Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

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Date 192-, descending sort earliest first

date event tags firsts
1930 (before) It was reported that there were two Bahá'ís resident in Italy in this year.
  • Mrs. Edith Burr of Florence, made her home a centre for many years.
  • Signora Maria Forni, who lived at Crevenna near Lake Como. was an ardent exponent from the time of her acceptance of the Teachings in 1899, and her social work among children was testimony of her sincere faith. [BN #43 Aug1930 p.8]
Edith Burr; Signora Maria Forni; Crevenna, Italy; Florence, Italy; Italy first Baha'is in Italy
1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí was evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
  • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
  • For details of how the building was left see GBP356.
  • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
  • Covenant-breakers continued to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
  • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See SoW Vol 20 no 4 July 1929 p122 for an account of the observations of Miss Isabel Rives who visited the area at this time.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahji); Covenant-breakers; Bahji, Israel; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; Bahji, Israel
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
  • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
  • The right of the Bahá'ís to the House was upheld and the government of Iraq was strongly pressed to find a solution but the House was not returned to the Bahá'ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
  • See Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); League of Nations; Montfort Mills; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1929 14 Sep The Green Acre Trustees were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Trustees; Green Acre, Eliot, ME; Eliot, ME; Maine, USA; USA
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá'ís opened their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] Haziratul-Quds (Bahá'í centres); London, England; United Kingdom
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sailed from England to Cape Town and proceeded overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
  • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
  • He rode as a passenger with an English hunter through part of East Africa and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
  • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
  • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; United Kingdom; Cape Town, South Africa; South Africa; Cairo, Egypt; Egypt; Africa
    1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrived in Albania, the first Bahá'í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
  • She obtained an audience with King Zog I and was warmly received by him. [MR319]
  • For Martha Root's own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
  • Martha Root; King Zog I; Albania first Bahá’í to visit Albania
    1929 12 Aug Green Acre became a fully fledged Bahá'í summer school when the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada obtained legal title to the property. [BBD91; GAP118; GPB340; SBBH126, Green Acre] Summer schools; Green Acre, Eliot, ME; Eliot, ME; Maine, USA; USA
    1929 summer Shoghi Effendi made plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
  • He cancelled the conference when he perceived that the Bahá'ís would find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
  • Universal House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1929 4 May When the British Mandate in Palestine had been set up, an Order-in-Council had been enacted that allowed each of the recognized religious communities to be administered in all affairs of personal status according to their own religious laws and courts. The Bahá'í community had not, however, been accorded this "recognized" status and was thus compelled to submit to the Muslim Courts. In 1929 Shoghi Effendi asked Mountfort Mills to raise the matter with the authorities and the Bahá'í Community of Haifa formally petitioned the government that the Bahá'í laws on personal status be recognized in Palestine. [BBR459; PP284]
  • Recognition was granted later in the year. [BBR459; DH116; PP284]
  • Recognition (legal); Haifa, Israel; Palestine
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporated as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
  • This enabled the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, to receive bequests and to enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Voluntary Trust; USA
    1929 25 Apr Shoghi Effendi made the sacrifice of a priceless carpet to be sold to contribute to the Mashriqu'lAdhkar Fund. Mr. George Spendlove, a believer exceptionally qualified by expert knowledge and experience was asked to undertake the responsible task of arranging for the sale of this rug. It was valued at some $20,000 "Am sacrificing the most valuable ornament of Baha'u'llah's Shrine in order to consecrate and reinforce the collective endeavors of the American believers speedily to consummate Plan for Unified Action. Appeal for unprecedented self-sacrifice."--Cablegram, April 25, 1929.

    "Soon. shipping silken carpet from Baha'u'llah's Shrine as crowning gift on altar of Bahá'í sacrifice."--Cablegram, April 28, 1929.

    "Moved by an impulse that I could not resist, I have felt impelled to forego what may be regarded as the most valuable and sacred possession in the Holy Land for the furthering of that noble enterprise which you have set your hearts to achieve. With the hearty concurrence of our dear Bahá'í brother, Ziaoullah Asgarzadeh, who years ago donated it to the Most Holy Shrine, this precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh has been already shipped to your shores, with our fondest hope that the proceeds from its sale may at once ennoble and reinforce the unnumbered offerings of the American believers already accumulated on the altar of Bahá'í sacrifice." Letter, October 25, 1929.

    "Shoghi Effendi informs you that the rug can be offered for sale among Baha'is and nonBahá'í alike."-Soheil A/nan, December 12, 1929. [BN No 38 February 1930 insert]

    Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; Funds; Chicago, IL
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relented under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169]
  • See as well Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); League of Nations; King Faisal; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Geneva, Switzerland; Switzerland
    1929 Apr The New History Society was founded in New York by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab along with Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler and his wife Julie as an indirect way of spreading the teachings of the Baha'i Faith. The New History Society gave rise in 1930 to the Caravan of East and West and the Chanler's New York house was henceforth called "Caravan House". This foundation was designed to prepare children and youth to join the New History Society. This group had a quarterly magazine called The Caravan. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134] iiiii Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler; Julie Chanler; Caravan of East and West; Caravan House; The Caravan; New York, USA; USA
    1929 18 Mar The International Bahá'í Bureau was recognized by the League of Nations. [BIC History Timeline] International Bahá'í Bureau; League of Nations; Bahá'í International Community; New York City, NY
    1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389, SETPE1p162-163]
  • See May 1937 for another contribution of $100,000 from the Schopflochers.
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action, US and CA; Funds; Montreal, QC; Canada; Wilmette, IL; USA
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopted the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá'í community to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. They directed the Mandatory Power (Great Britain) to make representations to the government of Iraq with a view of the immediate redress of the injustice suffered by the petitioners (NSA of Iraq). Also, the International Baha'i Bureau was asked by the League's Publishing Bureau for a short historical account that appeared in that same year's publication. [BW3:50-55; BIC History page 18 Mar 1928]
  • For Shoghi Effendi's response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
  • See Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission
  • League of Nations; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Geneva, Switzerland
    1929 27 Feb The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice was to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Bahá'í News p230, 298]
  • In 1929 she published The Bahai Religion and its Enemy, the Bahai Organization and in 1930, an appendix entitled Abdul Baha's Alleged Will is Fraudulent. An appendix to The Bahai Religion and its enemy the Bahai Organization.
  • Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
    1929 14 Feb Work began on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
  • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work. Shoghi Effendi later designed one of the doors to the Shrine as "Báb-i-Qassabchi" in his honour. The remaining two doors were named after Sutherland Maxwell, the architect of the superstructure, and ego Giachery who had served as liaison with the various Italian marble companies involved. The door to the octagon was named after Leroy Ioas who overlooked much of the work on the Shrine. [CEBF320]
  • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
  • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá'í Archives. There was a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
  • Báb, Shrine of; International Bahá'í Archives; Hájí Mahmud Qassabchi; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; - Bahá'í World Centre; Mount Carmel MERGE
    1929 11 Feb William 'Harry' Randall, (b. 1863), passed away in Medford, MA. After his death, Shoghi Effendi named him one of the 19 Disciples of Abdu'l-Baha, a "Herald of the Covenant". [BBD71]
  • For his obituary written by Shoghi Effendi see BW3:213.
  • For his biography see William Henry Randall: Disciple of Abdu'l-Baha by his daughter Bahiyyih Randall-Winckler, with M. R. Garis.
  • William Harry Randall; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Medford, MA; Massachusetts, USA
    1929 (In the year) The passing of Gulsurkh Bagum, given name Fátímíh-Sultán Bagum (b. 1855 Isfahan) [ARG171-186] Gulsurkh Bagum; Fatimih-Sultan Bagum; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1929 (In the year) The publication of Abdul Baha in Egypt by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for the New History Foundation. The publication was approved by the publishing committee of the National Spiritual Assembly. `Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt; Ahmad Sohrab; East Lansing, MI
    1929 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi completed the construction of the building at 10 Haparsim Street, which was designed as a hostel for western pilgrims, and adopted the custom of taking the evening meal with them in the dining room on the lower level. He usually met with the eastern pilgrims in the pilgrim house next to the Shrine of the Báb. [Bahá'í Pilgrimage] Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrim House, Western; Haifa, Israel
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
  • See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
  • See FMH64-65 for the story of how her plans to convince Doris and Willard McKay of her theories were thwarted by the sudden arrival of their two dogs who had had a recent encounter with a skunk.
  • Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of; Palestine; New York, USA; USA
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 12 Apr 1873, Paris, France, d. 20 Dec 1928, Paris, France), Disciple of Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Paris. He was buried in Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris. [UD84–5; BN No 29 January 1929 p2]
  • See Find a grave for a succinct biography.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
  • Shoghi Effendi's letter to his widow.
  • See Biography of Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney by Laura Clifford Barney and Shoghi Effendi, edited by Thomas Linard.
  • Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Paris, France; France
    1928 3 Dec The pronouncement of the verdit of the court in the case of the official inquiry into the activities of the Bahá'í Faith.

    As the result of being mistaken for a secret political society, the members of the Spiritual Assemblies of Constantinople and Smyrna were seized and imprisoned at the police station overnight. After cross–examination for eight consecutive hours by high state officials, they were acquitted and released the following day. The result was that all newspapers carried the story with front page headlines, and the population was made thoroughly aware of the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3 p121; Bahá'í Administration> p151-152; Bahá'í Administration p167-169]

    Persecution, Turkey; Smyrna (İzmir), Turkey; Turkey; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1928 13 Dec The case arising out of the newspaper persecution of the Bahá'ís of Turkey was brought before a criminal tribunal. [PP316]
  • The Bahá'ís were able to make known the history and tenets of the Faith. [PP316–17; UD78–9]
  • Persecution, Turkey; - Persecution; Court cases; Human Rights; Turkey
    1928 Nov It was recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35]
  • See Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); League of Nations; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Geneva, Switzerland
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
  • The right of the Bahá'ís to the House was upheld and the government of Iraq was strongly pressed to find a solution but the House was not returned to the Bahá'ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
  • For Shoghi Effendi's comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
  • The Shí'ís turned the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
  • See Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); League of Nations; Imam Husayn; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá'ís began in Turkey. [BBR474]
  • Several Bahá'ís were arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá'í affairs in Turkey was made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
  • Persecution, Turkey; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Turkey
    1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iraq submitted a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Text of the Petition
  • See Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission.
  • Petitions; League of Nations; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1928 27 Aug The word 'Bahá'í' was registered with the United States Patent Office as a trademark. [BW6:348] United States Patent Office; Copyright and trademarks; USA
    1928 Jul The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45] International peace conferences; Martha Root; - First conferences; The Hague; Netherlands first International Religious Congress for World Peace
    1928 Jun Martha Root visited the parents of Milosh Wurm in Brno. He had been the first to become a Bahá'í in Czechoslovakia and the first to have translated a book into Czech when he was only seventeen years of age. He lost his life in the Great War. [BW3p44, Bahá'í Historical Facts 26 March, 2018] Martha Root; Milosh Wurm; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Brno, Czechoslovakia; Czech Republic first to become a Baha'i in Czechoslovakia; first to translate a book into Czech;
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Hájí Amin (Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani); - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167; BN No 24 June 1928]
  • Elected were Allen Mc Daniel (chair), Alfred Lunt (vice-chair), Horace Holley (secretary), Carl Scheffler (treasurer), Roy Wilhelm, May Maxwell, Louis Gregory, Amelia Collins, and Nellie French. [USBN No 26 September, 1928]
  • See BW2:180 for a picture.
  • See FMH53-54]
  • Conventions, National; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; Firsts, other; Allen McDaniel; Alfred Lunt; Horace Holley; Carl Scheffler; Roy C. Wilhelm; May Maxwell (Bolles); Louis G. Gregory; Amelia Collins; Nellie French; Wilmette, IL; Chicago, IL; USA first time National Convention held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship, Wilmette
    1928 Ridván 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khemiri arrived in Haifa from Tunis. He was the first from that country to make a pilgrimage. [SETPE1p153] Pilgrims; - Bahá'í World Centre; Tunis, Tunisia; Tunisia First pilgrim from Tunisia.
    1928 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (also known as Ismu'lláhu'l-Asdaq of Khurásán), referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran. [EM19]
  • In 1880 he begged Bahá'u'lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him "Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid" ("Martyr, son of the Martyr")."
      Today, the greatest of all deeds is service to the Cause. Souls that are well-assured should with utmost discretion teach the Faith,lll this martyrdom is no confined to the destruction of life and the shedding of blood. A person enjoying the bounty of life may yet be recorded as a martyr in the Book of the Sovereign Lord. [OLOMP46N12]
    • He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the "ruling class" the Faith.
    • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in 'Ishqábád.
    • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. He was one of the few Apostles to live into the time of Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
    • For details of his life see RoB1P92-93; RoB2p 293; RoB3p62-63, 253-260, 265-268; EB2-23; MF5-8; DB100-101, 145-148, 185-187; EB171–6; BW6p103; Bahaipedia; LoF9-12.
    • His daughter, Ruha Asdaq wrote a book about her pilgrimage experiences with her father titled One Life One Memory: Memories of Pilgrimage in 1914. The book was translated to English and published by George Ronald in 1999. For a book review by Paul Mantle.
    • For more details of his life see EB171-176; RoB4p 301-304, Tablets to him RoB4 254, 275, 277, 2966,315-328, Photos RoB4 277-278, 281-286, 292.
  • In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; - Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahá'u'lláh; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Names and titles; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Ishqabad; Tehran, Iran; Mashhad, Iran; Iran
    1928 Apr As part of a general anti-religious campaign launched under Stalin, the Soviet authorities abrogated the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of 'Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the Assembly was dissolved. [BW3:37-43; BW8p88; SETPE1p154; YS2]
  • Bahá'í schools and libraries were closed. [BBRSM173]
  • Not long after, the government ordered that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union were the property of the government and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár locked. As soon as the doors were sealed by the authorities the friends gathered in the surrounds gardens for prayers. They came in far greater numbers that had requested the Temple. Too it was expropriated and later leased back to the Bahá'ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
  • The chairman of the Local Spiritual Assembly, Jináb-i Gulpáygání, as representative for the community, was chosen to go to Moscow to appeal the case where the authorities agreed to remove the seals from the gates making the grounds accessible to the friends. [YS2]
  • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
  • Note: PP364–5 says it was 1929.
  • See The Bahá'í Community of Ashkhabad; Its Social Basis and Importance in Bahá'í History by Moojan Momen.
  • Persecution, Russia; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Ishqabad; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Moojan Momen; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia
    1928 (In the year) In this year there were 579 localities in the world in which Bahá'ís lived, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá'í literature was translated. [BBRSM160–1] National Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics
    1928 Mar (date approximate) In early Spring Louise Gregory sailed for Dresden, Germany where she spent 11 days renewing old acquaintances. [SYH149]
  • Around the beginning of April she went to Prague were she met with Martha Root and spent about 2 weeks. [SYH149]
  • By March or perhaps mid April she was in Sofia installed at the Hotel Union Palace and nourishing her group of about 5 interested persons. Her knowledge of Esperanto was link to her contacts. On the 14th and the 18th of the month there were severe earthquakes near Bulgaria's second city, Plovdiv. The shocks were felt in Sofia so normal activity was suspended temporarily. [SYH149-150]
  • In May, to escape the heat of the summer in Sofia she took refuge the Villa Viktoria in Trenčianske Teplice, a spa town situated in the Carpathian mountains of Slovakia. She stayed there in June, July and most of August. Here she received a great deal of assistance from an attracted soul, Dr Binder and his friend, Mr Schapira. An earthquake in Bulgaria's second city, Plovdiv, upset the country and the teaching work [SYH150-152]
  • On about the 20th of August she made her way to Vienna and spent time with a previous contact. From there she took boat down the Danube on August 26th and arrived in Ruse, Bulgaria on the 30th of August and travelled overland to Sofia where she resumed her work with her study group in mid-September. One of her contacts translated Dr Esslemont's pamphlet "What is the Bahá'í Movement" into Bulgarian and 2000 copies were printed. She held study classes, taught languages, held public meeting and put articles in the local paper to attract interested persons. [SYH155; BN No 31 April 1929 p4]
  • On the 19th of March 1929 she departed Sofia en route to Haifa and her second pilgrimage. It is likely that she took the Simplon Orient Express to Tripoli, Lebanon and then by autobus to Beirut and Haifa. The latter part of the journey was completed by the Nairn Transport Company. [SYH161-165]
  • After her pilgrimage she sailed from Haifa on the SS Asia of the French Fabre Line to Providence, Rhode Island where she arrived on the 13th of May 1929. From their she travelled home to their cottage at Green Acre. During this trip to Europe she had visited Dresden in Germany, had accompanied Martha Root in Prague, Czechoslovakia, spent the summer in Teplice, Czechoslovakia and went back to Sofia before embarking on pilgrimage. [SYH165-166, 241]
  • Louise Gregory; Pilgrimage; Germany; Prague; Czech Republic; Sofia, Bulgaria; Bulgaria; Trencianske Teplice, Slovakia; Slovakia; Vienna; Austria; Haifa, Israel the first Bahá’í to settle in Bulgaria.
    1928 11 - 12 Feb The 'Conference for Inter-Racial Amity' was arranged by Inter-Racial Amity Committee of the Bahá'ís of Montreal'. There were three sessions in three venues: the YMCA, Channing Hall, and the Union Congregational Church. Speakers included Louis Gregory ('International Lecturer on Race Relations') and Agnes MacPhail, first Canadian woman Member of Parliament. [The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck page 34, Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011, BW7p660]
  • See BW6p659-664 for the essay by Louis Gregory entitled "Racial Likenesses and Differences: The Scientific Evidence and the Bahá'í Teachings".
  • Date conflict: "The Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 by Will C. van den Hoonaard on page 90 says: "and on 2-4 March 1930 The Montreal Bahá'ís held Race Amity meeting." His source was the National Bahá'í Archives Canada, Notes on Montreal Bahá'í History.
  • SYH147 confirms the conference in Montréal was in "mid-February".
  • Race; Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Agnes MacPhail; Louis G. Gregory; Montreal, QC; Quebec, Canada; Canada
    1928 Jan (toward the end of the month) The Chicago community held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory was a speaker at that gathering. [SYH147] Louis G. Gregory; Race; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Chicago, IL
    1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tried to stir up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Covenant-breakers; Jamil Irani; Plummer, Lord; Iran; Haifa, Israel
    1928 Jan A charter was granted by the State of New York to World Unity Foundation, a body of trustees administering the Conferences, the Institute of World Unity, and also assisting in the promotion of World Unity Magazine. The purpose of the Foundation, as set forth in the Charter, is "to maintain facilities for promoting those ethical, humanitarian and spiritual ideals and principles which create harmony and understanding among religions, races, nations and classes; and for cooperating with established educational, scientific and religious bodies working ior these ends." The Charter was granted to the following as trustees: John Herman Randall (a Christian Minister), Mary Rumsey Movius, Melbert B, Cary, Florence Reed Morton, Alfred W. Martin, Horace Holley and Mountfort Mills. [BN No 20 Nov 1927 p8; BN No 22 Mar 1928 p8] Conferences, World unity; World Unity Foundation; World Unity (magazine); New York, USA; USA
    1928 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936, 1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]

