Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

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Date 187-, descending sort earliest first

date event tags firsts
1879 or 1880 Birth of Túbá Khánum, second daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH93, 95, ABMM] Tuba Khanum; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Family of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Births and deaths; Akka, Israel
1879 Nov 30 Birth of Laura Clifford Barney (Laura Dreyfus-Barney) in Cincinnati, Ohio. She compiled Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acca between 1904 and 1906. (d. Paris 18 August 1974) Some Answered Questions (book); Laura Clifford Barney; Births and deaths; Cincinnati, OH; Ohio, USA; USA
1879 Sep Bahá'u'lláh moved to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]

Note: The date of Bahá'u'lláh's first arrival at the Mansion of Bahji is given as September 1879 in Bahá'u'lláh: The King of Glory, p. 362. However, in a Tablet dated 11 Rabí`u'l-Avval 1298 A.H. [11 February 1881], Bahá'u'lláh tells Núri'd- Dín that it had been only a month since He arrived at the Mansion; see Núri'd- Dín's Collection, p. 43. [Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán p32]

  • Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, Zia'u'llah (Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh) and their mother Mahd-i-'Ulyá along with Gawhar and her daughter, Furúghíyyih Khánum, stayed at Bahji with Bahá'u'lláh. 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His mother, Khadíjih Khánum, and His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum as well as and His own family continued to live in 'Akká.
  • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahji); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Mazraih, Iran; Bahji, Israel
    1879 20 Jun Mishkín-Qalam was given permission to move from Famagusta to Nicosia. [BBR307] Mishkin-Qalam; Famagusta, Cyprus; Nicosia, Cyprus; Cyprus
    1879 Summer An epidemic of plague broke out in `Akká and environs. Among others who felt its effects were `Údí Khammár and his family who left the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] Udi Khammar; Bahji, Israel; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahji); Akka, Israel
    1879 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá), and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
  • Their martyrdom was instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum'ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owed the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounced the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratified the decision. [GPB201]
  • The brothers were put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
  • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
  • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
  • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
  • See ARG171-173.
  • Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá) was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Sultanush-Shuhada; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1879 12 Mar The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130] Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
    1879 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
  • Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá met in Beirut were Midhat Páshá and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
  • Midhat Páshá; Muhammad Abduh; Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba (Tablet of the Land of Ba); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Beirut, Lebanon; Lebanon; Egypt
    c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. She was buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Sarih Khanum; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1878 12 Jul The British government took over the administration of Cyprus. [BBR306] History (general); British history; Imperialism/colonialism; Cyprus
    1878 19 Feb Birth of George Adam Benke, German-Russian Bahá'í, who after his death was named by Shoghi Effendi as the first European Bahá'í martyr, in the Ukraine. [BW5:416–18] George Adam Benke; Births and deaths; Ukraine First European Bahá'í martyr
    1878 (In the year) Although He was still a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire, 'Abdu'l-Bahá was allowed to travel to Beirut, Lebanon at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, a brilliant statesman and liberal reformer. In Beirut, He met many of the notables of the Arab world.

    At this time Bahá'u'lláh revealed Lawḥ-i-'Arḍ-i-Bá (Tablet of the Land of Bá). [WOBp136; ABp38]

    Conflict:"The Extraordinary Life of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" Slide 40/114 says the visit to Beirut took place in June of 1880.

    * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Beirut, Lebanon; Lebanon
    1878 (In the year) Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrived in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
  • He married into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settled in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
  • See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
  • See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
  • See RoB4p181-182.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
  • Mustafá Rúmí and Daidanaw are mentioned in the film Exemplar (18:50-20:20). 'Abdu'l-Bahá called Daidanaw "My village".
  • See Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes: The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia by Jelle de Vries.
  • Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; - Hands of the Cause; Firsts, other; Exemplar (film); Daidanaw, Myanmar; Myanmar First all-Bahá'í village outside Iran
    1878 (In the year) It was not until 1878 that the Baha'is of Tehran received copies of the Kitab-i Aqdas and began to implement some of its laws in their personal lives. Upon reading it Mirza Asadu'llah Isfahani was particularly struck by the command of Bahá'u'lláh that a House of Justice should be established by the Baha'is in every city.

    Mirza Asadu'llah was the first to undertake the organization of a local House of Justice in Iran. He took the initiative to invite eight other prominent believers to form a body, responding to the laws of the Kitáb-i Aqdas , which they referred to as bayt al-'adl (House of Justice) or bayt al-a'zam (the Most Great House).

