Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

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Date 188-, descending sort earliest first

date event tags firsts
1889 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Shuaullah Alai; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Tehran, Iran; Iran
1889 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání was martyred in `Ishqábád. He had been on of the most prominent Bahá'ís and acted as the agent for the Afnan family Ishqabad. The murder had been orchestrated by the clergy who had brought ruffians from Khurasan for this purpose. They were bold, thinking that they were acting with impunity because the victim was a Bahá'í but the authorities intervened and arrested nine of the perpetrators. Some 70 fled to Iran. The plan had been to incite a general attack on the Bahá'í community. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202; The Baha'i Community Of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis And Importance In Baha'i History by Mojan Momen p283; The Memoirs of Shamsi Sedaghat p27]

"In the city of 'Ishqábád the newly established Shí'ah community, envious of the rising prestige of the followers of Bahá'u'lláh who were living in their midst, instigated two ruffians to assault the seventy-year old Hájí Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Isfáhání, whom, in broad day and in the midst of the bazaar, they stabbed in no less than thirty-two places, exposing his liver, lacerating his stomach and tearing open his breast. A military court dispatched by the Czar to 'Ishqábád established, after prolonged investigation, the guilt of the Shí'ahs, sentencing two to death and banishing six others - a sentence which neither Násir'd-Dín Sháh, nor the 'ulamás of Tihrán, of Mashad and of Tabríz, who were appealed to, could mitigate, but which the representatives of the aggrieved community, through their magnanimous intercession which greatly surprised the Russian authorities, succeeded in having commuted to a lighter punishment." [GPB202-203]

  • Pior to this time the Shi'i and the Bahá'í had lived side by side more or less peacefully. After this incident they were more segregated.
  • Czar Alexander III sent a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl served as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial that took place in November 1890[AB109]
  • Two were found guilty and sentenced to death, six others were ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attached importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community interceded on behalf of the culprits and had the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
  • See as well The Martyrdom of Haji Muhammad-Rida by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani, translated by Ahang Rabbani.
  • Hájí Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; - Persecution; Human Rights; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan First time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for attack on Bahá'ís
    1889 19 Aug Baron Julius de Reuter, a British-German financier with a history of financial agreements in Persia, secured a concession from the Persian government. This concession allowed him to establish the Imperial Bank of Persia. The bank was the first modern bank in Iran and introduced European banking ideas to a country in which they were previously unknown. The concession gave him exclusive rights to issue banknotes, manage the state's revenues, and establish branches in various Iranian cities. The bank was given the authority to handle customs duties and foreign trade, which were significant sources of revenue for the Persian government. The bank was also responsible for managing the government's foreign debts and helping Iran to raise capital in international markets.

    As usury was forbidden under Islam, the traditional money lenders in Iran were the Jewish sarrafs, who continued to dominate the field after the establishment of the Imperial Bank due to greater loan flexibility and cultural ties. At the time the only form of money in circulation was gold and silver coins.

    In 1890 a similar Russian bank known as the Loan and Discount Bank of Persia was founded. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 split Iran into a Russian and British sphere of influence. It assigned to the Russian Loan and Discount Bank the revenues from the amortization of Persian debts in northern Iran, and the same for the British Imperial Bank in southern Iran.

    Bank Melli, an Iranian-controlled central bank, was established in 1928. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p3; Wikipedia]

    Imperialism/colonialism; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, after having received no help or protection, went to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Petitions; Tehran, Iran; Sidih, Iran; Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Iran
    1889 18 Jul The Bahá'ís were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1889 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drove over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán.
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
  • What follows is the account from BW18p383 by Moojan Momen:
    • 17 July; Isfahan, Sidih and Najafabad: Aqá Najafi, the 'Son of the Wolf, having initiated a campaign against the Bahá'ís in June, on this day, drove over one hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád: they took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables Of the Governor in Iṣfahán.
    • 18 July: They were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages.
    • August: Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help, went to Ṭihrán to petition the Sháh.
    • 25 February 1890: On their return from Ṭihrán with the Shah's decree permitting their return home, seven were killed as they tried to return to Sidih.
  • Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Najafabad upheaval; - Upheavals; Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Sidih, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiated a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Isfahan, Iran; Sidih, Iran; Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Iran
    1889 Jun E. G. Browne gave a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London. Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society; London, England; United Kingdom
    1889 (In the year) The publication of La religion de Bab, réformateur persan du XIXe siècle by M Clément Huart in Paris The book can be downloaded at no charge from here. M Clément Huart; Publication; Paris, France; France
    1889 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Sádiq Maqaddas Khurásáni also known by the designation Jináb-i-Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq. [MoF5-8; LoF32-41; EB7-23]

    Note that The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project dates his passing 1874-1875.

