; Kingston, ON; Jamaica
    1971 May The first National Teaching Committee of Sierra Leone was appointed by the Regional Spiritual Assembly of West Africa. Teaching; Firsts, other; Sierra Leone first National Teaching Committee of Sierra Leone
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was formed with it seat in New Caledonia. Because of the departure of the Solomon Islands from this union, the new National Spiritual Assembly of South West Pacific Ocean comprised of the New Hebrides, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. [Bahaipedia; BW15p269] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; New Caledonia
    1971 Localities: 46,707

    Local Assemblies: 10,461

    National Assemblies: 113 [from a pamphlet published by the NSA of Canada "Baha'i A New Man A New World Order"]

    Statistics
    1971 Ridván Although the first National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda was elected in the summer of 1970 it has been listed the following Ridván. [BW15p295] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kampala, Uganda; Uganda
    1971 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Guam were formed in Dededo, Inarajan, Mangilao and Tamuning. Local Spiritual Assembly; Guam first Local Spiritual Assemblies in Guam
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Trinidad and Tobago was formed with its seat in Port-of-Spain. [BW15:219, 242] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Trinidad and Tobago first NSA Trinidad and Tobago
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands was formed with its seat in Honiara. Previously it had been administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean. [BW15:269] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Solomon Islands; Oceania first NSA Solomon Islands
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sudan was formed. Prior to this time it had been with Egypt. National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt formed. [BW15p187]
  • For picture see BW15:150.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Sudan first NSA Sudan
    1971 Ridván Formerly under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assemblies of North West Africa, from 1956 to 1964, and of West Africa from 1964 to 1971 the Bahá'í community of Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta elected its National Spiritual Assembly at Riḍván, 1971, with its seat in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. [BW15p193]
  • For picture see BW15p150.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Ivory Coast first NSA Ivory Coast, Mali and Upper Volta
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Lesotho was formed with its seat in Maseru. It was formerly Basutoland until 1966. Part of the area under the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique, 1967—1971) [BW15:202]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • The communities of Swaziland and Mozambique continued in the union as a Regional Assembly.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Maseru, Botswana; Lesotho, South Africa first NSA Lesotho
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Congo and Gabon was formed with its seat in Brazzaville, the Congo. [BW15:206]
  • For picture see BW15:148 and Congo National website. In this picture are Dr. Taï and his wife as well as M Azemikah, all long-time pioneers in the Congo.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo; Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire) first NSA Congo and Gabon
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Central African Republic was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148 and bahai.org.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Central African Republic first NSA Central African Republic
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chad was formed with its seat in Fort Lamy. (In 1973 Fort Lamy became known as N'Djaména.) [BW15:207]
  • For picture see BW15:148.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 45-46.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Chad first NSA Chad
    1971 18 Apr The Bahá'í International Community appointed a representative to the UN in Geneva. [BIC History 1971] Bahá'í International Community; Geneva, Switzerland
    1971 Apr The International Bahá'í Youth Conference took places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
  • For picture see BW15:334.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Oteppe-Namur; Belgium; Europe
    1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá'í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá'í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban was lifted and the Bahá'í Faith officially recognized.
  • This was broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá'í Faith in the country.
  • See also A Brief Account of the Progress of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nancy Oloro-Robarts and Selam Ahderom p8].
  • Persecution, Central African Republic; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Firsts, other; Recognition (legal); Central African Republic first public proclamation in Central African Republic
    1971 11 Feb The Montreal Municipality issued a permit recognizing the Maxwell home as a Bahá'í Shrine after nine years of negotiations and delays. With this struggle came a hidden blessing. For years the Shrine had been used as a Bahá'í Centre by the Montreal community, open also to friends of the area as a place to hold public meetings, open Feasts, and certain activities not always suited to it as a Shrine. The realization was made that it was a National Bahá'í Shrine and as such should not be used as a centre. [CBNApril1971p10]