    The organization of this first House of Justice was kept a secret, even from the believers. However, it met sporadically in the home of Mirza Asadu'llah for a couple of years. After consulting with this body, the prominent Bahá'í men who had been invited to attend its meetings would seek to take action as individual Bahá'í teachers that would implement its decisions.

    Around 1881, the Tehran House of Justice was reorganized and more members were added. The House adopted a written constitution and pursued its activities with more organization and vigour than before. The constitution mandated, however, that the meetings remain strictly confidential, hidden from the body of the believers. [The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

    Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Mírzá Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Tehran, Iran; Iran first Local Spiritual Assembly
    1878 to 1881 The law of the Huqúqu'lláh was put into practice because the work of teaching the Cause began to expand in Persia and in neighbouring countries and there was a need for funds but Bahá'u'lláh put restrictions on its collection. [ESW56]
  • The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
  • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
  • See SABF47-48 for the story of the lost coin given as a donation by a very poor woman.
  • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
  • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
  • Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hájí Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Báb, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, other; Iran; Yazd, Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Tehran, Iran The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh
    1877 Dec Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í was executed in Isfahán. [BBR273–4; BW18:383] Mulla Kazim-i-Talkhunchii; Isfahan, Iran
    1877 (Near the end of the year) Conversion of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí in Calcutta, while he was travelling with Jamál Effendi. [RSLG] Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; Kolkata, India; India
    1877 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Siegfried Schopflocher; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Fürth, Germany; Bavaria, Germany; Germany
    1877 Sep Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí was executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383] Hájí `Abdu'l-Majid-i-Nishapuri; Persecution, Iran; Mashhad, Iran; Iran
    1877 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh took up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
  • It took the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
  • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
  • Bahá'u'lláh resided there for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continued to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
  • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
  • Also see DH8994.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Mazraih); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Akka, Israel
    1868-1873 See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1868-1877 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel
    1877 Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
  • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
  • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
  • See RoB4p15 for the Tablet He revealed. Adib Taherzadeh made the following comment:
      "A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh revealed there and translated into English hangs on the wall of that room today. Its perusal enables the reader to see how much Bahá'u'lláh enjoyed the Garden and how much He loved the beauty of nature. ... Rádíyih, who is mentioned in this Tablet, was a sister of Munírih Khánum, the wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The dinner was given on behalf of her husband who was not present at the time. He was her cousin Siyyid 'Alí, the only son of Mírzá Hádí, a distinguished Bábí, and the illustrious Shams-i-Duhá."
    (More about Shams-i-Duhá can be found in Memorials of the Faithful p175.
  • The Tablet can also be found on Bahai-Library where it was named Tablet of the Garden of Ridván (Lawh-i-Bágh-i-Ridván). Note that the name was not applied to this Tablet in RoB4p15-16 from where it was copied.
  • The gathering in the Ridván Garden was held in honour of Siyyid Àlí, son of Mírzá Hádí and Shams-i-Duhá. He was not in attendance but was represented by his wife, Rádíyih.
  • Ridvan garden; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Gardens; Firsts, other; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Radiyih (sister of Munirih Khanum); Akka, Israel First visit of Bahá'u'lláh to Ridván Garden outside `Akká
    1877 Spring `Abdu'l-Bahá held a banquet for the notables of `Akká in a pine grove near Bahjí. [BKG358; DH54, 87]
  • He received permission from its Christian owner, Jirjis al-Jamál. [DH54]
  • The acceptance of the invitation by the notables signalled the fact that the firmán of `Abdu'l-`Azíz, though still in force, was a dead letter. [DH54; GPB193]
  • Firmans; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Bahji, Israel
    1877 – 1878 As a result of the war between Russia and Turkey some 11 million people were freed from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople was occupied by the Russian ally, Bulgaria. The Ottoman enemies were brought to the gates of Istanbul. [BKG262; GPB225]
    • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
    War; History (general); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Plevna; Turkey; Russia
    c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Mazraih); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Akka, Israel
    1876 31 Aug Deposition of Murád V followed by the accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II to the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, upon which the banishment decree of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz for Bahá'u'lláh was relaxed. Murad V; `Abdu'l-Hamid II; - Sultan; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1876 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. George Townshend; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Dublin, Ireland; Ireland
    1876 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either committed suicide or was assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
  • Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. [RB3:87]
    • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of this Tablet.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
  • See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
  • Sultán `Abdu'l-Azíz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Sháh; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); History (general); Prophecies; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1876 30 May Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz was deposed. He had ruled from 1861. [BBR485] Sultán `Abdu'l-Azíz; - Sultans; History (general); Ottoman Empire; Turkey
    1876 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Keith Ransom-Kehler; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, other; Kentucky, USA; USA First American Bahá'í martyr
    1876 (In the year) The conversion of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání, a leading clerical philosopher. [BBRSM88; EB264]
  • See EB263–5 for details of his life.
  • See BKG262 for details of his conversion.
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; Iran
    1876 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1876 - 1883 The Lawh-i-Aflákiyyih (Tablet of the Universe) was revealed by Àbdu'l-Bahá in Arabic sometime between 1876 and 1883, probably at the request of Bahá'u'lláh. It has been suggested that the recipient was Jináb-i-Mírzá Muḥammad Ḥusayn-i-Munajjim-i-Tafrishí, a devoted early believer and skilled astronomer.