    "His letters to Bahá'í institutions and to Bahá'ís in general began almost at once, and many will be found in Bahá'í Administration, beginning January 21, 1922. Early or late, his communications were not merely writings, they were the dynamic that moved the Bahá'í world. These letters in effect built the Administrative Order, its most vital features being found there. They taught the Bahá'í Assemblies how to be, how to consult, what their duties were. The book also contains the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws drawn up by the international lawyer Mountfort Mills, carefully reviewed by Shoghi Effendi, and adopted in 1926 by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, at this time under one jurisdiction. (Khan, back in America by then. Shoghi Effendi wished all National Spiritual Assemblies to adopt, with necessary local adaptations, this Declaration of Trust and ByLaws, which set forth the character and objectives of Bahá'í communities worldwide." [Cited from AY304]

    Bahá'í Administration (book); * Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; * Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Declaration of Trust and By-laws; Mountfort Mills; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Administrative Order; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies
    1928 (In the year) The first publication of Kalil Gibran's book, Jesus (The Son Of Man: His Words And His Deeds As Told And Recorded By Those Who Knew Him) in New York by A.A. Knopf. It was re-published in 1946 and 1995 again by Knopf Doubleday, by Oneworld in 1993 2008 and 2012 and by Green Light Ebooks in Los Angeles in 2011.

    Around 1911–1912, Gibran met with ʻAbdu'l-Bahá to draw His portrait when He visited the United States The meeting made a strong impression on Gibran. One of Gibran's acquaintances later in life, Juliet Thompson reported that Gibran was unable to sleep the night before meeting him. This encounter with ʻAbdu'l-Bahá later inspired Gibran to write Jesus the Son of Man that portrayed Jesus through the "words of seventy-seven contemporaries who knew him – enemies and friends: Syrians, Romans, Jews, priests, and poets." After the passing of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, Gibran gave a talk on religion with Baháʼís and at another event with a viewing of a movie of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, Gibran would rise to talk and proclaim in tears an exalted station of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá and leave the event weeping. [Wikipedia]

  • See YouTube Video for more on his painting career and his association with Alexander and Marjorie Morten, Bahá'ís of New York City and gallery owners.
  • See World Order Series 2 Vol 7 Issue 4 p45 for the story of his "declaration" of faith.
  • See On Kahlil Gibran and the Bahá'í Faith by Steven Kolins.
  • Jesus the Son of Man (book); Kahlil Gibran
    1928 (In the year) The first local assembly of Shanghai was formed. [PH28; Film Early History of the Baha'í Faith in China 17 min 34 sec ] Local Spiritual Assembly; Shanghai, China first LSA Shanghai
    1928 to 1938 The third Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín) (Trustee of the Trustee). He had been Hájí Amín's assistant for several years and so was chosen to succeed him. He had been born into the wealthy merchant class in Tehran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • During his tenure steps were taken to register Bahá'í properties and endowments in Iran.
  • He died due to an illness. [BW8p659]
  • Photo of his grave. [BW9p77]
  • Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hájí Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1927 10 - 11 Nov The third convention for amity in inter-racial relations in Washington was held in the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church. [BW2p285; SYH146] Race; Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Washington, DC, USA; USA
    1927 Nov "Muḥammad-'Alí and Majdiddin [his cousin] has sent a message requesting us to repair the roof which may collapse at any time. He has been told emphatically that we shall not proceed with any repair unless and until they evacuate the entire building." [PP231] Covenant-breakers; Muhammad-`Alí; Majdid-Din; Bahji, Israel
    1927 Oct The first issue of the monthy called World Unity Magazine. Its editors were John Herman Randall, John Herman Randall Jr. and Horace Holley. The concluding volume of the magazine stated its unique character proceeded from the outlook of its founders, who "realized the inter-dependence of religion, science and sociology in the movements simultaneously destroying the past and forming a new era in human history." During its last years of publication, it was openly a Bahá'í journal. [The Cause of Universal Peace]
  • All subsequent issues are available at Baha'i Works.
  • In 1935 it was decided to merge World Unity with another publication, Star of the West (renamed The Bahá'í Magazine in its later volumes) to become a new entity, World Order. This magazine was published from 1935 to 1949, revived in 1966, and ran until 2007. Like World Unity, its erudite articles covered a wide range of topics aimed at the educated public, but it was unmistakably a Bahá'í organ under the auspices of the US National Spiritual Assembly and never acquired as broad a readership as World Unity. [BN No 90 Mar 1935 p8]
  • World Unity magazine; Conferences, World unity; John Herman Randall Sr; John Herman Randall Jr; Horace Holley; New York, USA; USA
    1927 (Mid-Oct) Shoghi Effendi announced the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih (Abd al-Hosayn Ayati). He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296; MBW53; PP120; ; BKC118-120]
  • After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Bahá'í Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
  • See message from Shoghi Effendi regarding the civil rights of Avarih.
  • Covenant-breakers; `Abdu'l-Husayn Ávárih; Avarih; Haifa, Israel
    1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusted Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who were visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; Báb, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Haifa, Israel; Wilmette, IL; USA
    1927 (Mid-Oct to 1 Nov) Shoghi Effendi retired to the mountains of Switzerland to rest and re-gain his strength. (SETPE1p150, DND20] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland
    1927 13 Sep Dr George Augur, (b. 1 Oct 1853 New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, USA d. 13 Sep 1927 Honolulu, Honolulu County, Hawaii, USA), Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Hawaii. He was buried in the O'ahu Cemetery in Honolulu. [SBR198]
  • Find a grave
  • For the story of his life see SBR187–98.
  • George Augur; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Honolulu, HI; Hawaii, USA
    1927 9 Sep - 2 Dec Leonora Holsapple (later Armstrong) made a teaching trip through Latin America and the Caribbean, becoming the first Bahá'í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad (2–12 Oct), the Guianas (29 Oct), Barbados (Dec) and several islands in the Antilles group. Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Latin America; Caribbean first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad, the Guianas, Barbados and several islands in Antilles group
    1927 1 Aug Geyserville Bahá'í Summer School, the first American Bahá'í summer school, was established on property in California donated by John Bosch. It was to operate until 1973 when a new road project divided the property. The land was sold and the funds used to purchase land in the mountains above the coastal town of Santa Cruz. The new school was named In honour of John and Louise Bosch. [BBD87; BW10:180; GPB340, Bosch]
  • BW5:28–9 says this was the second Bahá'í summer school in America but Shoghi Effendi indicates in GPB340 that Green Acre is formally established as a Bahá'í summer school in 1929.
  • Summer schools; - Bahá'í schools (conference centres); First summer and winter schools; John Bosch; Green Acre, Eliot, ME; Geyserville, CA; California, USA; USA first American Bahá’í summer school
    1927 (Summer) The first Race Amity Conference was held in Green Acre. It was organized by Louis Gregory, Agnes Parsons, Dr Zia Bagdadi, Alain Locke, and Pauline Hannen. [GAP118, SYH146] Race amity; Louis G. Gregory; Agnes Parsons; Zia Bagdadi; Alain Locke; Pauline Hannen; Green Acre, Eliot, ME
    1927 7 Jul Mr. Mountfort Mills received a cable from Shoghi Effendi through the Greatest Holy Leaf suggesting the American Assemblies send cables to His Excellency the High Commissioner in Baghdad, Iraq urging that the houses belonging to the Bahá'ís be restored to their rightful owners. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p26] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); New York, USA; Baghdad, Iraq
    1927 19 Jun Karbalá'í Asadu'lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh was martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Kirman, Iran; Iran
    1927 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Palestine destined for Switzerland in the company of his sister. [Ambassador at the Court Chapter 8] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland
    1927 May The funeral of a believer resident in the Holy Land, Mírá Moshen Afnán, was the first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine showing the strong independence of the Faith. [SETPE1p147] Mira Moshen Afnan; Funeral; Haifa, Israel; Palestine; Firsts, other first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a 'Declaration of Trust' and 'By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly'. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá'í 'national constitution' heralding 'the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá'í World Community'. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions (Bahá'í); By-laws; Recognition (legal); Firsts, other; USA; Canada The first document of this sort to establish a clear legal basis for the National Spiritual Assembly
    1927 29 Apr - 1 May The third National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was held at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal, the hotel where 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed during His visit in 1912. [Bahá'í News No. 17 April, 1927]
  • It was attended by 32 of the 95 elected delegates, others voting "by wire".
  • Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Allen McDaniel, chairman; Roy C. Wilhelm, vice-chairman; Horace Holley, secretary; Carl Scheffler, treasurer: Mesdames Florence R. Moron, May Maxwell and Amelia Collins, Messrs. Alfred E. Lunt and Louis G. Gregory. This reference contains a very complete report of the Convention including letters from the Guardian. [BN No 18 June 1927 p2-9]
  • See FMH41-42.
  • A major subject of which was race relations. Edwina Powell spoke on the subject, as she had been asked by Shoghi Effendi. In her address, Sadie Oglesby recalled her conversations with Shoghi Effendi on the subject of race. [TMW178–80]
  • Conventions, National; Allen McDaniel; Roy C. Wilhelm; Horace Holley; Carl Scheffler; Florence R. Moron; May Maxwell (Bolles); Amelia Collins; Alfred Lunt; Louis G. Gregory; Edwina Powell; Sadie Oglesby; Montreal, QC; Quebec, Canada; Canada; USA
    1927 Apr-May Martha Root journeyed through the Baltic States and become the first Bahá'í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (2 May). [MR272–4] Martha Root; Baltic States; Latvia; Lithuania; Estonia first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elected ten members because there were an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [EJR253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members was a Rev. Biggs. [EJR253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [EJR253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
  • National Spiritual Assembly; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions; United Kingdom First National Convention of the United Kingdom
    1927 8 - 10 Apr The second conference for racial amity in Washington was held at the Mt Pleasant Congregational Church with the cooperation and participation of other like-minded groups and persons. [BW2p284]
  • Members of the Race Amity committee were Louis Gregory; Agnes Parsons, Sia Baghdad, Alain Locke and Pauline Hannen. [SYH146]
  • Other conferences were held inNew York state, in Portsmouth, NewHampshire, with monthly amity meetings in Boston and a second one in Washington in November. [SYH146]
  • Race; Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Washington, DC, USA; USA
    1927 27 Mar Martha Root left Shanghai for Hong Kong. At the end of May she sailed for Australia and New Zealand. During her stay in Hong Kong she made a trip to mainland China visiting Guangzhou and made another sortie to Saigon and Cambodia. [P35] Martha Root; Shanghai, China; Hong Kong; Saigon, Vietnam; Cambodia; Laos
    1927 25 Mar Áqá 'Abdu'l-'A'zím, Amínu'l-'Ulamá' was martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Ardibil, Iran; Iran
    1927 11 Mar Sadie Oglesby and her daughter Bertha Parvine arrived in Haifa, the first black American women to make the pilgrimage. [TMW173, 206, SETPE1p141-145] Pilgrims; First pilgrims; Haifa, Israel first black American women to make pilgrimage
    1927 Mar Shoghi Effendi retranslated the Hidden Words.
  • He was assisted by George Townshend and Ethel Rosenberg, the 'English friends' mentioned on the title page. [EJR246–7, 253–6; GT109, SETPE1p126]
  • This was to be the start of an 18 year relationship of collaboration between Shoghi Effendi and George Townshend in the translation of the Writings. As well as Hidden Words, he worked on Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Dawn-Breakers, Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, God Passes By and by suggesting titles and writing introductions for The Dawn-Breakers and God Passes By. [SETPE1p127]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); George Townshend; Ethel Rosenberg; * Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1927 Jan (Towards end of the month) Chicago held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory spoke. [SYH147] Race amity; Louis G. Gregory; Chicago, IL
    1927 13–16 Jan A World Unity Conference was held in Dayton, Ohio, one of many such conferences to be held in the year in major cities of the United States. [TMW159, 165]
  • See also The Babi and Bahá'í Religions: An Annotated Bibliography, section 'conference listing'.
  • Conferences, Unity; Dayton, OH; Ohio, USA; USA
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Race; Race unity; Race amity; USA; Canada
    1927 (In the year) Martha Root gave a talk to the International Esperanto Conference in the Free City of Danzig*. [SYH159]