    Bahai.ca: Bahá'í Shrine in Montréal

    Montreal Shrine; Recognition (legal); Montreal, QC; Quebec, Canada; Canada
    1971 1 – 3 Jan The Oceanic Conference of the South China Seas was held in the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore. [BW15:319; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:302–3 and VV6.
  • Oceanic Conference; - Conferences; Singapore
    1971 1 – 3 Jan The Continental Conference of Africa was held in Monrovia, Liberia. [BW15:318; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:304–5.
  • Continental Conference; - Conferences; Monrovia, Liberia; Liberia
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, (b. 26July 1875 in Hawaii) Hand of the Cause; "the daughter of the Kingdom", and "the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection" ('Abdu'l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Bahá'í to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Bahá'í to settle in Japan; and the first Bahá'í to teach the Faith in Korea, passed away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
  • On the 13th of October she received a Tablet from 'Abdi'l-Baha encouraging her to travel to Japan. She arrived in 1914 and remained there for a total of thirty-two years. She lf[PH32]
  • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]eft Japan in 1937 and returned in 1950.
  • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
  • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
  • See A Tribute to Agnes Alexander by Ben Perkins.
  • See An Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Agnes Baldwin Alexander and edited by Thomas Linard.
  • Agnes Alexander; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, other; Honolulu, HI; Hawaii, USA first to set foot on Hawaiian soil, first to settle in Japan, first to teach the Faith in Korea
    1971 (In the year) The publication of Divine Symphony by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust of New Delhi. The book was reprinted in 1976 and 1977. [Collins7.2771; p156] Divine Symphony; New Delhi, India; India
    1971 (In the year) The publication of Memorials of the Faithful by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette as translated from the original Persian and annotated by Marzieh Gail. It contains eulogies of some eighty early Bahá'ís transcribed from a series of talks given by 'Abdu'l‑Bahá in Haifa around 1914–15.

    It was first published in 1924 in Farsi when the Persian transcripts that had been corrected by 'Abdu'l‑Bahá were compiled into a single volume.