    See Historical Background of the Lawh-i-Aflákíyyih, Tablet of the Universe from the Research Department dated 10 June 2014. The Research Department suggested scholarly works by William Hatcher, Ian Kluge and Steven Phelps might be of interest to the inquirer.

    Other studies on the Tablet on Bahá'í Library Online are:
    * `Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet of the Universe by Harry Liedtke.
    * Bahá'í Ontology, Part One:An Initial Reconnaissance by Ian Kluge. (the PDF).
    * Bahá'í Ontology, Part Two:Further Explorations by Ian Kluge. (the PDF).
    * Bahá'í Teachings on The Universe compiled by Ernie Jones. (the PDF).
    * Minimalism:A Bridge between Classical Philosophy and the Bahá'í Revelation by William Hatcher (the abstract). (the PDF).
    * The Quantum State Function, Platonic Forms, and the Ethereal Substance: Reflections on the Potential of Philosophy to Contribute to the Harmony of Science and Religion by Vahid Ranjbar. (the PDF).

    See also One Physicist's first Look at Abdu'l-Baha's Tablet of the Universe by Vahid Houston Ranjbar.

    * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; Lawh-i-Aflakiyyih (Tablet of the Universe); Science
    1875 Nov British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli borrowed 4 million pounds to acquire the Khedive ́s holding of the Suez Canal shares and secured for Britain 44% control of the Canal. At this time the traffic in the Canal was 80% British. [Wikipedia; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p3] Suez Canal; Egypt
    1875 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Tarazullah Samandari; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Qazvin, Iran; Iran
    1875 21 Jul Birth of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause, in Hawaii.
  • She was a granddaughter of two of Hawaii's most famous missionary families, the Baldwins and the Alexanders.
  • Agnes Alexander; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hawaii, USA
    1875 (In the year) Theosophy was established as a religious philosophical movement in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). It contained elements of Hinduism and Buddhism and held that the purpose of all the religions was to assist humanity toward perfection and that all religions had a portion of the "truth". It has since split into a number of conflicting ideologies. [ABF9note54, Wikipedia (Blavatskian)]
  • The cordial relations between the Theosophical Society and the Bahá'í Faith helped in the spreading of the Faith in the United States, Europe and in South America.
  • Theosophy; Theosophical Society; Helena Blavatsky; Esotericism; Occultism; New York, USA; USA
    1875 (In the year) At the request of Baha'u'lláh,`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote The Mysterious Forces of Civilization, a treatise on the establishment of a just, progressive and divinely-based government. [SDCv; Baha'u'llah on the Circumstances of the Composition of "The Secret of Divine Civilization" a provisional translation of a Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh by Adib Masumian]
  • It was lithographed in Bombay in 1882. It was first published in English under the title The Mysterious Forces of Civilization in London in 1910. [SDCv] It was re-issued in 1918 and later translated as The Secret of Divine Civilization by Marzieh Gail and published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette in 1957.
  • See Marzieh Gail's Summon Up Remembrance pg46-47 for a description of Persia at the time. The nation was ostensibly ruled by a self-serving monarch who had little regard for the county or its people. The government administered the chessboard where Russia and England played out their competing imperialistic designs to increase their respective spheres of influence. Through bribery and intrigue, they contended to raise up ministers who would do their bidding. They thwarted the progress of the nation by manipulating the clergy to oppose any Western ideas, threatening that such would threaten Islam. If required these measures were supplemented with the bribery of the ulamas, accepted eagerly either for their personal gain or for contributions to their communities. Thus Iranians were kept divided, deprived, and ignorant; all the better to exploit them. [SUR62]
  • Shoghi Effendi called The Secret of Divine Civilization "`Abdu'l-Bahá's outstanding contribution to the future reorganization of the world". [WOB37]
  • See the English translation of the message of the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Iran dated 26 November 2003 in which they make reference to this book.
  • See a comment about the book.
  • Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Publishing; * Publications; - First publications; Corruption; Reform; Iran, General history; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Adib Masumian; Akka, Israel; Mumbai, India; India; Iran
    1875 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá rented a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]
  • See DH95 for its situation.
  • This garden on the river Na`mayn was later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
  • Ridvan garden; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Gardens; Akka, Israel
    1875 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh sent Sulaymán Khán Ilyás, Jamál Effendi, to India. [BW4:285; GPB195; MC155]
  • See EB120–1, 122–8 and MF134–8.
  • BBRSM90, 193 say he was sent in 1871 and left in 1878. BW18p246 says he arrived in 1872. EB122 says he reached Bombay in 1878 and stayed 11 years on the subcontinent.
  • His work helped establish Bahá'í communities in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras as well as in Burma. [BBRSM91; GPB225]
  • See Momen-Jamal Effendi for a map of his travels in India (1876-1879) and South-east Asia (1884-1886) as well as to Central Asia 1888-1896.
  • Among those he taught was Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, who later found the Bahá'í community of Burma. [BW10:517] iiiii
  • Sulayman Khan Ilyas; Jamal Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Mumbai, India; Kolkata, India; Chennai, India; India; Myanmar first..
    1875 (In the year) The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís were imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Sidih, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1875 (In the year) Ḥakím Áqá Ján was the first Jewish believer from Hamadán. Given his position of leadership in the Jewish community, his acceptance of the Cause guided countless other Jews of Hamadán to do the same. He was convinced of the truth of the Faith after attending the talks of Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Aṣdaq who had come from Khurásán to Hamadán and would hold gatherings for teaching the Cause.