    *The Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig; Polish: Wolne Miasto Gdańsk; Kashubian: Wòlny Gard Gduńsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas. It was created on 15 November 1920 in accordance with the terms of Article 100 (Section XI of Part III) of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles after the end of World War I. [Wikipedia]

    Esperanto; Martha Root; The Free City of Danzig
    1927 (In the year) Leonora Armstrong was the first Bahá'í to visit and speak about the Bahá'í Faith in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Trinidad, Barbados, Haiti, British Guiana and Dutch Guiana (now Suriname). [Biographical Profile] Travel Teaching; Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Colombia; Venezuela; Ecuador; Trinidad and Tobago; Barbados; Haiti; British Guiana; Suriname the first Bahá'í to visit and speak about the Bahá'í Faith in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Trinidad, Barbados, Haiti, British Guiana and Suriname.
    1927 (In the year) Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but was now enrolled at the American University at Beirut, visited Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he was immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Abu'l-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School, Tihran; American University of Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Haifa, Israel; Tehran, Iran; Iran; Beirut, Lebanon; Lebanon
    1927 (In the year) The Baghdád believers took photographs of the cave in the Sargul Mountain near Sulaymáníyyih where Bahá'u'lláh spent two years in solitude. [BW2Surveyp.33, SETPE1p141] Photography; Caves; Mountains; Sar Galu Mountain; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq; Kurdistan; Iraq
    1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. [Bahaipedia]
  • He died as a result of injuries sustained from a collision with a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in the Coloured section of the city. There was speculation that the traffic mishap was not accidental. See the newspaper article written by Beatrice Cannnady.
  • See AY321-323 for an account of his death and his funeral.
  • He had lost his beloved wife Mary about one month earlier. He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and became a Bahá'í in 1898. He had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá'í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7th 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
  • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
  • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learned while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
  • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
  • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
  • See his "A Statement of Belief" written January 4, 1926 and published in Star of the West Vol 16 No 11 February 1926.
  • His obituary was published in Star of the West Vol 17 No 10 January 1927 p301.
  • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42.
  • Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133 and FMH35.
  • See BW2p218 for a photo.
  • HIs crowning achievement was the publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace (1922) which was a compilation of the public talks given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá while in America.
  • See Bahaipedia.
  • He was posthumously appointed as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • Howard MacNutt; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Dade City, FL; Pasco County, FL; Florida, USA; USA first Nineteen Day Feast in America
    1926 30 Nov Sir Ronald Storrs (b. 1881 - d. 1955) was appointed Governor of Cyprus (30 Nov 1926 - 29 Oct 1932) Ronald Storrs; Cyprus
    1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal ruled against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sent a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1926 15 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland where he had been joined by his mother and sister in August. [SETPE1p133, Ambassador at the Court chapter 8] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland
    1926 1 Oct The office of the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was moved from Green Acre to 48 West 10th Street in New York, in the house that was so richly blessed by the presence of 'Abdu'l-Bahá many times during His visit. [BN No 12 June - July 1926 p1] National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada; Green Acre, Eliot, ME; New York City, NY
    1926 Sep In a letter addressed to the Persian Baha'is he emphasizes the importance of compiling a general history of the Faith. Iran
    1926 6 Aug The Shah of Iran was asked to "stay the slaying of Bahá'ís." The Press notice of the appeal to the Shah to protect Bahá'ís from persecution was published August 9th. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p26] - Persecution; - Sháh; Persecution, Iran; Iran
    1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá'í Esperanto conventions were held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Conferences, Bahá'í; Conferences, Other; Esperanto; Scotland; United Kingdom
    1926 12 Jul (Or 16 Jul) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada made representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá'ís. They included in their submission a list of all the places in North America were Bahá'ís resided. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
  • On the 31st of July the submission that had been reprinted in booklet form was sent to some 300 newspapers. Copies were also sent to the local spiritual assemblies with instructions to deliver them to all Bahá'ís and friends of the Faith. [BN No 12 June - July 1926 p1]
  • National Spiritual Assembly; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution; Human Rights; USA; Jahrum; Iran
    1926 29 Jun Three Bahá'ís were martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Zavarih; Iran
    1926 24 Jun Enoch Olinga, future Hand of the Cause of God, was born in Abaango, Uganda. Enoch Olinga; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Abaango, Uganda; Uganda
    1926 May (Near end) Shoghi Effendi departed Palestine for Switzerland. [PP97, SETPE1p131, GBF36] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland
    1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania wrote three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá'í Faith for a syndicated series entitled 'Queen's Counsel', which appeared in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
  • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
  • Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles; USA; Romania
    1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá'ís were beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
  • It was first reported that 12 Bahá'ís were killed. [PP98]
  • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
  • See messages from Shoghi Effendi on the crisis in Uncompiled Published Letters Shoghi Effendi # 94, 95, 96, and 98.
  • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
  • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Bahá'í religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Bahá'ís complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Bahá'ís during Reza Shah's reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Jahrum; Fars, Iran; Iran
    1926 Apr c. Lidia Zamenhof, a daughter of the founder of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof, became a Bahá'í, the first Pole to accept the Faith. [Lidia71]
  • For her story see the podcast Who Was She?
  • Lidia Zamenhof; Ludwik Zamenhof; Poland first Pole to accept the Faith
    1926 Ridván The National Convention was held at the Hotel Whitcomb on Market Street in San Francisco. Because of the difficulty and expense of travel, only 32 of the 93 delegates attended in person. Those elected to the National Assembly were: Horace Holley, Montfort Mills, Florence Morton, Siegried Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm, Amelia Collins, Allen McDaniels, Carl Scheffler, and Ali Kuli Khan. [BN No 12 June-July 1926 p3] Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Horace Holley; Montfort Mills; Florence Morton; Siegfried Schopflocher; Roy C. Wilhelm; Amelia Collins; Allen McDaniel; Carl Scheffler; `Alí Kulí Khán; San Francisco, CA; USA
    1926 14 Feb In a ceremony, dust from the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh brought back by pilgrims (including Margaret Stevenson) from the Holy land, was placed into the soil of New Zealand at the Stevenson's home. [Arohanui pg94] Margaret Stevenson; Pilgrims; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; New Zealand
    1926 7 Feb Carter G. Woodson, author, historian and professor, (1875-1950), initiated the first celebration of Negro History Week which led to Black History Month, to extend and deepen the study and scholarship on African American history, all year long. [Zinn Education Project] Carter G. Woodson; Black History Month; Washington, DC, USA; USA
    1926 First week in Feb Martha Root arrived in Bulgaria, the earliest documented visit to that country by a Bahá'í. [MR247]
  • She stayed 12 days. [MR247]
  • Bahá'ís had passed through Bulgaria on their way to Turkey, but Martha Root's visit was the first one documented.
  • Martha Root; Bulgaria first documented visit to Bulgaria
    1926 30 Jan Martha Root's first interview with Queen Marie of Romania. The date of the meeting was 10 May 1925 according to his account. [BW14p555]

    See Martha Root: Herald of the Kingdom compiled by Kay Zinky p105-115. This meeting is dated as 30 January 1926 (p105-106)

    See as well Martha Root Lioness at the Threshold by M R Garis p240-247. This meeting is dated as 30 January 1926 (p242)

    Bucharest, Romania; Romania
    1926 30 Jan Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
  • Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; - Bahá'í royalty; Royalty; Bucharest, Romania; Romania first meeting with Queen Marie
    1926 28 Oct One again Louise Gregory embarked from Boston to Liverpool on the SS Winifredian of the Leyland Line where she arrived on the 28th of October. After spending some time in Liverpool and York she stayed for a while in Bruessels and then went to Graz in Austria where she reconnected with the active Bahá'í group there. Her next stop was Vienna and then on to her destination, Budapest.

    In the spring of 1927 she went to Sofia, Bulgaria.where Martha Root had visited for 12 days in February.

    In June of 1927 Louise returned to New York in the United States from Boulongne-sur-Mer, France. During this trip she had visited Liverpool, York and London in England, Brussels in Belgium, Graz and Vienna in Austria, Budapest, Hungary and Sofia in Bulgaria. [SYH140-145, 240]

    Louise Gregory; Teaching; Liverpool, England; United Kingdom; Brussels, Belgium; Belgium; Graz, Austria; Austria; Vienna; Austria; Budapest, Hungary; Hungary; Sofia, Bulgaria; Bulgaria
    1926 28 Jan Martha Root sent a note and a copy of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont; Romania
    1926 25 Jan The passing of Professor Edward Granville Browne, (b. on the family estate in Gloucestershire, 7 February, 1862. d. near Cambridge). He is buried at Elswick Cemetery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. Find a grave.

    Browne was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value in the areas of Persian history and literature. He had a number of private interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí in 1890. He was the only Westerner to have met Bahá'u'lláh and to have left a description of the experience (see Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh).
    In 1912-13, while `Abdu'l-Bahá was in Europe, Browne visited him in London and Paris. These visits were supplemented by some correspondence between the two. Other Bahá'ís, including Montford Mills, also visited and corresponded with Browne from time to time. When `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away in 1921, Browne penned a sympathetic obituary. He also wrote a pen-portrait of Àbdu'l-Bahá. [Bahá'í Tributes]

  • Charles Melville, Professor of Persian History at Pembroke College in Cambridge headed the Browne Archive Project to digitize Browne's diaries and notes.
  • See Encounter with Bahá'u'lláh, a short video about Browne's life and his famous interview.
  • See MCS529-545 for a discussion of Browne's lack of objectivity and his partisanship as a researcher that lead to his committing some serious errors in his work on the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
  • He himself a professor of Arabic, found the Báb's style of writing very difficult and said of his works: "...some are so confused, so full of repetitions, extraordinary works and fantastic derivatives of Arabic roots, that they defy the most industrious and indefatigable reader." [SBBH5p227]

    Browne's Publications

    • Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1889)
    • A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb (1891) A history by`Abdu'l-Bahá which Browne translated and extensively annotated.
    • Tarikh-i-Jadid or New History of Mirza`Ali Muhammad the Báb (1893) by Mirza Husayn Hamadani translated by E.G.Browne.
      • Hájjí Mírzá Jani Kashani wrote a substantial history of the Bábi Faith sometime between 1850-1852. (He was martyred in 1852.) These memoirs as they were copied and re-copied and spawned a great many versions which differed particularly in their portrayal of Subh-i-Azál and Bahá'u'lláh, depending on the editor's loyalty.
      • In about 1880 Mírzá Husayn Hamadani with the support of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl took some version of Mírzá Jani's 1851 account and worked it up into a new history, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd. He did this at the request of a Zoroastrian, Manakji, who then added a preface, an epilogue, and an unknown number of amendments to the text and then published it under his own name.
      • Nabil-i-Akbar, in response to a commission by Bahá'u'lláh, made a revision of this work somewhere between 1880-1883 which is known as The Táríkh-i Badí'-i Bayání.
      • Browne used two these two manuscripts, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd and The Táríkh-i Badí'-i Bayání to write the single volume The New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mírzá Ali-Muhammed, the Báb. In referring to Mírzá Jani's history throughout the footnotes, he was not aware of the problems of discerning what represents the original memoirs and what others have added.
    • A Year Among the Persians (1893) Vividly describes his adventures, including his encounters with the Bahá'ís and Azalís during his time in Persian from October 1887 to September 1888. The memoir of his sojourn did much to familiarize English readers with the Báb, His gentleness and patience, the cruel fate which had overtaken him, and the unflinching courage wherewith he and his followers, from the greatest to the least, had endured the merciless torments inflicted upon them by their enemies. [Tales of Magnificent Heroism by Robert Weinburg.
    • A chapter from the history of Cannabis Indica (1897)
    • A Literary History of Persia From Firdawsí to Sa'dí (in four volumes) (1902-24)
    • The Persian Revolution of 1905–1909 (1910) About the Persian Constitutional Revolution, of which Browne was an ardent supporter.
    • He published, in Persian, the text of The Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf, being the earliest History of the Bábís compiled by Hájji Mírzá Jání of Kásgán between the years 1850 and 1852, edited from the unique Ms. Suppl. Persan 1071. (1910) This was a work that he had done at an earlier date. It was published at the instigation of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini, a well-known Iranian literary critic and Azalí sympathizer, who wrote the Persian Introduction to this volume. After the publication of this work, `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to a number of Iranian Bahá'ís, urging them to compile material to refute its contents. One such work was Dashf al-Ghitá by Mírzá Abul-Fazl Gulpáyigání. [RR232] [See The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52) by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Nuqtat al-Káf by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani as well as Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions by Juan Cole; The Bab's Stay in Kashan: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf Based on the Kashan Pericope by Kavian Milani; MCS517; 541]
      • When E.G. Browne published the Nuqtatu'l-Kaf with its Persian and English introductions that contained much material hostile to the Bahá'í Faith, a number of Bahá'í scholars worked on refutations of this book. [Mirza Abu'l-Fadl] Gulpaygani also began to work on such a book, but when heard that work on a similar book in Iran under the guidance of the Hands of the Cause had reached an advanced stage, he suspended work on his book awaiting a manuscript from Iran. Unfortunately he never got back to this book and at his death the manuscript was incomplete. When Mirza Abu'l-Fadl's papers were sent to his cousin Sayyid Mahdi Gulpaygani in Ashkhabad, the latter undertook to complete the work. The final work was published in Ashkhabad. Of the 438 pages of the book some 132 are attributed to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl. The final work, however, has a tone and vehemence completely uncharacteristic of Mirza Abu'l-Fadl and `Abdu'l-Baha instructed that it should not be distributed. [from a post by Adib Masumian to the [bahai-library.com/tarikh] list 25 April 2021]
      .
    • It is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was "deeply annoyed" with Browne over the publication and dissemination of the Kitáb-i Nuqtatu'l-Káf as reported by Áqáy-i-Taqízádih in ´Ábdu'l-Baha's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians introduced and translated by Ahang Rabbani. [World Order Vol 30 No 1 Fall 1998 p46]
    • It would appear that Browne loved the Bábi movement however as the religion changed into the Bahá'í Faith, he insisted on calling it the Bábi religion. Browne did not understand the the claims of Baha'u'lláh and the transitional and the historical factors at work. He saw the early Bábi movement as the beginning of the Faith and thought that the Bahá'í Faith was a sect of Bábism. This was largely due to the influence of Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother, Azal. Browne was disappointed that the Bahá'ís did not take up the cause of constitutional reform but he was well aware that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had forbidden participation in political struggles, and that had they supported the Constitutionalists, it would the brought that wrath of the persecution of the Bahá'ís down upon them.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said, "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [MD24]
    • Also from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I wrote to him, saying, `You are the first European teacher and author to have attained His Blessed Presence. Do not lose this distinction.' He did not understand me and his loss will be known when the lights of guidance shine in England with supreme brilliancy." [MD278]
    • From GPB81, Browne's testimony, "One of those strange outbursts,"..."of enthusiasm, faith, fervent devotion and indomitable heroism … the birth of a Faith which may not impossibly win a place amidst the great religions of the world." And again: "The spirit which pervades the Bábís is such that it can hardly fail to affect most powerfully all subjected to its influence.… Let those who have not seen disbelieve me if they will, but, should that spirit once reveal itself to them, they will experience an emotion which they are not likely to forget."
    • The Persian Constitutional Movement (1918) [MCS544]
    • Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918) The book represented no great amount of original work on Browne's part since it was mainly documents that he had collected.
    • Arabian Medicine (1921) [Browne, Edward Granville by Moojan Momen] iiiii
    • For scholarly works on the life of Browne see Selections From The Writings of E.G. Browne - On The Babi And Baha'i Religions by Moojan Momen and Edward Granville Browne and the Baha'i Faith by Hasan Balyuzi. Both have been published by George Ronald.
  • Edward Granville Browne; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Montfort Mills; Hajji Mírzá Jani Kashani; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mírzá Husayn Hamadani; Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; Manikchi Limji Hataria; Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England; Cambridge, England
    1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) went to Haifa on pilgrimage and were technically the first from Alaska to do so. They were in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-113 ]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford.
  • First Bahá'ís by country or area; Orcella Rexford; Haifa, Israel; Alaska, USA; USA First person to accept the Faith in Alaska, first Alaskan pilgrims
    1926 (In the year) The Bahá'í World was first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232; BWNS1289]
  • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, was called The Bahá'í Yearbook.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's impression of it see UD82–4.
  • This marked a new stage in the capacity of the Bahá'í community to provide reports and statistics, capture experience from diverse countries, and disseminate important insights and analyses. Each edition covered the progress of the international Bahá'í community over a defined period.
  • - Bahá'í World volumes; - First publications; * Publications; - Periodicals; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); USA first publication The Bahá’í World
    1926 (In the year) For most of the year severe restrictions were placed on the Bahá'ís of Marághih in Ádharbáyján, the governor of the district effectively suspended all constitutional and civil rights of the Bahá'í community. [BBR472; BW18:388]
  • For a list of deprivations see BBR473.
  • Persecution, Adharbayjan; - Persecution; Human Rights; Maraghih, Iran; Azerbaijan
    1926 (In the year) Green Acre came under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118]
  • Canadian Bahá'is played a significant role in redeeming the debts of Green Acre to prepare for its transference to trustees for the benefit of the National Spiritual Assembly. It became the first Bahá'í School to be legally placed under Bahá'í administrative authority in North America. [CBN 82 November, 1956 p2]
  • Green Acre, Eliot, ME; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada; Eliot, ME; Maine, USA; USA; Canada
    1926 (In the year) Martha Root visited Budapest and taught the Faith to one of the grandsons of Arminius Vámbéry, Mr. György Vámbéry. He was 21 at the time and passed away some two years later. [www.bahai.hu] Martha Root; Arminius Vambery; Gyorgy Vambery; Budapest, Hungary; Hungary first Hungarian Bahá'í György Vámbéry?
    1926 (In the year) Opposition to the Faith began in Russia. [BW3:35; BBR473]
  • For details see BW3:34–43.
  • Persecution, Russia; - Persecution; Russia; Soviet Union
    1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá'u'lláh's house in Baghdád were given to the Shí'ís. [UD45] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh acceded to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commenced. [BBR482]