    In Memoriam; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by `Abdu'l-Bahá; Hamadán, Iran; Iran
    1888 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He was hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body was buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1888 Jul Nabíl began his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII] Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book); Akka, Israel
    1888 c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and were sent to Shíráz, where one was imprisoned. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Sarvestan, Iran; Fars, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') was given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Edward Granville Browne; Firsts, other; Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England; United Kingdom First lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1888 (In the year) Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarked on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java (Indonesia), Siam (Thailand), Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22] Jamal Effendi; Hájí Farajullah-i-Tafrishi; Myanmar; Java; Indonesia; Thailand; Singapore; Kashmir; India; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Turkestan; China; Afghanistan
    1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spent 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey was to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
  • While sailing from Naples to New York 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave an account of Mírzá Yahyá and his followers and of the complaints they made to Edward G. Browne: "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [Mahmúd's Diary p21]
  • Edward Granville Browne; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Hájí Mírzá Jani; Iran; United Kingdom
    1887 27 Oct "When Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas He withheld the publication of certain laws. These included the text of the Obligatory Prayers. In one of His Tablets Bahá'u'lláh orders His amanuensis, Mírzá Áqá Ján, to send a copy of the Obligatory Prayers to Persia as a favour to Mullá 'Alí-Akbar who had asked for them. He confirms that the Obligatory Prayers had been revealed a few years earlier." [RoB4p299-300]
  • (It) "was shared with Hand of the Cause Alí Akbar SháhMírzádeh Hajji Akhund in the Lawh-i Bishárát-i 'Uzma (Tablet of the Most Great Glad-tidings), and thus diffused among the community. [Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the Obligatory Prayers Notes by the Universal House of Justice, Ismael Velasco, Peter Terry, Michael Sours]
  • See Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Tablet Study Outline .
  • Obligatory prayer; Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí); Laws; Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Gradual implementation of laws; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel; Iran
    1887 26 Jul Leyzer (Eliezer) Levi Zamenhof published, in Russian, La Unua Libro, (The First Book) of his fully-formed manual of the Esperanto language, signing it "Doktoro Esperanto", the nom de plume of its creator. By way of explanation, the word "esperanto", in Esperanto, means "One who hopes".
  • Some estimates optimistically place the number of people familiar to some degree with the language at nearly two million, and it is now among the languages taught on the popular website and app Duolingo. But there are only perhaps some ten thousand fully fluent Esperanto speakers.
  • See 8Feb2022 for a full history of the language and of the Zamenof family.
  • Leyzer (Eliezer) Levi Zamenhof; Zamenof; Lidia Zamenhof; Esperanto; Warsaw; Poland
    1887 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad); - Hands of the Cause; - Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahá'u'lláh; Firsts, other; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Appointed arm First mention of concept of `Hand of the Cause'
    1887 (In the year) Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Sarvestan, Iran; Fars, Iran; Iran
    1887 Date uncertain Husayn, the young son of Àbdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum died in Akka at the age of three or four. In speaking with Lady Blomfield she said that five of her children died in Akka. [SoG 85; SUR235]

    She said that when Husayn passed away, Bahá'u'lláh wrote the following:

      "The knowledge of the reason why your sweet baby has been called back is in the mind of God, and will be manifested in His own time. To the prophets of God the present and the future are as one." [CH90]
    `Abdu'l-Bahá, Family of; Akka, Israel; Israel; Palestine
    1887 (In the year) Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
  • Mírzá Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Akka, Israel
    1886 14 Sep Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, left Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, FOI24] Mishkin-Qalam; Larnaca, Cyprus; Cyprus; Akka, Israel
    1886 (In the year) The passing of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
  • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
  • See CH39-40 for a description of her by Lady Bloomfield.
  • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealled a Tablet for her in which He called her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
  • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
  • She was interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
  • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demanded that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
  • Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Muhammad-Yusuf Páshá; House of Abbud; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Akka, Israel
    1886 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40]
  • A translation into English by E. G. Browne was published in New York, 1930 by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee.
  • Travelers Narrative (book); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Historical overviews by Central Figures or BWC; Akka, Israel
    1886 (In the year) Birth of Narayanrao Rangnath Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í in Surat, Gujarat, India. Narayanrao Rangnath Vakil; Births and deaths; First believers by background; Conversion; Hinduism; - Interfaith dialogue; Surat; Gujarat; India first Hindu to become a Bahá'í.
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. [BW15p421–423] Musa Banani; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1885 29 Oct Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of Ishraqát for Jalil-i-Khu'i on the Most Great Infallibility.