    The wife of Ḥakím Áqá Ján, Ṭúṭí Khánum, was a deeply faithful believer and his son, Mírzá Mihdí Khán, a doctor of medicine like his father, became the personal physician of Náṣiri'd-Dín Sháh.

    In 1881, on his deathbed, Ḥakím Áqá Ján was reported to have seen Bahá'u'lláh standing in his room although He was in the Holy Land. In a tablet addressed to his son after his passing, Bahá'u'lláh said that He was with him at the moment of his ascension. [An Account of the Life of Ḥakím Áqá Ján translated by Adobe Masumian]

    For more information on the enrolment of Persian Jews see Jewish Identities in Iran: Resistance and Conversion to Islam and the Baha'i Faith by Mehrdad Amanat as well as Arsalan Geula's Iranian Bahá'ís from Jewish Background: A Portrait of an Emerging Bahá'í Community.]

    Jews; Hamadán, Iran; Iran the first Jewish believer from Hamadán.
    1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Montreal, QC; Canada
    1874 9 Oct Headquartered in Bern, Switzerland, the General Postal Union was established when 22 countries signed the Treaty of Bern on this day in 1874. The organization was formed with the intent of unifying the multitude of international postal services into a single postal territory and establishing regulations for international mail exchanges. In 1878, the group's name was changed to the Universal Postal Union to reflect its fast-growing global membership. Today, the UPU has expanded to 192 member countries and not only sets the guidelines for international mail exchanges, but also serves to advise, mediate, and act as a liaison in postal matters, making recommendations for growth and providing technical assistance as needed.

    The Universal Postal Congress it held every four years. The 28th Universal Postal Congress will be held in 2025 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Four Extraordinary Congresses have been held to date. The last one was held in Saudi Arabia in 2023 to examine proposals associated with the further opening up of the Union to wider postal sector players, as well as other urgent postal sector issues.

    The Universal Postal Union became a specialized agency of the United Nations on 1 July 1948. As such, the UPU contributes to the development of UN policies and activities that have a direct link with its mandate and missions to promote social and economic development.is the world's second oldest international organization. [UPU website]

    United Nations; International relations; International Standards; Bern, Switzerland; Switzerland; Dubai, United Arab Emirates
    1874 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Louis G. Gregory; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; South Carolina, USA; USA
    1874 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Esslemont; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Aberdeen, Scotland; Scotland; United Kingdom
    1874 8 May The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]

    Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís began. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]

  • This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
  • See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
  • For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
  • Sultan-Masud Mírzá; - Governors; Zillus-Sultan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1874 Apr Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf, has 20 or more Bahá'ís arrested in Isfahán. [BW18:383] Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1874 - 1875 The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in around 1800, the son of a cleric, he furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas ('the holy one').
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished. He, together with Quddús and Mullá Alí Akbar'-i-Ardistání, were the first three Bábís known to suffer persecution for the Faith on Persian soil.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábis and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • 'Abdu'l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]

    Note: Other sources fix his passing, EB23 and LoF32: 1889, but Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project had determine his passing as 1291 A.H or 1874-1875. The source is a letter from the Research Department dated 25 July 2005.