    During the period of the later Qajar shahs, namely Muzaffar al-Din (r. 1896–1907) , Muhammad-'Ali (r. 1907–9) and Ahmad (r. 1909–25) , the Iranian state became steadily weaker and sank into anarchy as a result of years of revolution, war, corruption, injustice, insecurity, and foreign intervention and occupation, all of which took a heavy toll on the local population. The country was thoroughly disappointed with the outcome of its hard-won freedom, the incompetence of successive cabinets, the inefficiency of the shahs, and the corruption of the bureaucracy. The continuous interference of foreign powers in Iran's affairs, especially Britain and Russia, combined with their excessive consular rights were a constant source of national humiliation and impotent dissension, which by 1921 had turned into loud, nationalistic protests throughout the country. The people looked for a strong government that would overcome these weaknesses. [The Forgotten Schools: The Bahá'ís and Modern Education in Iran, 1899–1934 p107]

    Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; - Shahs; - Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1925 Dec The Guardian expressed his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7; DH180; PSBW76] Pilgrim House, Western; Pilgrim Houses; Amelia Collins; Donations; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel
    1925 Dec A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928 was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]
  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
    • The article referenced above found in Bahá'ís in the West SBBR vol 14 titled The Plans of Unified Action: A Survey by Loni Bramson, can also be found on Bahá'í-Library.com.
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155]
  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8]
    • For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293
  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]
  • - Teaching Plans; - Teaching Plans, National; USA; Canada
    1925 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi appointed Dr. John Esslemont a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi was left without qualified administrative assistance. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • Esslemont; - Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Haifa, Israel
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He was buried next to the grave of Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at 'Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement was made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
  • In addition to the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Britain by George Allen and Unwin in 1923 he also published a booklet called Bahá'u'lláh and His Message in New York by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in 1921. (32 p). It was reprinted in London by the National Bahā'i Assembly of England, 1924. (23 p.), and a revised and edited publication was done by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. London, 1938.
  • The Message of Bahá'u'lláh: (Based on "Bahá'u'lláh and His Message") was published in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in 1945. (30 p.). [DJEE28; RG77; The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion]
  • Esslemont; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; Haifa, Israel
    1925 21 Nov On his way from Iran to study at the American University of Beirut (then called the Syrian Protestant College) the 17-year-old Hasan Balyuzi spent two days in Haifa. Although from a prominent Bahá'í family he was neither knowledgeable nor confirmed in his faith. After having spent more than one hour with Shoghi Effendi his faith was confirmed and the course of his life was set. [SETPE1p110-111, BW18p637-651]
  • See BKG232 footnote for a by Hasan Balyuzi with a story about Mírzá Ahmad, a son of Mírzá Yahyá.
  • Hasan Balyuzi; American University of Beirut; Syrian Protestant College, Lebanon; Haifa, Israel; Beirut, Lebanon; Lebanon
    1925 31 Oct Ahmad Sháh was deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. He was replaced by Reza Shah Pahlavi. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69, AY46-47] Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi; - Shahs; - Shahs, Throne changes; Iran, General history; Iran
    1925 Oct Faced with the possibility of Jewish developments on land near the Shrine of the Báb, Shoghi Effendi appealed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada to purchase the land in question. They responded quickly to the request. [BA92-3, SETPE1p108, PP97] Báb, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahá'í World Centre; Mount Carmel MERGE
    1925 1 Sep Dr. Arthur Eduard Heinrich Brauns (b. March 15, 1883 Goslar, Germany d. September 1, 1925 Switzerland) was a prominent early German Bahá'í named as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. He heard of the Faith at a lecture given by William Herrigel likely in Carlsruhe, Germany. He was among the group of Christian Scientists that enrolled in the Faith. Later he introduced his father-in-law, August Forel, to the religion. His wife, Marta Brauns-Forel, was also a prominent member of the German Bahá'í community. He was survived by her and their five children when he drowned while on a rafting trip.
  • Marta Brauns-Fortel In Memoriam.
  • In Memoriam; Goslar; Germany
    1925 Sep Bertram Dewing began publication of the Bahá'í magazine Herald of the South in Auckland. [Collins174; SBR163; BWNS1289] Herald of the South (magazine); - Periodicals; - First publications; * Publications; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Auckland, NZ; New Zealand first publication Herald of the South
    1925 4 Jul – 9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. The National Assembly superseded the institution of Bahá'í Temple Unity formed during `Abdu'l-Bahá's ministry. [GPB333; SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. Those elected as members were: Horace Holley, (sec), Montfort Mills, (Chair), Florence Morton (tres.), Siegried Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm, Alfred Lunt, (vice and asst. treas), Elizabeth Greenleaf, May Maxwell, Agnes Parson. [BN No 4 April 1925 p2]
  • Subsequently it was announced that the following persons were members of the National Assembly: Horace Holley, (Sec'y), Mountfort Mills, (chair) Florence Morton, (Treas.), Fred Schopflocher, Roy Wilhelm,(Vice), Allen McDaniel, Carl Scheffler, Ali Kuli Khan, and Amelia Collins. [BN No 6 July-August 1925 p2, 5]
  • Another ballot was taken for alternatives to those elected and selected were: Alfred Lunt, Agnes Parsons, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler. [BN No 6 July-August 1925 p5]
  • The offices of the National Spiritual Assembly were located in 169 Christopher Steet, New York at this time. [BN No 4 April 1925 p2]
  • Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Florence Morton; Fred Schopflocher; Roy C. Wilhelm; Allen McDaniel; Carl Scheffler; `Alí Kulí Khán; Amelia Collins; Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada; National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Green Acre, Eliot, ME first National Spiritual Assembly of United States and Canada; first full-time secretary NSA United States and Canada
    1925 (Spring) The International Bahá'í Bureau was created by the English Bahá'í Jean Stannard (1865–1944) at the encouragement of Shoghi Effendi who wanted the center to serve as an intermediary between the Bahá'í centre of Haifa and the various Bahá'í centres, but without having any international authority in the movement. [BW4:257, 261; BBD118]
  • Mrs. Stannard started a publication she called Messager Bahá'í that was printed in three languages (English, French and German). The first issue appeared in July of 1926. Four issues were brought out between July of that year and September 1927.
  • Miss Julia Culver joined Mrs Stannard in the Spring of 1927 and Mrs Emogene Hoagg arrived in June of 1928.
  • In 1930 the Bureau was legally registered as an International working unit, governed by a local committee which is under the direct supervision of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4p257]
  • The International Bahá'í Bureau functioned until 1957. For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
  • International Bahá'í Bureau; Bahá'í Information Bureau; Jean Stannard; Julia Culver; Emogene Hoagg; Firsts, other; Geneva, Switzerland; Switzerland; Europe first establishment International Bahá’í Bureau
    1925 10 May A Muslim Court in Egypt pronounced the Faith to be an independent religion. [BBRSM173; BW2:31;BW3:49]
  • For text of the judgement see BW3:48–50.
  • This was 'the first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá'í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam'. [BA100-1, 120-123; BW3:110–11; GPBXII, 302, 365; CB306; PP319–20; UD65 WOB99, LoF57, SETPE1p102-104]

    "an attack which, viewed in the perspective of history, will be acclaimed by future generations as a landmark not only in the Formative Period of the Faith but in the history of the first Bahá'í century. Indeed, the sequel to this assault may be said to have opened a new chapter in the evolution of the Faith itself, an evolution which, carrying it through the successive stages of repression, of emancipation, of recognition as an independent Revelation, and as a state religion, must lead to the establishment of the Bahá'í state and culminate in the emergence of the Bahá'í World Commonwealth. [GPB364]

  • Subsequent to the court's decision...

    "the presentation of a petition addressed by the national elected representatives of that community to the Egyptian Prime Minister, the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Justice (supported by a similar communication addressed by the American National Spiritual Assembly to the Egyptian Government, see BW4p166), enclosing a copy of the judgment of the Court, and of their national Bahá'í constitution and by-laws, requesting them to recognize their Assembly as a body qualified to exercise the functions of an independent court and empowered to apply, in all matters affecting their personal status, the laws and ordinances revealed by the Author of their Faith--these stand out as the initial consequences of a historic pronouncement that must eventually lead to the establishment of that Faith on a basis of absolute equality with its sister religions in that land." [GPB367]

    "it became a lever which the Egyptian Bahá'í community, followed later by its sister-communities, readily utilized for the purpose of asserting the independence of its Faith and of seeking for it the recognition of its government. Translated into several languages, circulated among Bahá'í communities in East and West, it gradually paved the way for the initiation of negotiations between the elected representatives of these communities and the civil authorities in Egypt, in the Holy Land, in Persia and even in the United States of America, for the purpose of securing the official recognition by these authorities of the Faith as an independent religion. " [GPB366]

    Background Information

    "It was in the village of Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih, in the district of Beba, of the province of Beni Suef in Upper Egypt, that, as a result of the religious fanaticism which the formation of a Bahá'í assembly had kindled in the breast of the headman of that village, and of the grave accusations made by him to both the District Police Officer and the Governor of the province--accusations which aroused the Muhammadans to such a pitch of excitement as to cause them to perpetrate shameful acts against their victims--that action was initiated by the notary of the village, in his capacity as a religious plaintiff authorized by the Ministry of Justice, against three Bahá'í residents of that village, demanding that their Muslim wives be divorced from them on the grounds that their husbands had abandoned Islám after their legal marriage as Muslims." [GPB364-365]

  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Recognition (legal); Islam; - Interfaith dialogue; Persecution, Egypt; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih, Egypt; Egypt first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá’í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam’
    1925 May Louise Gregory travelled from Graz, Austria to Budapest where she met Frau Szirmai, the president of the Women's League for Peace and Freedom. Frau Szirmai had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá when He visited in 1913. During her time there she made the acquaintance of the Szántó family, who she would meet on subsequent trips.

    After a stay of three weeks she travelled to Wiesbaden in Germany to visit a contact and spent five days at the home of the Schweitzers in Suffenhausen. She visited friends in Esslingen and stayed one night in Frankfurt before sailing from Antwerp on the 17th of June for the United States. During this trip she visited Liverpool in England, Luxembourg, Vienna and Graz in Austria, Budapest in Hungary, Zuffenhausen, Esslingen, Frankfurt, Wiesbaden and Nuremberg in Germany as well as Spa and Brussels in Belgium. [SYH132-134, 240]

    Louise Gregory; Teaching; Budapest, Hungary; Hungary; Wiesbaden; Suffenhausen; Esslingen, Germany; Germany
    1925 (During the year) National Spiritual Assemblies were formed in the Caucasus (Baku) and in Turkistan (Ashkhabad)about this time. Because these Assemblies were not chosen by the election of the members of the local spiritual assemblies or by representatives of the Bahá'í population as is the current practice, they should be considered as preliminary local and national Assemblies. [BW24p44]
  • They were disbanded in 1938 due to government pressure. [Bahaipedia]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Bandar Anzali, Iran; Caucasus
    1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word 'assembly' was to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. They had been using the term to mean the community of Bahá'ís. [BA83; SBBH258] - Administration; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; USA
    1925 5 Apr The death of Mohammad-Ali Shah Qajar (b. 21 June 1872 in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Persia) in exile in San Remo, Italy. He was buried at the Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq. His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last sovereign of the Qajar dynasty. [Wikipedia] Mohammad-`Alí Sháh Qajár; Ahmad Shah Qajar; San Remo, Italy; Italy
    1925 Apr Louise Gregory travelled from Luxembourg to Vienna where she met William Herrigel. She accompanied him to Graz where he delivered a couple of lectures. Louise stayed in Graz for about one month. [SVH130-132]
  • It was probably during this time that she met Lydia Zamenhof in Geneva. [SYH150]
  • Louise Gregory; Teaching; William Herrigel; Lydia Zamenhof; Lidia Zamenhof; Vienna; Graz, Austria; Austria
    1925 Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís resided in Europe, 26 were in Germany. [BBRSM182] Statistics; Europe; Germany
    1925 There were 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] Local Spiritual Assembly; Statistics; North America; USA
    1925 20- 22 Mar The Palace Hotel, the city's first premier luxury hotel, was the site for the first World Unity Conference in San Francisco. The three day event was organized by Leroy Ioas, Ella Goodall Cooper and Kathryn Frankland in cooperation with Rabbi Rudolph Coffee. Dr. David Starr Jordan, founding president of Stanford University, served as the honorary chairman of the conference. Those who addressed the conference were Rabbi Coffee and Dr. Jordan but also the senior priest of the Catholic Cathedral, a professor of religion, a Protestant minister of a large African-American congregation, distinguished academics, and a foreign diplomat. The last one to address the conference was the Persian Bahá'í scholar, Mírzá Asadu'llah Fádil Mázandarání, the only Bahá'í on the program.
  • Ioas provided the National Spiritual Assembly with a report, and he suggested that similar World Unity Conferences be held in other communities. The National Assembly enthusiastically agreed and established a three-person committee, including two of its officers, to assist other localities in their efforts to hold conferences. The committee members were Horace Holley, Florence Reed Morton, and Mary Rumsey Movius. World Unity Conferences were organized for Green Acre-August, Philadelphia-September, Cleveland-October and Chicago in November.