    Included in the Tablet of Ishraqát is a quotation from a Tablet Bahá'u'lláh had earlier revealed in honour of Haji Muhammad-Ibrahim concerning some of the Islamic prophecies about the Day of God. He explains to Jalil-i-Khu'i that

      These are verses We sent down previously, and We have sent them unto thee, that thou mayest be acquainted with what their lying tongues have spoken, when God came unto them with might and sovereignty. [TB117-120]

    The passage on Trustworthiness in the Tablet of Ishraqát is also found in the Tablet of Tarazat and in a Tablet addressed to Haji Mirza Buzurg-i-Afnan (and perhaps in other Tablets as well). [TBp121-122] This is the passage in which Bahá'u'lláh states:

      One day of days We repaired unto Our Green Island.

    In a Tablet addressed to Haji Amin, Bahá'u'lláh indicates that a "Tablet of Trustworthiness" had been revealed in A.H. 1296 (around 1879). [RoB4p16-17] The date of the revelation of the Tablet of Tarazat was Dhi'l-Hajjih 1305 (approximately 1888). - Bahá'u'lláh responds to Jalil-i-Khu'i's question concerning "interest and profit on gold and silver" by quoting from a Tablet that had been previously revealed in honour of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin.[TB132-133] In a commentary on the Tablet written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice it was written, "We have not, so far, been able to determine the date on which this Tablet was revealed." [Ishraqát, Tablet of, Date of Revelation]

    * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel
    1885 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurásan, Iran; Iran
    1884 (In the year) Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Varqa, Valiyullah; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1883 Aug Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted at least three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stayed in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house, part of which stands today. The building was located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH10:
  • During this visit Bahá'u'lláh referred to Mount Carmel as the 'Moutain of God':
    For a few days the Mountain of God became the seat of the Temple and this is the Station which had been mentioned in the past Books. The voice of the Spirit (Jesus Christ) had been raised in this place and al the other Prophets have told of this Station. This is the mountain of God. [Journey to the Mountain p17]
  • Templer colony; Bayt-i-Fanduq; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Haifa, Israel; Mount Carmel MERGE First visit to Haifa by Bahá'u'lláh
    1883 June 21 The name Thornton Chase appeared in newspaper coverage of a poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles; USA
    1883 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; Births and deaths; Goslar; Germany
    1883 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar were arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Rasht, Iran; Lahijan; Iran
    1883 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Yazd, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Sarvestan, Iran; Fars, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community were arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some were confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences were not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This was occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
  • Tihran upheaval; - Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1882 11 Nov The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882 however MBBA112 suggests 16th of October. She died of dysentery.
  • Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
  • Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
    • In accordance with Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, in 1308 A.H. [1891], Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí went to Bombay to publish some of the Holy Tablets. As the Blessed Beauty instructed, he purchased a gravestone for the resting place of the wife of the Báb. The following verse, revealed from the heaven of divine will, was engraved on it: He is the Everlasting. Verily this exalted leaf hearkened to the Call of the Tree beyond which there is no passing and winged her flight towards it. "Abú'l-Qásim Afnán informs the translator that this gravestone is safe in an undisclosed location in Iran." [MBBA117]
  • Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Báb); Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Fiddih; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1882 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Maqsud was revealed following the invasion of Egypt by the French and British forces. In this Tablet He strongly denounced European imperialism and proposed an international peace conference to be attended by the world's major heads of state in response to this situation. * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud); Imperialism/colonialism; History (general); Egypt; France; United Kingdom
    1882 11 Jul The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes] British history; History (general); Imperialism/colonialism; Alexandria, Egypt; Egypt
    1876 - 1882 Egypt had mounting debts and a financial crisis which had been exacerbated by the construction of the Suez Canal and the extravagant spending of Egypt's ruling khedive, Isma'il Pasha. To finance modernization projects and the Canal, he had borrowed extensively from European powers and banks. The debt burden became unsustainable, and Egypt was on the verge of bankruptcy. in 1876 Britain and France, the major creditors, had established a Commission of the Public Debt to oversee Egypt's finances and to ensure repayment.