  • In Memoriam; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by `Abdu'l-Bahá; Hamadán, Iran; Iran
    1873 or 1874 Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) was written by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká and addressed to Mulla Muhammad-'Alí (Nabíl-i-Qa'iní), a former mujtahid in the Ithna 'Ashari sect of Shi'i Islam and a distinguished Bahá'í scholar and teacher. In this Tablet, Bahá'u'lláh elaborated His teachings on many themes, including the origins and development of "hikmat-i-iláhí" (divine philosophy), discussing a number of philosophers, including the Father of Philosophy (Idris/Hermes), Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana), Empedocles, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Pliny. As well He explained the influence of the Word of God and the cause and origin of creation and of nature.
  • Ethel Rosenberg questioned 'Abdu'l-Bahá about the fact that Bahá'u'lláh's account of the Greek philosophers differed from historical documents. He answered in a lengthy letter which was translated into Persian and given wide distribution. It became known as the Rosenberg Tablet. [EJR78-81; A Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by the Bahá'í World Centre.]
  • A copy of the Tablet of Wisdom with numbered paragraphs is available here.
  • See Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) by Stephen Ramo.
  • Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); - Philosophy; Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Ethel Rosenberg; Akka, Israel
    1873 (Latter part of the year) The existence of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248] Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Akka, Israel
    1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquired the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moved to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • He lived here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Akka, Israel
    1873 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. - Hands of the Cause; Amelia Collins; Births and deaths; Pittsburgh, PA; Pennsylvania, USA; USA
    1873 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; - Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Births and deaths; Paris, France; France First French Bahá'í
    1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
  • DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
  • See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
  • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
  • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
  • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
  • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
  • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Weddings; Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mírzá Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mírzá Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mírzá Jalal; Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Munavvar Khanum; Mírzá Ahmad; Genealogy; - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Akka, Israel
    1873 1 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden. Lawh-i-Ruya (Tablet of the Vision); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Maid of Heaven; Akka, Israel
    1873 c. Mar Ilyás `Abbúd offers to provide a room in his house for `Abdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum after their marriage. He furnished a room, opened a doorway into it through the dividing wall and presented it to Bahá'u'lláh for `Abdu'l-Bahá's use. [BKG348; DH45] Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Munirih Khanum
    1873 (In the year) The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in 1848 in the Persian Bayán (chapter 19 of unit 5), was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • When Bahá'u'lláh revealed The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, He ordered it not to be released for a while. The reason for this He states in a Tablet was because it contained the law of Ḥuqúq, and He worried that the friends may not obey it, or even worse, may come to the wrong conclusions. The very thought that some people, in their immaturity, might possibly assume that the Ḥuqúq was intended for Bahá'u'lláh's personal use was extremely painful to Him. [Huqúqu'lláh The Right of God Study Guide by Firaydoun Javaheri 2015 p8]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá'u'lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá'ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu'lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá'í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
  • Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitáb-i-Aqdas); Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 (In the year) The revelation of the obligatory prayers.

    "Many of the laws of the Báb...are carefully designed in a way that testifies that the advent of Him Whom God shall make manifest was impending....The Báb never revealed the words of the (obligatory) prayer itself, thus making the implementation of this law dependent on the arrival of the Promised One." [GH366]

    The original Bahá'í obligatory prayer, mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, involved nine cycles of movement starting with a bow (rak`ah) and was to be said morning, noon, and afternoon. It probably called for three rak`ahs at each time. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. (This prayer was one of the documents in the cases taken by `Abdu'l-Bahá's brothers shortly after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.) Some time later, after the writing of the Kitab-i-Aqdas but before that of its supplement Questions and Answers, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a second set of obligatory prayers which are in use today. Three alternative forms were provided: a very short prayer to be said between noon and sunset; a somewhat longer prayer to be said in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening; and a long prayer to be said once during twenty-four hours. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]