    During 1926 and into 1927, eighteen communities held World Unity Conferences using the San Francisco model. These included Worcester, Massachusetts; New York, New York Oct 10-12; Montreal, Canada; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Hartford, Connecticut; New Haven, Connecticut; Chicago, Illinois; Portsmouth, New Hampshire; and Buffalo, New York. [BN No 12 Jun-Jul 1926 p6-7; The Cause of Universal Peace: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson; LI45-49; BN No 20 Nov 1927 p5]

  • See BA117 for Shoghi Effendi's comments and recommendations.
  • Conferences, Race Amity; Conferences, World unity; Leroy Ioas; Ella Goodall Cooper; Kathryn Frankland; San Francisco, CA; California, USA; USA
    1925 Mar In the Bahá'í News Letter the bulletin of the National Spiritual Assembly of the US and Canada, the secretary, Horace Holley, announced that the National Assembly had made a comprehensive series of excerpts from all the general letters of Shoghi Effendi written from 21 January 1922 to 27 November 1924 and had the Publishing Committee print it in booklet form entitled Letters from Shoghi Effendi. [Bahaipedia; Bahá'í News Letter No 3 March 1925 p1] * Shoghi Effendi, letters of; New York City, NY
    1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reported in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was then before the court of the First Instance and had been postponed for some time. He stated that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents were likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government would likely delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1925 Jan The American Bahá'ís published Shoghi Effendi's revised Hidden Words. [EJR255]
  • Another translation was made in 1926–7. [EJR254; GT55–8]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); * Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; USA
    1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria was established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Local Spiritual Assembly; Alexandria, Egypt; Africa first Spiritual Assembly in Alexandria
    1925 (In the year) The first book translated into Portuguese by Leonora Armstrong was published, Paris Talks, in the original in English, or Lectures by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris as published today by Editora Bahá'í of Brazil. [Biographical Profile] Paris Talks (book); Portuguese language; Translation; Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Belém, Brazil; Paraguay
    1925 (In the year) The publication of A Series of Twelve Articles Introductory to the Study of the Bahá'í Teachings Treating briefly of the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, History, Organization, Religious and Secular Doctrines and Institutions by Charles Mason Remey. It was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee of New York. 184p. * Publications; Charles Mason Remey; New York, USA; New York, USA
    1925 (In the year) The publication of The Universal Consciousness of the Bahá'í Revelation by Charles Mason Remey. It was described as a brief treatise introductory to the study of the Bahá'í Revelation. * Publications; Charles Mason Remey
    1925 (In the year) Lorol Schopflocher was sent by the Guardian to speak with King Feisal of Iraq. The King was not receiving visitors so she made an unorthodox entrance by driving her car through the gates at high speed and coming to an abrupt stop in front of the palace. [SETPE1p105]
  • Her autobiographical book, Sunburst, p150, gives a somewhat different account of this incident.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Lorol Schopflocher; King Faisal; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1925 (In the year) At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in 1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107] - Bahá'í World volumes; * Publications; * Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; USA; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1925 (In the year) Fanny Knobloch and her sister Pauline Hannen were the first Bahá'ís to visit Southern Rhodesia. Fanny Knobloch; Pauline Hannen; Southern Rhodesia first Bahá’ís to visit Southern Rhodesia
    1925 (In the year) The Bahá'í Esperanto magazine, La Nova Tago (The New Day) was first published. [BBRSM150]
  • It continued publication until 1937. [BBRSM150]
  • Esperanto; La Nova Tago (The New Day); * Publications; - Periodicals first publication La Nova Tago (The New Day)
    1925 (Early in the year) Johanne Sorensen became a Bahá'í in Hawaii, the first Dane to accept the Faith. She returned to Denmark soon afterwards and remained the only Bahá'í there for 21 years. [SBBR14p233; Bahá'í Chronicles Johanne Sorensen Hoeg]
  • In the period 1925 to 1957 she corresponded with the Guardian. The correspondence includes more than one hundred letters, mostly on the subject of translation. [SBBR14p235]
  • For a history of the development of the Faith in Denmark see The Circle, the Brotherhood, and the Ecclesiastical God: The Bahá'í Faith in Denmark, 1925-1987 by Margit Warburg in Bahá'ís in the West SBBH Vol 14 pp229-263. It is also available on Bahai-Library.com.
  • See The Circle, the Brotherhood, and the Ecclesiastical Body: The Bahá'í Faith in Denmark 1925-1987 by Margit Warburg. [SBBH14p222]
  • Johanne Sorensen; Hawaii, USA; Denmark first Dane to accept the Faith
    1925 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi established the International Bahá'í Archives on Mount Carmel, one site adjoining the Shrine of the Báb and the other was located in the immediate vicinity of the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
  • See the instructions given by Bahá'u'lláh regarding the preservation of Texts in Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice.
  • Note that the function of the archives was written into the Constitution of the Universal House of Justice:

      "To ensure the preservation of the Sacred Texts and to safeguard their inviolability; to analyse, classify, and coordinate the Writings; and to defend and protect the Cause of God and emancipate it from the fetters of repression and persecution;"
  • Messages were sent by Shoghi Effendi and on behalf of Shoghi Effendi regarding the Importance of collecting and safeguarding Bahá'í Writings as well as establishing local archives. This and subsequent appeals included a call for the donation of relics related to the history of the Faith as well as transcriptions of talks given by the Master.. [Writings, Bahá'í: Importance of collecting and safeguarding compiled by Bahá'í International Archives, published in Bahá'í Studies Review 11, pages 100-102 (2003)
  • International Bahá'í Archives; Archives; Archives; * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, was published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
  • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
  • - Newsletters; Bahá'í News; Horace Holley; * Publications; - First publications; - Periodicals; New York, USA; USA
    1924 Dec Martha Root gave the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Capetown. Martha Root; Radio; Cape Town, South Africa; Africa first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.
    1924 21 Nov Dr John E. Esslemont arrived in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233] Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Haifa, Israel
    1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decided against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8; BN No 9 Dec 1925/Jan 1926 p1] Court cases; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Iraq
    1924 22 - 23 Oct The fourth Race Amity Convention was held in Philadelphia. Because there were few Bahá'ís in the city at that time it required assistance from other communities. Roy Williams played a key role as he had in Springfield. Louis Gregory spent one month writing articles for the newspapers, speaking and serving in other ways.

    The first session was attended by some 600 people, and, thanks to the excellent press coverage, 900 were present the second day.

    The following day, on the 24th of October, the Bahá'í supported a Conference on Inter-racial Justice organized by the Quakers. Followup meetings were held on the 25th and the 26th of October. [SYD147-149]

    Race amity; Roy Williams; Louis G. Gregory; Philadelphia, PA; USA
    1924 (Latter part) In the latter part of 1924, Shoghi Effendi began the process of recording the recollection of the believers who had witnessed the early years of the Bábí and Bahá'í Dispensations. He called for a systematic campaign to assemble such narratives. In the Holy Land, companions of Bahá'u'lláh such as Áqá Husayn-i-Áshchí were interviewed for what they remembered of the days of Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá. Sometimes, as in the case of Áshchí, this happened literally on the person's deathbed. In addition, during the next two decades, the Guardian wrote to the Bahá'ís of Iran urging them to prepare detailed histories of each local community. He further called upon believers who had witnessed the unfolding of the Heroic Age to commit their experiences to writing.

    In the 19 February 1925 issue of the Baha'i News in Persian, Akhbar-i-Amri, there is an item indicating that the Central Assembly in Tehran had "recently" sent a circular letter to localities in Iran and abroad and appointed a committee to compile the history of the Faith.

  • One such narrative by Mírzá Habíb Afnán was entitled (Khátirát-i-Hayát) Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá. It is available in the English translation by Ahang Rabbani.
  • Mírzá Habib Afnan; Ahang Rabbani; - Memoirs and chronicles; Bábí history; Bahá'í history
    1924 22 Sep - 3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' was held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
  • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
  • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith were read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
  • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
  • Note that a paper was delivered by Richard St. Barbe Baker. As a result of attending the conference he met a Bahá'í and dedicated the rest of his life in service to the Cause. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • Conferences, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan; Afnan; Richard St. Barbe Baker; - Interfaith dialogue; London, England; United Kingdom
    1924 Sep Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land after an absence of some six months. [BA65-7; BBRSM117; UD279] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Haifa, Israel
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie was murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he was not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. When Washington threatened to sever diplomatic relations, Persia arrested some two hundred mullás, formally apologized to the United States and accepted Washington's terms for full reparations. [BBR462-5; BW18:388, [AY277-279]
  • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
  • Major Robert Imbrie; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran; USA
    3 Jul Louise Gregory embarked from Boston to Liverpool on the SS Winifredian of the Leyland Line. She spent the summer in the north of England and them visited a friend in Liverpool.

    In September she travelled to Luxembourg where she stayed six months finding accommodations again in the old city centre in the Place d'Armes. She was disappointed that her teaching efforts did not meet with more success. In April of 1925 she travelled to Austria. [SYH123, 130]

    Louise Gregory; Teaching; Liverpool, England; United Kingdom; Luxembourg
    1924 Jul The second local spiritual assembly in Australia was formed in Perth. Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Perth, Australia; Australia
    1924 22 Jun Aqá Husayn-`Alí was martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Firuzabad, Iran; Fars, Iran; Iran
    1924 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Egypt. It was the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]
  • It was actually formed in December of 1924 but is listed under this date for uniformity.
  • This community became part of the Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of North East Africa in 1956.
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Egypt The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt was formed, the first national body in Africa.
    1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd was beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Turshiz; Khurásan, Iran; Iran
    1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, were attacked; some were arrested and imprisoned and others were forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran
    1924 28 - 30 Mar A public conference devoted to Inter-racial Harmony and Peace, the third Race Amity Convention, was held at the public auditorium of the Community Church of NY on Park Avenue at 34th Street and at the Meeting House of the Society for Ethical Culture at 2 West 64th Street. Its organization was a collaborative effort with the NAACP, the National Urban League and the Bahá'í community participating. Presenters included Mr. Mountfort Mills, Mr. Franz Boas, Dr. Loro, Taracknath Das, Mr. Stephen S. Wise, Dr. Alain Locke, Mr. James Weldon Johnson, Ms. Ruth Morgan and Mr. John Finley. It was the third Racial Unity conference to be held. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p23; BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467; SYH126] Race amity; Race unity; - Conferences; New York, USA
    1924 late Mar Shoghi Effendi left the Holy Land in an effort to recuperate his health. [BKC200-208] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Haifa, Israel; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís were imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stirred up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Maraghih, Iran; Iran
    1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
  • For her life see SEBW131-8.
  • See Brittingham, Isabella by Robert Stockman.
  • Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Philadelphia, PA; USA
    1924 (In the year) The publication of The Divine Art of Living by Mary M Rabb. It had been serialized in Star of the West from Vol 7 No 16 (Dec 31, 1916) to Vol 8 No 13 (Nov 4, 1917) and later in World Order Vol 1 No 1 April 1940 to Vol 6 No 1 April, 1940. In 1924 was published in a leather bound volume and was reprinted in 1926 by Brentan's of New York. [Collins3.39 - 3.40]
  • The full text of the book is available online.
  • Divine Art of Living (book); Mary Rabb; New York City, NY
    1924 (In the year) The publication of The Book of Assurance (The Book of Ighan) translated by Ali Kuli Khan with assistance from Howard MacNutt published by Brentano's Publishers for the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in New York. It was published a second time in 1929. [Collins1.10-11] Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude); `Alí Kulí Khán; Howard MacNutt; New York, USA; USA
    1924 (In the year) The publication of Abdul Baha's First Days in America from the Diary of Juliet Thompson by Juliet Thompson. Note that portions of these extracts differ from The Diary of Juliet Thompson published in 1983 by Kalimat Press. Pilgrims notes; Diary of Juliet Thompson; Juliet Thompson; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Travels of; East Aurora, NY
    1924 (In the year) In 1924 Amelia Collins became the first to visit Iceland when she and her husband had a two-days stopover while on a cruise. During the time spent in Reykjavik she became friends with Hólmfríôur Árnadóttir with whom she corresponded about the Faith for many years. This same lady was then able to open many doors for Martha Root who followed in July of 1935. Hólmfríôur is considered the first believer in Iceland. [Bahá'í News No 417 10 December 1965 p10-11] Amelia Collins; Martha Root; Travel Teaching; Holmfriour Arnadottir; Reykjavik, Iceland; Iceland first Baha'i in Iceland
    1924 (In the year) The publication of Episodes in the Life of Moneereh Khanum. Moneereh Khanum translated by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab by the Persian American Publishing Company.
  • It is a short autobiography by the wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. A more complete translation was published in 1986 by Kalimat Press entitled Munirih Khanum, Memoirs and Letters, translation by Sammireh Anwar Smith.
  • Munirih Khanum; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology)
    1924 (In the year) The passing of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).
  • He was 'Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmúd's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 he began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mírzá Mahmud-i-Zarqani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mahmuds Diary; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Travels of; Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh
    1924 (In the year) Memorials of the Faithful was published in Farsi under the auspices of the Haifa Bahá'í Assembly. [MFxii] Memorials of the Faithful (book); * Publications; Haifa Bahá'í Assembly; Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa, Israel first book printed in Haifa under the Guardianship. [MFxi]
    1924 (In the year) Miss Nora Lee, who became a Bahá'í in New Zealand, was the first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji, working as a nanny in Labasa from 1924 to about 1930.
  • Gretta Lamprill became the first Bahá'í in Tasmania in the latter part of the year. [SBR162]
  • In 1924 Clara and Hyde Dunn spent three months in Hobart together with two Melbourne Baha'is. Their visit attracted a small number of individuals to the Bahá'í Faith, the first of whom was a nurse, Gretta Lamprill. She was gradually joined by others in Hobart, Launceston and Devonport. The first Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Hobart was established in 1949, providing the basis for the effective functioning of the Baha'i community since that time. [Australian Baha'i Community site]
  • First Bahá'ís by country or area; First travel teachers and pioneers; Clara Dunn; Hyde Dunn; Fiji; Tasmania, Australia; Hobart, Australia; Launceston, Australia; Devonport, Australia first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji; first Bahá'í in Tasmania
    1923 20 Dec The Peace Court ruled in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, ordered that the property not be returned until ownership could be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sent 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities where the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructed that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sent over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refused to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Peace Court; Firsts, other; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq First time public opinion was rallied to support a miscarriage of justice against the Bahá'is
    1923 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Australia was formed in Melbourne. Local Spiritual Assembly; Melbourne, Australia; Australia The first local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Melbourne.
    1923 14 Nov In a message addressed to "the beloved of the Lord and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout America" Shoghi Effendi expressed the following: I cherish the hope that, from now on the Beloved may bestow upon me all the strength and vigour that will enable me to pursue over a long and unbroken period of strenuous labour the supreme task of achieving, in collaboration with the friends in every land, the speedy triumph of the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. This is the prayer I earnestly request all my fellow-brethren and sisters in the Faith to offer on my behalf.