    In 1879 Britain and France agree to take joint control of Egypt's administration, know as "Dual Control" with Britain often controlling the more influential positions. This measure was taken partially our of fear that there would be a complete collapse of Egypt's government and financial system. This imposition dual control faced opposition from many Egyptians who perceived it as foreign interference in their country's affairs. This period contributed to the rise of nationalist sentiments in Egypt and calls for greater Egyptian autonomy and independence from foreign control.

    Dual control lasted until 1882 when British forces effectively took control of Egypt during the Urabi Revolt, further solidifying British dominance in the country. Egypt was technically still part of the Ottoman Empire at this time, but in reality, it became a British protectorate, leading to a prolonged period of British influence over Egyptian affairs. [Wikipedia]

    Imperialism/colonialism; History (general); Egypt
    1882 - 1883 Bahá'í books were published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo by the Násirí Press. The Bombay publishing house was run by Mírzá Ibrahím (a son of Hájí Abu'l-Qásim, the brother of the wife of the Báb) [GPB195; SA250; Momen-Jamal Effendi] Publishing; * Publications; - First publications; Business; Mumbai, India; India; Cairo, Egypt; Egypt First time Bahá'í books published in Bombay and Cairo
    1882 20 Jan The Lawh-i-Maqsúd (The Goal, The Desired One) was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. [MMG131-135; Lawh-i-Maqsúd: Letter from the Universal House of Justice; excerpt from Juan Cole's Modernity and Millennium]
  • The Tablet was apparently written in response to two letters received by Bahá'u'lláh from one of His followers by the name of Mirza Maqsud, a poet, who was at that time residing in Damascus and Jerusalem. It is among those writings that Shoghi Effendi has referred to as His "most noteworthy" works written after the Kitab-i-Aqdas. [BBS166]

    He said in part:

      Every word of thy poetry is indeed like unto a mirror in which the evidences of the devotion and love thou cherishest for God and His chosen ones are reflected. Well is it with thee who hast quaffed the choice wine of utterance and partaken of the soft flowing stream of true knowledge. Happy is he who hath drunk his fill and attained unto Him and woe betide the heedless. Its perusal hath truly proved highly impressive, for it was indicative of both the light of reunion and the fire of separation. [Compilation on Writers and Writing para 6; TB175-176]
  • The Tablet has been published in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1997, pages 159-178.
  • See Tablet of Maqsúd (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Guidance on Human Nature and Leadership by Ramin Neshati.
  • Leiden List says it was revealed December 31st, 1881.
  • Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel
    1882 (In the year) Ibn-i-Asdaq was given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad); Names and titles
    1882 (In the year) Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18p383] Varqá, Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Varqa; Yazd, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1881 24 Mar Mírzá Yahyá was granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
  • He asked for British citizenship or protection so that he might return to Iran or Turkey in safety but was denied so stayed on in Cyprus for the rest of his life with a pension of 1193 pias/month from the British government. [BBR311]
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Famagusta, Cyprus; Cyprus
    1881 - 1882 A nephew of the wife of the Báb, Mirza Ibrahim, resided in Hong Kong. [Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 4min5 sec] China; Hong Kong; Hong Kong; China
    1881 (In the year) Michele Lessona (b. 20 September 1923 in Turin Italy, d. 20 July 1894 in Turin) was a writer, a philosopher, an explorer and an educator as well as a medical doctor. He was also a prominent scientist who had translated Darwin and went on to influence generations of Italian scientists.

    In 1862 he had been appointed physician to the diplomatic delegation sent to Persia to establish relations between the newly created Kingdom of Italy and the Persian government. There in Tabriz, Lessona met Daud Khan, who told him about the new Revelation. He met often with Gobineau, who had then become the French Ambassador to Persia and the two became lifelong friends. Most of Lessona's information on the Bábi Faith came from these two sources, especially the latter. He found it difficult to get any first-hand information about the Babis, but did recognize, in 1962, that the successor to the Báb was living in Baghdad.