  • See Entering into Obligatory Prayer: Introduction and Commentary by Ismael Velasco.
  • See as well the message from the Universal House of Justice message of 28 November 2000 with commentary from Ismael Vlasco, Peter Terry and Michael Sours.
  • Obligatory prayer; Prayer; Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitáb-i-Aqdas); Laws
    1873 Early part Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248; BBS145]
  • See A Description of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas by Shoghi Effendi.
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); - Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws; Akka, Israel
    1873 (In the year) Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) became Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
  • His governorship lasted two years. [BKG337]
  • This `sagacious and humane governor' met `Abdu'l-Bahá and was greatly impressed by Him. The governor perused some of the writings, which also impressed him. [BKG334; GPB191]
  • In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion was made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
  • See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
  • See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
  • Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); - Mutasarrifs; - Governors; Akka, Israel
    1873 - 1892 During this period Bahá'u'lláh's Writings pertained to the establishment of the new world order. * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel
    1873 (In the year) Ibn-i-Abhar was arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for 14 months and 15 days. [BW18:383] Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1872 Early 1870's The Arabic and Persian text of Bahá'u'lláh's 'Tablet of Medicine' (Lawh-i-Tibb) is to be dated to the early 'Akká period of his ministry (early 1870s?). It was addressed to a Bahá'í named Mírzá Muhammad Ridá'-yi Tabib-i Yazdí, a physician of the traditional school.
  • The text was first published in Cairo in the early 1920s and is in two parts: [1] an Arabic part which largely revolves around the subject of medical treatment and [2] a Persian section which sets forth admonitions to Bahá'ís, designed to increase their level of wisdom, devotion and service.
  • The Tablet ends with the revelation of the celebrated Healing Prayer which was translated by Shoghi Effendi. [RoB3p358-360; GWB-CLXX]
  • See "Tablet of Medicine", a talk by Dr Vahid Rafai.
  • See Tablet of Medicine for a partial translation.
  • See Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet of Medicine) by Stephen Lambden.
  • See The Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet to the Physician): Beyond Health Maxims by Misagh Ziaei.
      About: The Lawh-i-Tibb is a well-known, oft-referenced tablet by Bahá'u'lláh and one of the few explicitly related to medicine and healing. While the health maxims contained in it are often the focus of popular interest, relatively little attention has been paid to other aspects of the tablet. Complicating the study of this important work is the lack of an authorized English translation. This paper, drawing on provisional translations, focuses on the tablet's historical context, its paradigms for the study and practice of medicine, its description of the ideal characteristics of a physician, and its foreshadowing of the evolution of medical science.
  • "Some rules for health" was published in Star of the West Vol 13 No 9 December 1922 and another reference was made in the Star of the West Vol 21 No 5 August 1930 p160.
  • For additional information on the Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet to a Physician) see this search on Bahá'í Library Online.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet to a Physician); Akka, Israel; USA
    1872 Last months Munírih Khánum arrived in `Akká. She stayed in the house of Mírzá Músá for five months. [MKBM44]
  • Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
  • Munirih Khanum; Mírzá Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Akka, Israel
    1872 22 Nov Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died. [BBR306]
  • He had begun his service to Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and was a member of the entourage that accompanied Him to Constantinople in 1863 and further served in His household in Adrianople. See FOIp9-12 for a brief description of his service.
  • This left Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
  • Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mishkin-Qalam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cyprus exiles; Cyprus
    1872 Oct The Reverend James Huber, a missionary from the Church Missionary Society of Germany stationed in Nazareth, in the company of Georg David Hardegg of the Templer settlement in Haifa, tried to pay a visit to Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. They were unable to do so due to the fact that He was under police guard at the time. The two men were, however, received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBH1p218] James Huber; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Akka, Israel
    1872 25 Jul The Baron de Reuter concession in 1872 was a significant agreement between the government of Persia and a British financier named Julius de Reuter. This concession, sometimes referred to as the Reuter Concession, granted exclusive rights to de Reuter for the construction of a telegraph line that would connect Tehran to the western border with the Ottoman Empire and the right to explore and to exploit various natural resources, including mines and forests, along the proposed telegraph route.

    The concession met with controversy and criticism and became a symbol of the encroachment of European powers and their control over Iran's resources and infrastructure. This lead to the re-negotiation of the contract and the terms of the concession were revised to be somewhat less favourable to the concessionaire. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p3; Wikipedia]

    Imperialism/colonialism; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1872 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Martha Root; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Richmond, BC; Ohio, USA; USA
    1872 31 May Birth of Thomas Breakwell, considered the first English Bahá'í, in Woking, Surrey, England.
  • In fact Ethel Rosenberg declared two years before him.
  • The very first in England was probably Marion Miller who became a Bahá'í in 1894 in Chicago and came to England in 1895. Marion Miller taught the faith to her aunt, Miss M. Brown of Bushey in Hertfordshire, who converted in 1896 or 97. Miss Miller later left the Faith and no-one knows what became of Miss Brown. [BBC Religions]
  • Thomas Breakwell; Births and deaths; Ethel Rosenberg; Marion Miller; Woking, England; Surrey, BC; United Kingdom First English Bahá'í
    1872 22 Jan Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr'ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka'j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá'u'lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
  • Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the "Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation." He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá'u'lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá'u'lláh to 'Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá'u'lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:

    A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá'u'lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.