  • This came to be known as "The Guardian's Prayer" and was used by many of his co-workers in their prayers for him. [BA51-52]
  • The prayer book that was first published in the UK in 1941 included this prayer at the very end of the book. In that version they made two changes. The phrase "from now on" was removed and "Shoghi Effendi" was substituted for the word "me" in the first sentence. [TG157, 246n1]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Prayer for; Prayer; * Prayer texts; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1923 Nov (Sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland. [PP73] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland; Haifa, Israel
    1923 4 Nov The first recorded Bahá'í Feast in China was held in Beijing. [PH33]
  • Martha Root and Agnes Alexander were present. [PH33]
  • Nineteen Day Feast; Martha Root; Agnes Alexander; Beijing, China; China
    1923 18 Oc The Nairn Transport Company was a pioneering motor transport company that operated a trans-desert route from Beirut, Haifa and Damascus to Baghdad, and back again, from 1923. Their route became known as "The Nairn Way". The firm continued, in various guises, until 1959. [Wikipedia]
  • Lorol Schopflocher used this service for her trip from Baghdad to Beirut after one of her visits to King Faisal in Baghdad.
  • Beirut, Lebanon; Haifa, Israel; Damascus, Syria; Baghdad, Iraq
    1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain met for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [EJR228; UD13, 163]
  • It became the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
  • Ethel Rosenberg; United Kingdom; British Isles
    1923 Sep The Dawn began publishing in Burma, in Burmese, English, and Persian. [BWNS1289] Dawn, The (newsletter); - Periodicals; - Newsletters; - First publications; * Publications; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Myanmar first Baha'i periodical in Burma
    1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era was published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
  • The American edition of the book was published by Brentano's Publilshers of New York.
  • Dr Esslemont had been in invited to Haifa by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to discuss the book he was writing. He spent two and on-half month during the winter of 1919-1920 as a guest of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who amended and corrected four chapters. [UC45]
  • Shoghi Effendi viewed this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
  • Over the years he encouraged its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
  • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
  • For a list of publications in various languages and formats see The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion.
  • Esslemont; Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (book); Introductory; * Publications; Translation; United Kingdom
    1923 24 Jul The Treaty of Lausanne, signed on July 24, 1923, concluded the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) and was an important international agreement that officially ended the hostilities and conflicts stemming from World War I and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It is primarily known for recognizing the Republic of Turkey as the successor state to the Ottoman Empire and for defining the borders of modern Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is considered the founding father of the Republic of Turkey serving as its president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

    The treaty was significant because it prescribed for a population exchange between Turkey and Greece. It resulted in the forced relocation of around 1.5 million Greek Orthodox Christians from Turkey to Greece and about 500,000 Muslim Turks from Greece to Turkey. This exchange was intended to create ethnically homogeneous nation-states and minimize tensions between these groups.

    Another provision of the treaty is that it established the international status of the Turkish Straits, including the Bosporus and the Dardanelles. It guaranteed their neutral status and regulated the passage of ships through these strategically important waterways. This arrangement sought to prevent the militarization of the Straits and maintain freedom of navigation. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p6]

    Ethnic divisions; Lausanne, Switzerland; Switzerland
    1923 (In July or earlier) Lorol Schopflocher made a visit to King Feisel as reported in the Ottawa Citizen 13 July, 1923 p16 and The Winnipeg Tribune 31 July 1923 p16. She was accorded several audiences to discuss the question of the seizure of the keys to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • See Haifa Talks by Keith Ransom-Kehler and Lorol Schopflocher.
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Lorol Schopflocher; King Faisal; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appealed to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returned to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland; Haifa, Israel
    25 Apr Martha Root left Osaka for northern China. [PH31; [Film Early History of the Baha'í Faith in China 11 min 35 sec and 15 min 40 sec]
  • It was her second visit to China and lasted until March 1924. [PH31-2]
  • In June she was joined by Ida Finch. After an earthquake hit Japan she was joined by Agnes Alexander. On the 4th of November they held the first Feast in Beijing.
  • Martha Root; Beijing, China first Feast in Beijing 4 November 1923
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria. [GPB333] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Stuttgart, Germany; Germany
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma.. It was incorporated in 1932. [GPB333; BW6p303] National Spiritual Assembly, formation; New Delhi, India; India; Myanmar
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of England. [GPB333]
  • The election was by postal ballot. [EJR228]
  • For the membership of the first Assembly see EJR228 and SBR71.
  • See also EJR223-31 for the election and functioning of the Assembly.
  • Prior to becoming the National Spiritual Assembly, the "All-England Bahá'í Council" was formed on the 6th of June, 1922. [Achievements and Victories of the Guardianship:Statistics, chronology, and bibliography compiled by Owen Battrick]
  • In 1930 the name was changed tothe National Spiritual assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. [BCBI423]
  • In 1972 when the National Spiritual Assembly of Ireland was formed, the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom. [BW15:290]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; London, England; United Kingdom
    1923 Ridván "...Ridvan messages: As early as 1923 Shoghi Effendi sent a letter of encouragement and greeting to the American national Bahá'í convention at Ridvan. It became his regular practice to write a Ridván letter to the Bahá'ís of the world summarizing the progress of the Faith in the previous year and setting out general directions for the coming year. The Universal House of Justice has continued this practice. Other Bahá'í institutions, especially national spiritual assemblies, also sometimes issue Ridvan letters." [SA241] * Ridvan messages; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
  • In the same letter, as a Post Script, he included a list of the best known and most current Bahá'í terms transliterated with a recommendation that this be adopted as standard for all Western Bahá'ís with a promise that the Haifa Spiritual Assembly would provide a supplement. The transliteration scheme was mostly based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. [BA43; PG208-209]
  • From the June 1923 issue of Star of the West, attempts were made to introduce the voting system although these are at first very patchy. The first books that appeared to be trying to put the system into use are Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era and Herrick's Unity Triumphant (the latter not entirely consistently), both published in 1923. Although some books appearing in 1924 did not follow the system, from this time on, books and other printed material published under Bahá'í auspices have followed it. [Transliteration by Mojan Momen]
  • A list of transliterated terms appeared in BW1p131 and expanded lists appeared in subsequent volumes.
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; - Administration; Transliteration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; Elections; Funds; Haifa, Israel
    1923 Mar An article entitled `Bahai Organization: Its Basis in the Revealed Word' was published in Star of the West. [SW13, 12:323-8]
  • The purpose of the article was to convince those who were opposed to a structured form of Bahá'í administration. [BBRSM123]
  • - Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies
    1923 23 Feb In a message to the Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and in Australia, Shoghi Effendi instructed that local assemblies must be established in localities where the number of believers, aged twenty-one and over, was nine or more and he delineated the responsibilities of those assemblies. [BA37-39]
  • In the same message he directed that, in countries where conditions are favourable and the number of believers merited it, that "secondary Houses of Justice" be established. He fixed the number of electors; in America-95, the Pacific Islands-95, Germany-95 and in Great Britain-19 and specified that they be elected annually. [BA39-41]
  • Local and National Funds were to be established because "the progress and execution of spiritual activities is dependent and conditioned upon material means". [BA41]
  • National Spiritual Assembly; National Assembly, election of; Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, election; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1923 16 Feb Declaration of the first native Hawaiian Bahá'í, Mae (Mary) Keali'i Kahumoku Tilton Fantom. She was from Maui. [Native Bahá'í - Indigenous Bahá'í] Mae (Mary) Kealii Kahumoku Tilton Fantom; Maui; Hawaii, USA first native Hawaiian Bahá'í.
    1923 12 Feb Bahai Scriptures, edited by Horace Holley, was published. [SBR231; Collins4.71-4.72]
  • It was the first comprehensive collection of Bahá'í writings made thus far in English. [SBR231]
  • Horace Holley; Bahá'í Scriptures (book); * Publications; - First publications; New York, USA; USA
    1923 8 Feb The keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh were returned to Shoghi Effendi. [GBF23; PP71] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; Bahji, Israel
    1923 3 Feb Shoghi Effendi wrote to the editors and manager of the Star of the West Albert Vail Miss Edna True Dr. Zia M. Baghdádí Mírzá Aḥmad Sohrab. He reported that he had requested every Spiritual Assembly throughout Persia, Turkestan, Caucasus, India, Egypt, 'Iráq, Turkey, Syria and Palestine to contribute periodically carefully written articles to the magazine, and submit regularly for publication a special report on their spiritual activities and the progress of the Cause in their own province. [Uncompiled Published Letters p30 by Shoghi Effendi]
  • He sent a similar note of encouragement to the editor of the Indian Bahá'í News and to the editors of The Dawn in Burma. [PP347-348; Uncompiled Published Letters p36 by Shoghi Effendi]
  • Star of the West; Indian Bahá'í News; Dawn, The (newsletter); - Periodicals; - Newsletters; - First publications; * Publications; - Bahá'í World Centre; New York, USA; India; Myanmar
    1923 Feb Shoghi Effendi sent his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; - Bahá'í World Centre; USA
    1923 Jan The Guardian sent `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335; SBR68; EJR223]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; `Abdu'l-Husayn Ávárih; Covenant-breakers; Europe
    1923 (In the year) After the passing of his wife, the eldest daughter and son-in-law of Mr. Uskuli arrived in Shanghai as pioneers. Also arriving were his mother, Sarah Khanum and his two younger daughters Rohani (Rawhaniyyih), and Jalalia (Jalaliyyih) as well as his son Goudrat (Qudrat). In 1934 these three younger children, accompanied by their grandmother, left to study at the American University at Beirut. Ridvaniyyih and 'Ali-Muhammad Suleimani returned to Iran in August of 1950 due to the difficult conditions in China at the time. [PH39; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 7 min 57 sec] Uskuli; Shanghai, China
    1923 (In the year) The publication of Bahai Manuscripts. Suggestions for Their Preservation and Arrangement by Charles Mason Remey. This publication had the approval of the National Bahá'í Archives Committee of America and the National Bahá'í Reviewing Committee of America. Archives; Manuscripts; Charles Mason Remey; Newport, RI
    1923 (In the year) The first Bahá'í Feast was held in New Zealand in the home of Margaret Stevenson. It was attended by Hyde Dunn from Australia. [SoW Vol 14 p25]
  • For photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Feast; Margaret Stevenson; Hyde Dunn; New Zealand first Bahá'í Feast held in New Zealand
    1923 (In the year) The keys for the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád were delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1923 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Indexes: Suggestions for the Arrangement of a Bibliography and Reference Indexes of the Bahá'í Teachings with Practical Explanations How to Build Up Baha'i Index Systems by Charles Mason Remey with the approval of the National Spiritual Assembly. - Indexes and catalogues; - Bibliography; Charles Mason Remey; East Lansing, MI
    1923 (In the year) Charles Mason Remey made preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723] Mason Remey; Báb, Shrine of; Haifa, Israel
    1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sent cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Switzerland; Haifa, Israel
    1922 10 Dec The first local assembly of Montreal was formed. [BW8:639, OBCC157, TG26] Local Spiritual Assembly; Montreal, QC; Quebec, Canada; Canada first Local Spiritual Assembly in Canada, first spiritual assembly in Montreal
    1922 30 Oct Louise Gregory landed in Liverpool from New York on board the Cunard vessel, the RMS Ausonia and visited family in Leeds and in France before going to Spa in Belgium. During this trip she visited Wiesbaden in Germany and she may have visited Stuttgart and then to Luxembourg where she was the first Bahá'í to teach the Faith. [SYH117-118, 237]
  • On the 16th of August 1923 she sailed from Southampton to New York on the SS Volendam of the Holland America Line. During this trip she had visited Leeds, England, Les Ambiers, Duex Sèvres in France, Spa in Belgium, Luxembourg, Wiesbaden in Germany and Ferndown Lodge in England. [SYH240]
  • Louise Gregory; Teaching; Liverpool, England
    1922 (Autumn) The Greatest Holy Leaf sent Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Switzerland; Haifa, Israel
    1922 9 Jul Bahá'ís gathered in the Foundation Hall of the Chicago House of Worship for the first time, to commemorate the martyrdom of the Báb. [CT158-9; SW13, 6:132]
  • Regular meetings were not held here until 1927. [CT158-9]
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Wilmette, IL; USA
    1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council met for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
  • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
  • The meeting was held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
  • All-England Bahá'í Council; Firsts, other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; United Kingdom first meeting of the future NSA of British Isles
    1922 (Late May) The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elected a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [EJR213; SBR28, 67]
  • This was also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [EJR2 13; SBR67]
  • See EJR213 and SBR28 for membership.
  • The social centre of the London group was Ethel Rosenburg with Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper and later Lady Blomfield also playing significant roles. The group in Manchester came from the working- or lower middle-class background with Edward Hall and other men in leadership positions. The group in Bournemouth developed around Dr. Esslemont. In addition to these centres there were a few scattered isolated believers. [SBBH5p220]
  • Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahá'í Council; London, England; Manchester, England; Bournemouth, England; United Kingdom
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedures followed that were used this period were not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahá'í Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Chicago, IL; USA
    1922 21 Apr The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb were electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
  • For the story of this project see He Loved He Served.
  • Electrification of the Shrines; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; Báb, Shrine of; Light; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahji, Israel; Mount Carmel MERGE
    1922 9 Apr Work commenced on the Western Pilgrim House. [PP69] Pilgrim House, Western; Pilgrim Houses; Haifa, Israel
    1922 8 Apr Bahíyyih Khánum wrote a general letter to the friends acknowledging the letters of allegiance received and saying that Shoghi Effendi was counting on the friends for their cooperation in spreading the Message adding that the Bahá'í world must, from now on, be linked through the Spiritual Assemblies and local questions must be referred to them, She announced Shoghi Effendi's temporary absence and his appointment of her as his representative. [GBF19] Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi left the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departed the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. On his way to the Bernese Oberland he went to Germany for medical consultations where they found that he had almost no reflexes [PP57; GBF19-20]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Haifa, Israel; Europe
    1922 Apr To the United States and Canada Shoghi Effendi sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
  • It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship.
  • This year the elected members of the Executive Board Bahá'í Temple Unity were: Mountfort Mills. Annie L. Parmerton. Bernard M. Jacobsen. Arthur S. Agnew. Corinne True. William H. Hoar. Joseph H. Hannen. Roy C. Wilhelm.
  • He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
  • Executive Board; Bahá'í Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Chicago, IL; USA
    1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi, in a letter to Bahíyyih Khánum, advised her that he would be taking a leave of absence from his duties as the Guardian. He appointed her to administer all Bahá'í affairs in his absence in consultation with the family of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Assembly he had recently appointed. [GBF19; PP57, 276]
  • Those appointed to the Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly were organized by Bahíyyih Khánum. [SETPE1p50; PP57] Mirza 'Azizu'lláh S. Bahadur was appointed to deal with Shoghi Effendi's correspondence during his absence and again during his second absence in the summer of 1923. [SYH119]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa Bahá'í Assembly; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; - Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Germany; United Kingdom; USA; Canada
    1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American Bahá'ís calling for the establishment of local assemblies wherever nine or more believers reside and directing that all activities be placed under the authority of the local and national assemblies. [BA17-25; BBRSM120-1; CB300] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; - Administration; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1922 4 Mar Shoghi Effendi cabled for a list of all believers in the United States and Canada over 21 years of age. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p22] Statistics; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1922 27 Feb Shoghi Effendi wrote to Professor Auguste Forel, advising him of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's passing and enclosing an English translation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's letter to Dr Forel written on the 21st of September, 1921. [The Life and Times of August Forel by Sheila Banani. [BW15p 37–43.] Auguste Forel
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was written entirely in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá'í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304]iiiii `Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of; * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Firsts, other; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Haifa, Israel; New York, USA; USA first translation for the believers in the West.
    1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq ordered the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54]
  • King Feisal, who had been crowned King of Syria in March 1920, was known to Àbdu'l-Bahá. In about July or August 1920 he had escaped Damascus in a cattle car bound for Haifa carrying a white donkey for Àbdu'l-Bahá. During his brief stay in Haifa the two became acquainted. [from Sunburst by Lorol Schopflocher p83-84 quoting from T E Lawrence's Revolt in the Desert]
  • King Faisal; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq took over the keys for the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
  • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
  • Helen Goodall; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; San Francisco, CA; USA
    1922 12 Feb Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney arrived in Haifa from their travel teaching trip in Burma and Bombay. [EJR208]