  • In 1973 Memorials of the Faithful was transcribed by Gertrude D Schurgast and published in Tucson, AZ by the Bahá'í Service for the Blind. In 1975 a second print run was done. [Collins3.75, 8.3]
  • See reviews, papers and tributes to the book.
  • * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Memorials of the Faithful (book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Bahá'í Service for the Blind; Gertrude D Schurgast; Marzieh Gail; Wilmette, IL; USA
    1971 (In the year) Dan Jordon with Don Streets co-founded the Center for the Study of Human Potential at the University of Massachusetts and, along with other Bahá'í educators and scholars, Dr Jordon started the Anisa Project, a comprehensive, Bahá'í-inspired educational system organized around a philosophical base. The model was adopted by dozens of school systems during Jordan's lifetime.
  • The Anisa Educational Model was inspired by the Bahá'í teachings and the philosophical work of Alfred North Whitehead and soon grew into a national movement that trained hundreds of educators.
  • This new educational model was conceptualized as a process rather than a fixed formula. Based on the constantly-evolving empirical framework of the biological and medical sciences the Anisa Model gathered and unified educational practice and theory into a completely new paradigm. [Anisa Model Home Page]
  • See the book by Dan Jordon and Don Streets Releasing the Potentialities of the Child.
  • Biographical information about Daniel C Jordon.
  • See also three articles by David Langness:
  • Anisa Educational Model; Daniel Jordan (Dan Jordan); Don Streets; Alfred North Whitehead; - Philosophy; Process philosophy; Education; Anisa Project; Massachusetts, USA
    c. 1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Ciskei was formed in Mdantsane. Local Spiritual Assembly; Mdantsane, South Africa; Ciskei, South Africa first Local Spiritual Assembly Mdantsane, Ciskei
    1971 (In the year) The 'Lake Victoria Plan', a joint venture among the National Spiritual Assemblies of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Burundi designed to carry the Faith to all the peoples and tribes living within Africa's largest lake basin, was inaugurated at the suggestion of Hand of the Cause Dr Muhájir. [DM96–8] Rahmatullah Muhajir; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lake Victoria; Africa
    1971 (In the year) Over 500 people became Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [BINS86] Mass conversion; Bangladesh
    1971 (In the year) The first Pingelapese to become a Bahá'í enrolled in the East Caroline Islands. First believers by background; Caroline Islands first Pingelapese Bahá’í the East Caroline Islands
    1971 (In the year) The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, the first to become Bahá'ís in France, enrolled at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. First believers by background; France first Gypsies Bahá’ís in France
    1971 (In the year) The first Amerindian to become a Bahá'í in French Guiana enrolled. French Guiana first Amerindian Bahá’í in French Guiana
    1971 (In the year) The first three people to become Bahá'ís in Guinea enrolled. [BINS45] First Bahá'ís by country or area; Guinea first three Bahá’ís in Guinea
    1971 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Mali was formed in Bamako. Local Spiritual Assembly; Bamako, Mali; Mali first Local Spiritual Assembly in Mali
    1971 (In the year) The first summer school in Singapore was held. First summer and winter schools; Singapore first summer school in Singapore
    1971 (In the year) Following the prohibition of Bahá'í activity in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá'ís put forward a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court seeking to overturn the presidential decree as unconstitutional. Persecution, Egypt; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Petitions; Egypt
    1971 (In the year) In Germany, Hermann Zimmer resurrected the claims of Ruth White in a small book published in 1971 (English translation in 1973), A Fraudulent Testament devalues the Bahá'í Religion into Political Shogism.
  • In Switzerland, Francesco Ficicchia wrote a comprehensive attack aimed mainly at the Bahá'í administration,
  • Der Bah'ismus Weltreligion der Zunkunft? (Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen, Quell Verlag, Stuttgart, 1981).
  • Both of these works were financed and distributed by Evangelical Protestant organizations in Germany. [The Covenant and Covenant-breaker by Moojan Momen]
  • Covenant-breakers; Hermann Zimmer; Ruth White; Francesco Ficicchia; Criticism and apologetics; Germany; Switzerland
    1970 25 Dec - 1971 3 Jan The First International Bahá'í Youth Winter School took place in Salzburg, Austria, attended by 600 people from 25 countries. [BW15:332]
  • For picture see BW15:332.
  • Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; - Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Salzburg, Germany; Austria; Europe First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School
    1970 8 Dec The government of Taiwan granted Certificate of Registration to register the Bahá'í Faith as a religion. Recognition (legal); Taiwan
    1970 Dec One of the goals of the Canadian Bahá'í Community was to prepare its "daughter" community, Iceland, to achieve National Assembly status by Ridván 1972 with incorporation by 1973. To facilitate these goals the National Spiritual Assembly assigned Douglas and Elizabeth Martin to the project with Elizabeth as the principal executive. The opening phase of the proclamation was launched at a Victory Conference which resulted in the enrollment of thirty people in January 1971 thus doubling the numbers in Iceland.
  • In January/February 1971 Continental Board of Counsellor Betty Reed visited and there were 130 declarations and of these, eight were adults. [BN No 487 October 1971 p20]
  • In addition six Icelandic believers, three of them youth, were invited to attend the Canadian National Convention in Halifax at Ridván. They were: Gudmundur Bardarson, Anna Maggy Palsdottir, Baldur B. Bragason, Margret Bardardottir, Svana Einarsdottir, and Janina Njalsdottir. [BN485 6 August, 1971 pg 6]
  • The Icelandic community organized a team to undertake a summer teaching project in the Faroes Islands in cooperation with the UK Bahá'ís. [BW15335-336]
  • Three additional local assemblies were formed in Iceland in August 1971 and they were in Keflavik, Hafnarfjordur and Kopavogur. [HNWE26; BN485 6 August, 1971 pg 6]
  • - Conferences; Elizabeth Martin; Douglas Martin; Gudmundur Bardarson; Anna Maggy Palsdottir; Baldur B. Bragason; Margret Bardardottir; Svana Einarsdottir; Janina Njalsdottir; Reykjavik, Iceland; Iceland
    1970 20 Nov - 28 May 1971 Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Ghana, at the start of the second leg of the 'Great African Safari' covering Western Africa. The itinerary was as follows:
  • Nov 20 - 28, 1970, Ghana
  • Nov 29 - Dec 21, 1970, Ivory Coast (now Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Dec 23, 1970 - Jan 14, 1971, Liberia
  • Jan 13 - 14, 1971, Ivory Coast (now Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Jan 15 - Feb 1, 1971, Mali
  • Feb 2 - 11, 1971, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso)
  • Feb 12 - 21, 1971, Ghana
  • Feb 22 - Mar 2, 1971, Ivory Coast (now Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Mar 3 - 15, 1971, Liberia
  • Mar 16 - 25, 1971, Sierra Leone
  • Mar 26 - Apr 8, 1971, Senegal
  • Apr 9 - 26, 1971, Gambia (now The Gambia)
  • Apr 26, 1971, Senegal
  • Apr 27 - May 10, 1971 Ivory Coast (now Côte d'Ivoire)
  • May 11 - 28, 197l, Ghana [BW15p606-607]
  • Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great African Safari; Accra, Ghana; Ghana; Ivory Coast; Liberia; Mali; Burkina Faso; Sierra Leone; Senegal; Gambia, The
    1970 12 Nov Bahá'ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá'í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Persecution, Central African Republic; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; Central African Republic
    1970 26 Sep The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher (b.1886 in Montreal. QC) in the Green Acre area. She was buried at the Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Eliot, Maine [Find a grave]
  • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
  • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
  • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
  • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
  • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
  • A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See her account of her travels in her autobiographical book Sunburst.
  • Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Montreal, QC; Quebec, Canada; Canada
    1970 14 – 16 Aug The Continental Conference was held in La Paz, Bolivia. [BW15:317; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:301–2.
  • Continental Conference; - Conferences; La Paz, Bolivia; Bolivia
    1970 14 – 16 Aug The Oceanic Conference of the Indian Ocean was held in Rose Hill, Mauritius. [BW15:317; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:299–301.
  • For an account of the experience of attending from the point of view of Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", see CG84-85.
  • Oceanic Conference; - Conferences; Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Mauritius; Mauritius
    1970 14 Aug - 1971 5 Sep Eight Oceanic and Continental Conferences were held. BW15:296–323]
  • For many pictures see BW15:296–316.
  • Oceanic Conference; Continental Conference; - Conferences
    1970 3 Aug The passing of Haik (Haig) Kevorkian (b.1 October 1916 in Aleppo, Syria) in Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province of Argentina at the age of 54. He was buried in the British Cemetery beside his parents and his infant son.