    Lessona organized two-part conference on the Bábi movement that was held in December of 1880. The following year he published the proceedings of the conference in a small monograph called I Bábi. It was the first Italian historical testimony on the Bábí - Bahá'í Faith. [Bahá'í Tributes; Bahá'í Teachings; BW12p900]

    Michele Lessona; Comte de Gobineau; Bábísm; Turin; Italy; Tabríz, Iran; Iran first Italian historical testimony on the Bábí - Bahá'í Faith.
    1881 (In the year) The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; 'Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.

    Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son's cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith

  • Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
  • The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu'l-Mu'minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu'dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá'u'lláh referred to her as "Khayru'n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
  • In Memoriam; Fatimih Bagum; Báb, Life of (chronology); Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
  • See Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan by Moojan Momen.
  • Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); - Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Hájí Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Hájí Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths (bathhouses); Akka, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1881 (In the year) The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden were purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden were brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
  • Ridvan garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; - Bahá'í World Centre; Akka, Israel
    1880 15 Aug Mishkín-Qalam addressed a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
  • See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
  • Mishkin-Qalam; Cyprus
    1880 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joined Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
  • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Druze; Yirkih, Israel; Palestine
    1880 (In the year) The first pioneer to Ishqabad was Jináb-I Mírzá 'Abdul'l-Karím-i Ardavílí who settled there in 1880.

    At about this time, there erupted in Iran a general persecution of the Baha'is that affected most of the country, in particular Tehran, Yazd, Isfahan, Sabzivar, Fars and Rasht. With the approval of Bahá'u'lláh the Bahá'ís began to settle in Ishqabad.

    In about 1884, the first four Baha'is to settle permanently in Ashkhabad arrived there. Two of these arrived from Sabzivar, Aqa 'Abdu'r-Rasul Yazdi and Aqa Muhammad Rida Arbab Isfahani. On 3 April 1884, two other Bahá'ís arrived, Ustad `Ali Akbar and Ustad Muhammad Rida, both builders from Yazd. [The Baha'i Community Of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis And Importance In Baha'i History by Mojan Momen p281-282]

    The Bahá'í community of Ishqabad, because of the continuous influx of pioneers from Iran (most from Yazd), soon grew to the point of saturation resulting in the friends choosing to pioneer to other parts of Turkestan. They first settled in larger cities, such as Marv, Chardzhou, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and later when to smaller places. Soon there were Bahá'ís all over Turkestand, from Tashkent to the far corners of the Caspian Sea [YS pg.xvi]

    Ashgabat; Turkmenistan
    1889 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh instructed Jamal Effendi, a Persian scholar of noble birth and high rank, to proceed to India and acquaint its people with the Bahá'í teachings. He arrived in Bombay in 1872, (sources differ on the date), and proceeded to travel throughout the country. Despite the language difficulty he managed to convey the teachings to many distinguished people. Jamal Effendi's vast knowledge, eloquent tongue and unfailing courtesy attracted many persons to him, and he was the guest of a number of prominent Indians of high standing. At innumerable meetings and discussions Jamal Effendi outlined Bahá'u'lláh's teachings for the upliftment of mankind and many recognized the truth of his words and embraced the Cause. It was not until 1880 that Jamal Effendi's strenuous efforts produced permanent results. In that year the first Bahá'í group was formed at Bombay and from there the Faith spread rapidly to Poona, Calcutta, Karachi and Delhi where Local Spiritual Assemblies were eventually established. [BW18p246] Jamal Effendi; Mumbai, India; Pune, India; Kolkata, India; New Delhi, India; India; Karachi, Pakistan; Pakistan first Bahai group in India; first Bahai group in Bombay.
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís were thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, was sent to Tihrán and was strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Sultanabad, India; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1880 Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians became Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67; RoB3p268]
  • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93. The revelation of Lawh-i-Haft Pursish (Tablet of Seven Questions) (Date unknown) in answer to the questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Ustád Javán-Mard, the Secretary of the Council of Zoroastrians of Yazd. [RoB3p272]
  • See the Tablet of Seven Questions as translated by Shahriar Razavi.
  • Zoroastrianism; Conversion; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Haft Pursish; Tablet of Seven Questions; Ustad Javan-Mard; Yazd, Iran; Iran First Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís

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