    Between the years of 1920 to 1922 they stayed in many cities in China including Chengdu.

    Travel Teaching; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Haifa, Israel; Myanmar; Mumbai, India; India
    1922 Feb-Mar Shoghi Effendi called together a group of well-known Bahá'ís to discuss the future development of the Faith and the possible election of the Universal House of Justice. It was the commonly held opinion of the members of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's family, the British officials in Palestine, many believers and indeed Shoghi Effendi himself as evidenced by his letter to Persia dated 16 January, 1922, that the Universal House of Justice would be elected. [BBRSM:120, 126; EJR207; PP247-8]
  • Those invited to attend were: Major Tudor Pole, Ethel Rosenberg and Lady Blomfield from England; Emogene Hoagg (she had been living in Haifa for some time at this point), Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney from France, Consul and Alice Schwarz from Germany, Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí of Burma, Roy Wilhelm, Mountfort Mills, Mason Remey, from North America as well as Corinne True and her daughter Katherine. Two well-known Bahá'í teachers from Persia, Avarih and Fazel had been invited to attend but due to complications their arrival was long delayed. [EJR207-8; PP55]
  • In a letter dated the 5th of March, 1922 Shoghi Effendi urged the Bahá'ís to subordinate firmly and definitely all personal likings and local interests to the interests and requirements of the Cause. He called for the establishment of local spiritual assemblies in every locality where the number of adult believers exceeded nine. He also described the tasks and functions of the assemblies saying that they would evolve into the local and national Houses of Justice. [PP248; SBR66]
  • See UD3-9; BA17-25 for the letter.
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1922 30 Jan Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Badí`u'lláh seized the keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR456-7; CB288-9, 333; ER205; GBF18; PP53]
  • The governor of `Akká ordered that the keys be handed over to the authorities and posted a guard at the Shrine. [BBR457; PP53-4]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR456-7.
  • Mírzá Muhammad Ali; Mírzá Badiullah; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; Bahji, Israel
    1922 24 Jan Dr Sarah A. Clock passed away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309] Sarah Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School, Tihran; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1922 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi wrote to the two major communities of the Faith, Persia and America, urging the believers to arise in service for the triumph of the Cause. [BA15-17; CB298-300; CT154]
  • See SoW Vol 13 No 1 21 March 1922 p17-18 for the letter to the Bahá'ís of America..
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1922 16 Jan The Greatest Holy Leaf cabled the United States with the news that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian. [PP48] Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahá'í World Centre; USA
    1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
  • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
  • William Hoar; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Fanwood, NJ; New Jersey, USA; USA
    1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [EJR199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [EJR200]
  • The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; `Abdu'l-Bahá, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haifa, Israel
    1922 6 Jan A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area was held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
  • More than a hundred poor were also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
  • For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; Haifa, Israel; Akka, Israel
    1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
  • Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
  • Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
  • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
  • The fact that Shoghi Effendi was to become 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successor was a well-guarded secret. The person who was privy to this appointment was the Greatest Holy Leaf. Another was a non-Bahá'í woman, Dr J. Fallscheer, a German physician who lived in Haifa and attended the ladies of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's household. When Shoghi Effendi was a child, 'Abdu'l-Bahá clearly stated to her that Shoghi Effendi would be His successor. But this information was not communicated to anybody else. [CoC30; PP1-2]
  • For a list of topics covered by the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see GPB328.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of; * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Covenant; Bahji, Israel
    1922 (In the year) Oswald Whitaker, a Sydney optometrist, and Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker, a photographer, become Bahá'ís, the first Australians to accept the Faith. [BW14:320; SBR160-1, BW2p129]
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. [BW14:320]
  • See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution while serving in Haifa.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
  • Oswald Whitaker; Effie Baker; Photography; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Australia; Iran the first Australians to accept the Faith
    1922 (In the year) The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by 'Abdu'l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt. Volume 2 was published in 1922 followed by Volume 2 in 1925. Volume 1 was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Chicago and Volume 2 by the same committee operating out of New York. [Collins3.98]
  • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
  • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
  • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those who believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
  • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
  • Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; * Publications; Chicago, IL; New York, USA; USA
    1921 (Late in the year) Mírzá Husayn Tútí arrived in the Philippines, the earliest known visit by a Bahá'í to this country. He stayed for four months. Mírzá Husayn Tuti; Philippines
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrived in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá was waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2; PP42]
  • He was so worn and grief-stricken that he had to be assisted up the stairs and was confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of; * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa, Israel
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi left England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
  • Due to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi could not leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66; PG202]
  • Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Mary Basil Hall (Mary Blomfield); Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz); London, England; United Kingdom; Haifa, Israel
    1921 5-6 Dec The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races was held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92; SYH113-114, 126]
  • Over a thousand people attended. [SW13, 3:51]
  • For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
  • For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
  • Race; Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Springfield, MA; Massachusetts, USA; USA
    1921 4 Dec On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn was distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
  • Up to this day 50 to 100 poor were fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); `Abdu'l-Bahá, House of; Haifa, Israel
    1921 2 Dec Ethel Rosenberg arrived in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [EJR181-2] Ethel Rosenberg; Haifa, Israel
    1921 1 Dec - 7 Dec Dr Esslemont made a trip from Bournemouth to London to visit Shoghi Effendi and offer support. He invited him back to Bournemouth where he stayed from the evening of the 2nd of December until the morning of the seventh. [PG199]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to a Bahá'í student in London describing his reaction to the news of the Master's passing. It would appear he had reconciled himself to the situation. [PG100; PP40-41]
  • See PG201 for the observations of others.
  • On the 7th of December he received a cable from the Greatest Holy Leaf urging him to return to the Holy Land. He left for London immediately. [PG100]
  • Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; London, England; Bournemouth, England; United Kingdom
    1921 (Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing) Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí published far and wide that he was the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís responded to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
  • Mírzá Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Will and Testament of; Egypt
    1921 29 Nov A cable was sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi was summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learned of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
  • See GBF13, PG199 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Oxford, England; London, England; United Kingdom
    1921 29 Nov The Faith had spread to 35 countries, an increase of 20 since the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [Patheos website]
  • The additional countries were: Saudi Arabia, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Treat Britain, Hawaiian Islands, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Jordon, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, Tunisia, and the United States.
  • Statistics
    1921 29 Nov The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
  • For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
  • For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
  • For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
  • Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
  • For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
  • Bahíyyih Khánum looked for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombed Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lay. [AB464; GBF14]
  • Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
  • Photo.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Báb, Shrine of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Haifa, Israel; Bahji, Israel; Mount Carmel MERGE
    1921 28 Nov Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá

    `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
  • For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
  • Sir Herbert Samuel and Sir Ronald Storrs led the funeral procession. [CH226]
  • This marked the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
  • For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
  • See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
  • For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
  • Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
  • This date marks the beginning of the First Epoch of the Transitional, Formative or Iron Age of the Faith.
  • See an account of the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá compiled by David Merrick.
  • See Part IX of The Utterance Project by Violetta Zein.
  • See WMSH26-52 for an account by John and Louise Bosch of the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the funeral, the reading if the Will, their subsequent time in the Holy Land and Egypt, and their teaching trip to Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. They arrived in New York on the 23rd of April and proceeded to Chicago to attend the National Convention. Shoghi Effendi had entrusted them with eight passages from the Will to be presented to the North American friends.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Formative Age; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Holy days; Covenant; Ronald Storrs; Herbert Samuel; Haifa, Israel
    1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad was decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allowed them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application went before the Court the Shi'a group prevailed upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and then return the keys to them. All this was against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case was passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decided in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1921 19 Nov The passing of Mírzá Abu'l-Ḥasan Afnán, a Persian nobleman and descendant of the family of the Báb. He had lived a long time in the Holy Land, and was very close and attached to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. He realized the impending passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he threw himself into the sea. [The Utterance Project; SoW Vol 12 No 18] Mírzá Abu'l-Hasan Afnan; Suicide
    1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í was poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevented the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Sangesar, Iran; Iran
    1921 6 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Michaelmas Term 1921
  • Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work. During his time in Oxford he acquired a love for The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon and could often be seen reading his abridged copy. He also admired the translation of the King James version of the Bible. [PG191-197]
  • 29 November: Shoghi Effendi was summoned to the office of Major Tudor-Pole at 61 St. James Street in London. [PG198]
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Oxford, England; United Kingdom
    1921 (early) Oct Shoghi Effendi visited the Bahá'í community of Manchester. At his first meeting with the friends he reported on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to the news that Nora Crossley had cut off her hair and offered it for auction to raise funds as her contribution for the construction of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Chicago.
  • See Some Bahá'ís to Remember p56 for the Tablet that 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent to Nora Crossley and the circumstances under which Shoghi Effendi presented it, as well as gifts from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, to her in the presence of the Bahá'ís of Manchester.
  • Although not one to allow pictures to be taken of himself, Shoghi Effendi insisted that a photo be taken of himself with the Manchester group. It can be seen at Worldwide Community of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See as well Memoirs of Nora Crossely: 1921. She writes that ...all the honours that were showered on me by the Beloved Master, were NOT solely because of my gift to the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, as most people think, but because I loved Him so much, I was prepared to obey Him, and carry out His wishes, AT ALL COST."
  • See also A Tribute to Nora Crossley by Rob Wienberg and the video based on Rob's paper.
  • Manchester, England
    1921 Fall 1921 - Spring 1922 Louis Gregory set out on his teaching trip that was described as "one of the most brilliant Baha'i Teaching Tours we have ever been privileged to have in they country". [TMW122]

    He visited the following cities: Oberlin, OH; Cleveland, OH; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MH; St Paul, MN; Duluth, MN; Lincoln, NE; Omaha, NE; Denver, CO; Pueblo, CO; Salt Lake City, UT; Butte, MT; Helena, MT; Spokane, WA; Seattle, WA; Vancouver, BC; Portland, OR; San Francisco, CA; Berkley, CA; Los Angeles, CA; Phoenix, AZ; Oklahoma City, OK; Tulsa, OK; Topeka, KS; Kansas City, MO; St Louis, MO; Springfield, IL; Urbana, IL

  • The following Spring Louis Gregory was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly which precluded such long tours although he did continue his shorter trips to the South. [TMW122]
  • Louis G. Gregory; Teaching; USA
    1921 21 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a 4,000 word Tablet for Dr Auguste Forel in response to a letter He received from him. The Tablet can be found at bahai.org, as well as in The Bahá'í World Vol. XV, pp. 37–43.

    Shoghi Effendi wrote of this Tablet: [GPB307]

      The famous scientist and entomologist, Dr. Auguste Forel, was converted to the Faith through the influence of a Tablet sent him by 'Abdu'l‑Bahá—one of the most weighty the Master ever wrote.
  • See The Kingdom of Existence by Dr Ali Murád Dávuidí. In addition to Dr. Forel´s biography and the text of the tablet addressed to him by Abdu´l-Bahá, contains Dr. Dávúdí's extensive studies of the tablet, as well as a glossary of terms that offers more explanations about its contents.
  • Auguste Forel; Tablet to Auguste Forel; * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; Haifa, Israel
    1921 Sep - Apr 1922 Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis Kelsey come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street. The work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922. [BW15p468-473] Electrification of the Shrines; Báb, Shrine of; Bahá'u'lláh, Shrine of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roy C. Wilhelm; Curtis Kelsey; - Bahá'í World Centre; Haifa, Israel; Bahji, Israel first lighting of the Holy Shrines.
    1921 20 Aug-19 Sep Agnes Alexander visited Korea, the first Bahá'í to do so. [BW2:44] Agnes Alexander; Korea the first Bahá'í to visit Korea.
    1921 9 Jul Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání left the United States for the Holy Land. [AB443footnote] Mírzá Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; USA; - Bahá'í World Centre
    1921 Jul-Aug Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background were harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution; Qom, Iran; Iran
    1921 20 Jun - 3 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Long Vacation 1921