    Haik had learned of the Faith from his father who had embraced the Faith in his birthplace, Gaziantep Aintab, Turkey. In 1937 the family emigrated from Aleppo, Syria to Argentina and they stopped on the way to visit the Holy Land where they spoke with the Guardian about pioneering. They arrived in Buenos Aires on the 29th of March after a another stop in Bahia to visit Leonora Holsapple.

    On February 29th, 1940 May Maxwell, accompanied by her niece Jeanne Bolles arrived in Buenos Aires and it was from Haik that she received the a telephone call to welcome her. The following morning when the Kevorkian family called at the City Hotel they learned that May Maxwell had passed during the night. Haik and Wilfrid Barton searched for a befitting spot for her interment and Haik spent the rest of his life honouring and caring for her resting place.

    Haik taught the Faith in the interior of Argentina and make international trips to Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Chile Brazil and Ecuador. He assisted in the formation of the first spiritual assembly in Guayaquil and won the honour of being named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh when he settled in the Galapolos Islands in May 1954. A record of his service there can be found in Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 by Helen Bassett Hornby.

    Upon his return from the Galapolos to Buenos Aires he married Aurora de Eyto and they had one surviving son, Daniel Claudio (b.1960). [BW15p483-485]

    Haig Kevorkian; In Memoriam; Knight of Bahá'u'lláh; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Argentina
    1970 approx Jul The release of the film It's Just the Beginning. The documentary film is about the 1970 Bahá'í National Youth Conference and was made by Kiva Films. This film was aired on television and at community events. Distribution was under the Public Information Committee of the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [National Bahá'í Review Issue 47 November 1972 p2]
  • YouTube.
  • - Film; Its Just the Beginning (documentary film); USA
    1970 (Summer) The first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Uganda was elected for the first time. Those elected were: Mr. Enos Epyeru, Assistant Treasurer; Mr. Javan Gutosi, Treasurer; Mr. S. M. Isimai, Secretary; Mr. Moses Senoga, Vice-Chairman and Assistant Secretary, Mr. Julias Nambafu, Augustin Massati, Augustin Naku, and Albert Ocamodek. [Bahá'í News No 479 February 1971 pg15; Wikipedia] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kampala, Uganda; Uganda
    1970 23 Jun The centenary of the death of Mírzá Mihdí was commemorated with a day of prayer by Bahá'ís around the world and in the Holy Land with a pilgrimage to the barracks in 'Akká, Bahjí and to his monument. [BW15:162–3] Mírzá Mihdi (Purest Branch); Centenaries; Monument Gardens; Akka, Israel; Bahji, Israel
    1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupted her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; Youth; USA; Africa
    1970 15 June Worldwide Bahá'í Statistics [CBN248,February1971p11]
         Countries opened to the Faith:
              Independent countries                134
              Significant territories and islands  179
                                      Total        373
    
         Number of localities where Bahá'ís reside   43,341
    
         Number of local spiritual assemblies        10,318
    Statistics; Growth; - Worldwide
    1970 27 May The Bahá'í International Community was granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
  • As a result, the Bahá'í International Community began to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá'ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
  • At such sessions the Bahá'í International Community offers statements on the Bahá'í position on the subject under discussion.
  • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
  • Bahá'í International Community Representative, Victor de Araujo, was elected to the Executive Board of the Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations. [BIC History 1970]
  • Bahá'í International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo; New York, USA; USA
    1970 27 May The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations approved the recommendation by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations of February 12th 1970, that the Bahá'í International Community be granted consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. United Nations Economic and Social Council; Bahá'í International Community; United Nations; New York, USA; New York, USA
    1970 May One thousand Guajiro Indians became Bahá'ís in Venezuela. [BW15:241] Native Americans; Mass conversion; Venezuela
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá'í activities and disbanding all Bahá'í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution, Bans; - Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Iraq
    1970 22 Apr The first Earth Day mobilized 20 million Americans to call for increased protections for our planet. The organization of this event was inspired in part but the Santa Barbara Oil Spill of the 28th of January 1969 when an off-shore oil well owned by Union Oil blew out and spilled more than three million gallons of oil and killing thousands of seabirds, dolphins, seals, and sea lions and fouling the California coastline. As a reaction to this disaster, activists were mobilized to create environmental regulation, environmental education, and Earth Day. [Earth Day website] Earth Day; Environment; California, USA; USA
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East was formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon with jurisdiction over Lebanon, Jordon and Syria. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Beirut, Lebanon; Lebanon first NSA Near East
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana was formed with its seat in Georgetown, Guyana. [BW15:238]
    • For picture see BW15:144.
    National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Georgetown, Guyana; Guyana first NSA Guyana, Surinam and French Guiana
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Southern Rhodesia was formed with its seat in Salisbury. [BW15:200]
  • The name of the country was changed to Zimbabwe on the 18 April 1980. The name of the capital was change to Harare in the second anniversary of the country's independence from the UK.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Salisbury (Harare), Zimbabwe; Rhodesia first NSA Rhodesia
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was formed with its seat in Kinshasa. (Formerly Belgian Congo until 1960; then Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) until the name changed to Zaire in 1971. (Kinshasa was formerly called Leopoldville.) [BW15:205]