    The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá'u'lláh's indignation knew no bounds. "Were We," He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, "to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble." "My captivity," He wrote on another occasion, "cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan." [GPB189-190]

  • The Lawh-i Istintaq ("Tablet of the Interrogation") was revealed.
  • Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Bábís; Ustad Muhammad-`Alí Salmáni; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Akka, Israel
    1872 (In the year) Birth of Joseph H. Hannen, a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Joseph Hannen; Births and deaths
    c. 1872 Bahá'u'lláh tasked Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She traveled from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stayed with the wife of the Báb then went to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she traveled to `Akká. [MKBM26-44; RoB2p384-386]
  • DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land from December 1871 to January 1872.
  • BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
  • Munirih Khanum; Shaykh Salman; Isfahan, Iran; Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Akka, Israel
    1872 (In the year) Restoration of the House of the Báb began at the request of Khadíjih Bigum with the permission and the financial support of Bahá'u'lláh. She requested that the House not be restored to its original configuration to avoid painful memories. Therefore, substantial changes were made to the structure of the House. These included making two of the rooms part of the expanded courtyard and moving the small pool.
  • After these changes were made, Khadíjih Bagum took up residence in the Blessed House. She lived there for the next nine years, until her passing in October 1882. [EB232; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p93 by A. Rabbani; MBBA172]
  • To protect the House further, a small house next to it on the eastern wall was bought. It belonged to a certain Hájí Muhammad- Ja`far-i-Hadíd. The elders of the Afnán family asked Hájí Mírzá `Abdu'l-Hamid to live there. He was one of the early believers in the Báb and married to the daughter of Hujjat-i-Zanjani. From the first day Hujjat's daughter arrived in Shiraz, she was a close companion of Khadíjih Bagum, who had a particular affinity for the families of the Bábí martyrs. An underground passageway was constructed connecting the two homes. It was used as the main entrance for the House of the Báb so that the neighborhood would not take notice of the occupants. [MBBA171-172]
  • After her ascension, as instructed by Bahá'u'lláh, her sister, Zahra Bagum, moved her residence to the Sanctified House. She lived there until her passing in 1891. [MBBA172]

    Note: During the early days of the Afnán family, there was considerable competition within certain quarters of the family over the House of the Báb. On several occasions, the issue was brought to Bahá'u'lláh. He consistently reaffirmed the hereditary custodianship of Zahra Bagum and her descendants. By the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá's Ministry, only a few family members questioned the custodianship rights. However, to ensure complete unity, the Master reaffirmed the hereditary right of Núri'd-Dín and, thereafter, Mírzá Habíb. Before his passing, Mírzá Habíb passed the custodianship to his oldest son, Abú'l-Qásim Afnán. [MBBA115n165]

  • Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Báb); Báb, House of (Shiraz); Restoration; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1871 End of the year Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet) while living in the house of Udi Khammer. It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid Alí-Akbar-i-Dahájí. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh stated that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31]
  • See RoB2 p.274-275 for a description of Siyyid Alí-Akbar-i-Dahájí.
  • For more information see Tablet Study Outline by Jonah Winters.
  • Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Hájí Siyyid `Alí-Akbar-i-Dahájí; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Akka, Israel
    1871 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Banner of the Cause (Líva), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West near Hume, New York. [AB67]
  • Lua is accredited with bringing such notables as May Ellis Bolles and Mrs Phoebe Hearst into the Faith. [AB67]
  • May Maxwell (Bolles); Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; - Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; Births and deaths; Hume, NY; USA
    1871 16 Oct The famous British writer and critic, Matthew Arnold, made a brief reference to the Faith in an address that he gave to the Birmingham and Midland Institute. (See M. Momen, Babi and Bahá'í Religions). This reference was probably because of Comte de Gobineau's book Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale which was published in 1865. [First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK] Matthew Arnold; Comte de Gobineau; Mentions; Bábísm, Early Western Accounts of; Birmingham, England; United Kingdom first public mention of the Faith in England
    1871 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house was so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions took up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
    • More information on the Khán-i-`Avámíd that became the first Pilgrim House and eventually a Bahá'í School.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Pilgrim Houses; Akka, Israel first pilgrim house.
    1871 4 Aug Shaykh `Alíy-i-Sayyáh, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died, allegedly of poisoning. [BBR306, FOI,Forward]
  • Subsequently Mishkín-Qalam married the widow of Sayyáh. [BBR 306, FOIp24]
  • Born Mulla Adi Guzal, a trustee and courier of The Báb during the days of Mah-Ku and Chiriq. He visited the Fort of Shaykh Tabarsi (Mazindaran) at the request and on behalf of the Báb carrying His Tablet of Visitation for the martyrs of Fort Shaykh Tabarsi. [from Anita Graves, National Bahá'í Archivist Cyprus]
  • He was one of the four Exiles ordered to Famagusta by the Ottoman Sultan at the time that Baha'u'llah was exiled to 'Akka. These four Exiles, including Mishkin-Qalam, arrived in Famagusta on 5 September 1868. [from Anita Graves, National Bahá'í Archivist Cyprus]
  • Shaykh Aliy-i-Sayyah; Mishkin-Qalam; Cyprus
    1871 mid-year `Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family moved into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203] Udi Khammar; Bahji, Israel; House of Udi Khammar; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahji); Akka, Israel
    1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasted four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
  • House of Rabiih; Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Akka, Israel
    1871 c. Jan Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasted a few months. [BKG319]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; House of Khavvam; House of Malik; Akka, Israel
    1871 (In the year) Muhammad-Hasan Khán-i-Káshí died in Burújird, Iran, after being bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were executed in Shíráz. [BW18:383]
  • Muhammad-Hasan Khan-i-Kashi; Borujerd, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1870 Oct Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • This occurred approximately four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • The movement of troops required the use of the barracks and the prisoners were shifted to alternative accommodations. 'Abdu'l-Bahá rented a caravanserai (Khán-i-Avamíd) and had it renovated so that it was habitable and ready to accommodate Bahá'í pilgrims when they start arriving. [BKG315; RB3:221; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p78]
  • See PG121 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá describes the first seven years of confinement in 'Akká.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; House of Malik; Akka, Israel
    1870 29 Sep Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effected his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306] Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Cyprus; Akka, Israel
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Franco-Prussian War; War; History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Sedan, France; France; Germany; United Kingdom
    1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
  • Franco-Prussian War; War; History (general); Napoleon III; Germany; France
    1870 Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulated the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attacked the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Pope Pius IX; - Popes; - Christianity; History (general); Rome, Italy; Italy
    1870 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí died from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
  • Shoghi Effendi equate his death with the acts of atonement associated with Abraham's intended sacrifice of His son, with the crucifixion of Christ and with the martyrdom of Imám Husayn. [GPB188]
  • He was interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
  • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
  • Mírzá Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Akka, Israel
    1870 22 Jun Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, fell through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
  • It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
  • He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
  • He was so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
  • Bahá'u'lláh came to him at His bedside and asked His son whether he wished to live; the Purest Branch begged Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepted this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • Mírzá Mihdi (Purest Branch); Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Citadel; Sacrifice; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims; First pilgrims; Akka, Israel
    1870 14 Jan Birth of May (or Mary) Ellis Bolles, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in Englewood, New Jersey. [BFA1p141]
  • At the age of 11 she had a dream in which she experienced a flash of light so bright that blinded her for a day.[BFA1p141]
  • In 1896 she dreamed she saw the earth from space. One word was written on the surface and the only letters she could read were "B" and "H". [BFA1p141]
  • In another dream she saw a vision of a man clothed in Eastern garb who beckoned her from across the Mediterranean. [BFA1p141]
  • May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Dreams and visions; Englewood, NJ; New Jersey, USA; USA
    1870 (In the year) The Winkler Prins is a Dutch encyclopedia, founded by the Dutch poet and clergyman Anthony Winkler Prins (1817-1908) which ran through nine editions. The first was issued from 1870 to 1882 in 16 volumes, and the last, numbering 26 volumes, from 1990 to 1993. This final edition, titled De Grote Winkler Prins (the Great Winkler Prins) is one of the most comprehensive works of its kind published so far in any country, containing more than 200,000 articles and references.

    Prins, himself a trained minister having studied at the Seminar of Mennonites, also championed the cause of reconciliation between science and religion and was what has been termed "a radical pacificist".

    The first edition, while not containing a separate lemma for the Faith, mentions the "Babis" in passing in the article on Persia. From the second edition in 1884, there was mention of the term "Babi" in a quarter-page article. With the publication of each edition, the articles became more informed and for the general public, the Winkler Prins Encyclopedia was probably the most used source of information about the Bahá'í Faith until well after World War II. [Bahaigeschiedenis.nl; Wikipedia]

  • Today an online subscription-based version of the Winkler Prins is available.
  • Encyclopedias; Winkler Prins encyclopedia; Mennonite; Mentions; Netherlands
    1870 (In the year) `Údí Khammár completed the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
  • Udi Khammar; `Abdu'lláh Páshá; Bahji, Israel; Inscriptions; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahji); Restoration; Akka, Israel
    1870 (In the year) In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf was arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He was the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
  • Aqa Siyyid Ashraf; Mir Jalil; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1870 (In the year) Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
  • Nasirid-Din Sháh; Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Iraq; Iran

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