    At this time there was a large concentration of believers in South Kivu, there were Bahá'ís in Western Kasai, in Kinshasa and in Lubumbashi. The election took place in the home of Belgian pioneers Jean-Pierre and Anne-Marie Laperches. Hand of the Cause Mr Faizi was in attendance to represent the Universal House of Justice. [A Remarkable Response Film 26:55

  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • It has been reported that President Mobutu's personal physician was a Baháí, a Dr Jazab, and it was he who had Mobutu sign a document giving the Bahá'ís permission to practice their faith in the country. [Servants of the Glory page 60]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire) first NSA Zaire
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Central Africa was formed with its seat in Bangui. [BW15:206]
  • Territories under its jurisdiction were: Chad, Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and Central African Republic. Since 1964 they had been part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Uganda and Central Africa along with Burundi and Rwanda who had formed a regional assembly in 1969.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Bangui, Central African Republic first NSA Central Africa
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Samoa was formed with its seat in Apia. [BW15:274]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Apia, Samoa; Samoa first NSA Samoa
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa was formed with its seat in Banjul, The Gambia. Jurisdiction for this Assembly extended over Senegal and Mauritania. [BW15p193]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Banjul (Bathurst), The Gambia; Gambia, The first NSA Upper West Africa
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos was dissolved and three new National Assemblies were established. [BW15p192]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Nigeria was formed with its seat in Lagos. [BW15:192]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Nigeria first NSA Nigeria
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos was dissolved and three new National Assemblies were established. [BW15p189 Note 1]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Dahomey, Togo and Niger was formed with its seat in Cotonou, Dahomey (now Togo). [BW15p189]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Cotonou, Benin; Togo first NSA Dahomey, Togo and Niger
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa with its seat in Lagos was dissolved and three new National Assemblies were established. [BW15p189 Note 1]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Ghana was formed with its seat in Accra. [BW15p192]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Accra, Ghana; Ghana first NSA Ghana
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku'alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Nukualofa, Tonga; Cook Islands; Pacific first NSA Tonga and the Cook Islands
    1970 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Nouakchott, Mauritania was formed. Local Spiritual Assembly; Nouakchott; Mauritania first Local Spiritual Assembly Nouakchott, Mauritania
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Fiji was formed with its seat in Suva. [BW15:271] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Suva, Fiji; Fiji first NSA Fiji
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malawi (formerly Nyasaland, until 1964.) was formed with its seat in Limbe. [BW15:200]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Limbe, Malawi; Malawi first NSA Malawi
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana (Formerly Bechuanaland, until 1966.) was formed with its seat in Gaborone. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:144.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Gaborone, Botswana; Botswana first NSA Botswana
    1970 Ridván In its Ridván Message the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of three additional Councillors, Iraj Ayman in Western Asia, Anneliese Bopp and Betty Reed in Europe and some 45 additional Auxiliary Board Members, 9 in Africa, 16 in Asia, 2 in Australasia and 18 in the Western Hemisphere. [Ridván 1970] Counsellors; Auxiliary board members and assistants; Assistants; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1970 Apr - Aug More than 6,000 people became Bahá'ís in Bolivia. [BW15:232] Mass conversion; Bolivia
    1970 18 or 20 Mar The passing of Hilda Yank Sing Yen Male (b. 29 Nov or 29 Nov 1902, 1904 or 1906 in China, d. Riverdale, Bronx County, New York, USA). She was buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum, Hartsdale, New York, USA.
  • In Memoriam. [BW15p476-478; PH54-56]
  • A note from Mrs. Mildred Mottahedeh. read, in part: "This noble lady played an important role in the development of the Bahá'í Faith in the international field, and it was through her efforts that the Bahá'ís began their work with the United Nations." [BN No 472 July 1970 p2]
  • For a biography see Wikipedia.
  • She asked to attend the 1944 Baháʼí Annual convention as an observer and was moved by the spontaneous gestures of welcome and care shown between individuals society normally kept apart. She requested to enroll as a Baháʼí. She then asked to address the convention as a Baháʼí:

    "Fellow Baha'is, this is more than a pleasure. It is a miracle that I am participating with you in discussing such important matters. I contacted two denominations and a parliament of religions before I met Julia Goldman, Baha'i, who sowed this seed in my heart. While convalescent from a flying crash, my life was given me for service to God. Julia took me under her wing. I saw God vaguely; then more clearly, through the Baha'i Faith. Then came the battle of Hongkong(sic) where all shared in a common danger and hunger - forced to live the oneness of mankind. At length I secured a priority to fly to America and how do I rejoice to be in this free country! Conferring with Americans I have found this country the best to execute the message of peace. I have been blessed in meeting other Baha'is. I have been deeply impressed by the love and affection among Baha'is. China is well prepared by its sages for the Baha'i Faith. …" [BN No 170 September 1944 p6]

  • Find a grave.
  • Hilda Yen; United Nations; Bahá'í International Community; In Memoriam; Riverdale, NY; China
    1970 20 - 22 Feb First American National Baha'i Education Conference in America was held in Wilmette. [USBN April 1970] - Conferences; Conferences, Bahá'í; Wilmette, IL; USA First American National Baha'i Education Conference
    1970 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
  • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
  • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
  • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and a teacher. They raised four children.
  • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
  • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
  • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
  • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
  • Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Auxiliary board members and assistants; Bradenton, FL; Florida, USA; USA
    1970 25 Jan Valde Nyman, the first full Gypsy in Finland to become a Bahá'í, enrolled in Helsinki. First Bahá'ís by country or area; Gypsies; Finland first full Gypsy Bahá’í in Finland
    1970 Jan Claire Gung opened Auntie Claire's Kindergarten in new facilities in Kampala with an enrollment of 146 children. [CG81] - Bahá'í inspired schools; Auntie Claires Kindergarten, Uganda; Kampala, Uganda; Uganda
    1970 Jan The inaugural publication of The American Bahá'í. The intention was that this new publication would contain news items, editorials, letters to the editors, feature articles, and various departments to inform, edify and entertain the friends at large. The Bahá'í National Review would continue publication but it would no longer publish news items but would become a gazette for the announcement of official policies and information that the National Spiritual Assembly wished to share with the friends. The Bahá'í National Review continued publication until November of 1970. [Bahá'í National Review Issue 24 December 1969 p15] American Bahá'í (newsletter); Bahá'í National Review; - Newsletters; - Periodicals; Wilmette, IL
    1970 - early 1971 Over 20,000 Afro-Americans from the rural areas of the south-eastern United States became Bahá'ís. [BBRSM187] Mass conversion; USA
    1970 (In the Year) Botswana held its first National Youth School. [BW15:329] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; - Conferences, National; Conferences, First; Botswana first National Youth School in Botswana
    1970 (In the Year) A Bahá'í International Youth Conference was held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Youth; - Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Ivory Coast
    1970 (In the Year) The first native of Mauritania to become a Bahá'í enrolled. First believers by background; Mauritania first native Bahá’í of Mauritania
    1970 (In the Year) The first Gypsy in Spain to become a Bahá'í, Maria Camacho Martinez, enrolled in Sabadell. Maria Camacho Martinez; First believers by background; Sabadell; Spain first Gypsy Bahá’í in Spain
    1970 (In the Year) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán underwent major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. House of Bahá'u'lláh (Tihran); Restoration; Tehran, Iran; Iran

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