  • Those students who wished to continue their studies during the vacation were required to move to an annex situated near Manchester College known as Holywell Annexe.
  • His English style was influenced by his reading of the King James Bible as well as British historians Thomas Carlyle and Edward Gibbons, the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. [SEO106; PP37]
  • At some point during this period of his residency in England Shoghi Effendi made the acquaintance of Sir E Denison Ross, the first director of the University of London's School of Oriental Studies. He was the British Empire's leading scholar of the Persian and Arabic languages. His opinion was the gold standard and he had high praise for Shoghi Effendi's translation of The Dawn-Breakers. [PP216]
  • Shoghi Effendi met with Edna True at her hotel in London as she was passing through. [PG178]
  • He visited Dr. Esslemont in Bournemouth probably around the 20th of July for two weeks. [PG179]
  • 26 July: He went to London to meet his sister and went with her to the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [PG179]
  • At some point during the vacation he visited Crow-borough. [PG179]
  • Obedient to the instructions of the Master he spent some time during the break in rest in Torquay in August, at least from the 10th to the 29th of the month. [PG179-180]
  • 25 September (approx.) He travelled to London to sent his sister to Scotland to resume her studies. She had been staying with Mrs Thornburg-Cropper (at 20 Bloomsbury Square?). While there he met with Lady Blomfield. [PG181]
  • 1 to 6 October: Shoghi Effendi and his friend Díyá'u'lláh Asgharzádih travelled to Manchester, a community of some thirty believers. They stayed at the home of Jacob Joseph where a meeting of the community was held that evening. The group sent a letter to the Master which Shoghi Effendi translated the following day. He also sent a report of the situation in Manchester to the Master. [PG182-190]
  • See PG206-207 for a photo of Shoghi Effendi with the Manchester Bahá'ís and with the Joseph brothers.
  • See PG193 for a subsequent note from Shoghi Effendi to the friends in Manchester.
  • See PG193-194 for the Master's response to their joint supplication dated 18 October, 1921 and excerpts from Tablets to individuals.
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Oxford, England; London, England; Bournemouth, England; Torquay, England; Manchester, England; United Kingdom
    1921 summer Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, became a Bahá'í. Siegfried Schopflocher; - Hands of the Cause
    1921 29 May Alessandro Bausani, the Italian Bahá'í who was an Islamic scholar, linguist and historian of comparative religions, was born in Rome. Alessandro Bausani; Rome, Italy; Italy
    1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference was held in Washington DC at the old First Congregational Church, 10th & G Streets NW. This church had a reputation for opposition to racial prejudice and had close ties with Howard University. It had a capacity of 2,000. [BW2:281; CoO197; SYH126]

    Referring back to this historic event, Abdu'l-Baha, in a Tablet to Roy Williams (an African-American Baha'i from New York City), wrote:

      I hope that the Congress of the White and the Colored that was instituted will have great influence in the inhabitants of America, so that everyone may confess and bring witness that the teachings of His Holiness, Baha'u'llah, assembles the White, the Black, the Yellow, the Red and the Brown under the shade of the pavilion of the Oneness of the World of Humanity; and that if the teachings of His Holiness, Baha'u'llah, be not enforced, the antagonism between the Colored and the White, in America, will give rise to great calamities. The ointment for this wound and the remedy for this disease is only the Holy Breaths [Holy Spirit]. If the hearts be attracted to the Heavenly Bounties, surely will the White and the Colored, in a short time, according to the teachings of Baha'u'llah, put away hatred and animosity and [abide in] perfect love and fellowship. (Haifa, August 2, 1921, translated by Touhi [Ruhi] M. Afnan.) [The Bahá'í "Pupil of the Eye" Metaphor—What Does it Mean? by Christopher Buck]
  • Martha Root handled the newspaper publicity for the conference and 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to it via Mountfort Mills. [SYH126]
  • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
  • For details of the conference see the article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
  • See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
  • The Washington Bee (which, as part of its masthead, billed itself "Washington's Best and Leading Negro Newspaper") published the text of the entire speech on May 25, 1912, in an article headlined, "Abdue [ sic] Baha: Revolution in Religious Worship."
  • Documentary: 'Abdu'l-Baha's Initiative on Race from 1921: Race Amity Conferences.
  • See the film Root of the Race Amiy Movement.
  • See the trailer for the film An American Story: Race Amity and the Other Tradition.
  • See the website for the National Centre for Race Amity.
  • Race; Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; - First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis G. Gregory; Martha Root; Mountfort Mills; Washington, DC, USA; USA First Race Amity Conference
    1921 25 Apr - 23 Jun Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Trinity Term at Balliol College 1921

  • The Trinity Term — 15 Sundays to 21 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary.
  • In order to not waste any time during his stay at Oxford, in the first part of this term he made plans for a competent tutor to work with him during the upcoming long vacation. [PG173]
    • He sought the assistance of Ethel Rosenburg and Miss Cropper to secure a place with Reynold Nicholson as his tutor. He was professor of Persian and Arabic at Cambridge and was known for his translation of Rumi into English. [SEO106]
    • During this term he was able to socialize with his fellow students and participate in college clubs such as the Lotus Club where he presented a paper. [PG177]
    • 4 May: Shoghi Effendi presented a paper to the Bahá'í community in London. [PG177}
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Reynold Nicholson; Oxford, England; United Kingdom
    1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturned an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1921 spring Dr Genevieve Coy was chosen as the director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán to replace Lillian Kappes. [SBR203] Genevieve Coy; Tarbiyat School, Tihran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1921 21 Mar Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. DP108]
  • See DP107 for a picture of Bahá'ís inaugurating the construction of Foundation Hall.
  • Note: The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p.5 says construction commenced in December 1920.
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Wilmette, IL; USA
    1921 mid Mar - 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - Spring Vacation 1921
  • 27 March: He visited his sister Rúhangíz in Scotland during the early part of his spring vacation.
  • In all likelihood, at some point he visited London and stayed at the home of Mírzá Yúhaná Dáwúd. [PG171]
  • Shoghi Effendi and spent the latter part of the vacation period in Sussex where he spent a few days in Fermote Villa for rest following 'Abdu'l-Bahá's instructions to do so. [PG171]
  • He continued to work on translations during this period. [PG171]
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Oxford, England; Scotland; Sussex, England; United Kingdom
    1921 Mar Two Bahá'í publications began, Sonne der Wahrheit, meaning Sun of Truth, and Wirklichkeit, meaning Reality. [BWNS1289; German Bahá'í website archive] Sonne der Wahrheit (Sun of Truth); Wirklichkeit (Reality); - Periodicals; - First publications; * Publications; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Germany first Baha'i publications in Germany
    1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh, who succeeded to the throne at age 11, (reigned 1909–25) was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; - Shahs; Qajar dynasty; - Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1921 1 Feb Leonora Holsapple Armstrong, the first Bahá'í pioneer in Latin America, arrived in Rio de Janeiro. She had departed New York on the SS Vasari on the 15th of January. [Baha'iBlog]
  • See a talk by Kristine Ascunsion Young, the great-grand niece of Leonora Holsapple Armstrong. The discourse begins at about 2:30.
  • Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Brazil
    1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád was granted and the Bahá'is were evicted. [SETPE1p25] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih was assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He was the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Kirmánsháh, Iran; Iran
    1921 Jan - mid Mar Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Hilary Term 1921
  • Permission was issued by the Non-Collegiate Delegacy for the migration of Shoghi Effendi into Balliol. He now had the privilege of living in the college and fully participating in college life. [PG161]
  • Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work while at Oxford. During the second term (Jan - Easter or, more formally Hilary term — 1 Sunday to 9 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary). Some examples are: Persian Hidden Words, the Tablet of Visitation, Arabic Hidden Words and the Epistle to Queen Victoria.
  • He read a paper on the Faith to the Oxford University Asiatic Society. For the full text of the paper see PG227-240. The paper was serialized in "The Dawn", a monthly Bahá'í journal of Burma in 1923 - 1924. [PG168-169, 259]
  • Oxford University Asiatic Society; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; * Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Dawn, The (newsletter); - Newsletters; Translation; Oxford, England; United Kingdom; Myanmar
    1921 (In the year) The first publication in Chinese was published by the Bahá'ís in Shanghai. [Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 7min40sec] Shanghai, China the first publication in Chinese was published by the Bahá'ís in Shanghai.
    1921 (In the year) Mohi al-Din al-Kurdi, (Sheikh Muhyí's-Dín Sabrí) a Bahá'í from Egypt, from the noble elders of Al-Azhar, arrived in Tunisia to make known the message of Bahá'u'lláh. [Website of the Bahá'ís of Tunisia]
  • 100 year later this event was commemorated. [BWNS1577]
  • Mohieddine Kurdi; Pioneering; Tunisia
    1921 (In the year) The publication of Abdul Baha in London; Addresses, & Notes of Conversations (American edition). Published by the Bahai Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago, IL
    1921 (In the year) The publication of Bahai: The Spirit of the Age by Horace Holley. It was published in New York by Brentano's Publishers. Bahá'í: The Spirit of the Age; Horace Holley; * Publications; New York, USA; USA
    1921 (After Mandate) After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorized repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attracted the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and, after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sued for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1921 (In the year) A journal called Bahá'í News started publishing in English and Persian. [BWNS1289] Bahá'í News; - Periodicals; - First publications; * Publications; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); India first Baha'i periodical in India
    1921 (In the year) The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq began. It would last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Iraq
    1921 (In the year) The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, was born in Portuguese Guinea. Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Births and deaths; Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau
    1921 - 1936 The years 1921 to 1936 were labelled by the Guardian as a "Period of Preparation" during which there were no concerted plans of action assigned to national communities.

    "Its initiation, (The Tablets of the Divine Plan) officially and on a vast scale, had, for well nigh twenty years, been held in abeyance, while the processes of a slowly emerging administrative Order, were, under the unerring guidance of Providence, creating and perfecting the agencies for its efficient and systematic prosecution." [WOB78]

    Period of Preparation; - Teaching Plans
    1921 - 1944/46 The beginning of The First Epoch of the Formative Age. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 5 February 1986; Mess63-86 p710-716]
  • See the attachment for the above-referenced message entitled The Epochs of the Formative Age prepared by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice.
  • It began with the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and ended with the conclusion of the first Seven Year Plan pursued by the Bahá'ís of North America under Shoghi Effendi's direction in which the skeleton of the Administrative Order was set up. [Mess86-01p815]
  • Ages and Epochs; Formative Age
    1921 - 1980 The Bahá'í community of Iran began publishing a monthly magazine called Aḵbār-e amrī, a publication whose name means "News of the Cause". Containing the holy writings of the Bahá'í faith, domestic and foreign Bahá'í news, official announcements of Bahá'í administrative bodies, and articles on various aspects of the Faith, the magazine became a vital means of communication and a register of the main historical events for six decades until its closing in 1980. It was published by "Lajnih-yi Nashr-i Nafahát" (Committee for the Diffusion of the Divine Fragrances) until 1978 and then by Mahfil-i Ruhání-yi Millí-yi Baháiyán-i Írán (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran) [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati; BWNS1289]
  • Scanned copies from B.E. 102 to B.E. 111 and B.E. 116 were taken from bound copies of the journal originally owned by Mr Hormuzdiar Sabet and contain his annotations, frequently noting the original English text that has been translated in the journal.
  • Akhbar-i-Amri (News of the Cause); - Periodicals; - Newsletters; - First publications; * Publications; Bahá'í World News Service (BWNS); Iran
    1920 27-29 Dec The first All-India Bahá'í Convention was held in Bombay with 175 in attendance. [AB446; BBRSM194; 115] Conferences, Bahá'í; - First conferences; Mumbai, India; India The first All-India Bahá'í Convention
    1920 1 Dec Lillian Frances Kappes,(b. 1878 in Hoboken, New Jersey), died of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5, AY211-212]
  • She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
  • She was buried next to the tomb of Varqa.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School, Tihran; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel. [BBD98; EB250]
  • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covered the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
  • For his biography see EB237-50.
  • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
  • Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Angel of Carmel; Haifa, Israel
    1920 16 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Michaelmas Term 1920

  • Because there wasn't a vacancy in Balliol College, Shoghi Effendi could not register during the first term. Although he was not registered in the College he attended every day and took instruction from tutors. During this time he took lodgings at 45 Broad Street. [PG151-155]
  • 23 October: Shoghi Effendi officially matriculated in the Non-Collegiate Delegacy, a week after starting lectures for the Michaelmas term (Oct-Christmas, or, more formally Michaelmas term — 13 Sundays before to 5 Sundays before the feast day of St Hilary). [PG157]
  • Shoghi Effendi hosted a visit from his childhood friend Ali Yazdi who was on his way to America. [RG 158-159]
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Oxford, England; United Kingdom
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá was killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís were imprisoned. [BW18:387]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Farugh, Iran; Fars, Iran; Iran
    1920 Oct Shoghi Effendi entered Balliol College, Oxford University. [CB284; DH149; GBF11-12]
  • For his purpose in going to Oxford see GBF12.
  • For his time in Oxford see PP34-8.
  • A Q Faizi is reported to have said, during a talk to pilgrims in May-June, 1965 that "Shoghi Effendi was sent to Oxford to protect him from potential enemies, not to learn English or be educated." [SDSC273]
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College, Oxford University; Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Oxford, England; United Kingdom
    1920 24 Sep Boring began at the site of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette to determine the depth of the bedrock. [DP104]
  • Soon afterwards construction began. [DP108]
  • Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Wilmette, IL; USA
    1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán were demolished by a mob. [BBR437; LB94]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
  • Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Destruction; - Persecution; - Persecution, Mobs; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossmann and his sister Elsa Grossman, accepted the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
  • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
  • Dr Grossman heard of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
  • Hermann Grossmann; Elsa Grossmann; Harlan Ober; Grace Robarts Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Leipzig; Germany The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman,
    1920 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi journeyed from Oxford to London to attend the weekly public Bahá'í meeting at Lindsay Hall in Notting Hill Gate. Ethel Rosenberg welcomed Shoghi Effendi, Dr. John Esslemont, who was visiting from Bournemouth, Helen Grand and Grace and Harlan Ober from the United States also attended. After short introductory remarks from Miss Rosenberg, both Grace and Harlan Ober spoke. Shoghi Effendi chanted a Persian prayer. [EJR228] Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Ethel Rosenberg; John Esslemont; Helen Grand; Grace Robarts Ober; Harlan Ober; London, England; United Kingdom
    1920 19 Jul Shoghi Effendi departed from France two weeks after receiving 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to study at Oxford. According to Dr J. Fallscheer, the German woman physician that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had engaged to attend to the ladies of His household, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had decided to send Shoghi Effendi to England while he was still in high school. [PG137-138] Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College, Oxford University; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Fallscheer, Dr J.; Paris, France; France; Oxford, England; United Kingdom
    1920 8 Jul August Rudd, a Swede who had becme a Bahá'í in America, returned to his native country, to become the first Bahá'í in Sweden. [BWT8:980-2]. August Rudd; Sweden The the first Bahá'í in Sweden
    1920 1 Jul 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent His second Tablet to The Hague.
  • In this second Tablet `Abdu'l-Bahá defined the Bahá'í peace program and covered a wide spectrum of peace-producing Bahá'í social and spiritual teachings. [BW3:12]
  • It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 17 19 January, 1921.
  • See as well 'Abdu'l-Bahá Champion of Universal Peace by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Khan.
  • Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Second Tablet to The Hague; * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; The Hague; Netherlands
    1920 Jul Harlan and Grace Ober made a pilgrimage to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa. They returned via Germany and England where they had the privilege of meeting Shoghi Effendi, then a student at Oxford. In Germany, at the suggestion of 'Abdu'l-Bahá they went to Leipzig where they spoke about the Faith at the Theosophical Society where two persons accepted the Faith. One was future Hand of the Cause Dr Hermann Grossmann and the other was Frau Lina Benke who shared the message with her husband George Adam Benke, the first European martyr. [BW13p869] Harlan Ober; Grace Robarts Ober; Pilgrimage; Hermann Grossmann; Lina Benke; George Benke; Haifa, Israel; Germany; Leipzig; Oxford, England
    1920 Jul-Aug Fanny Knobloch, the first Bahá'í teacher in South Africa, arrived in Cape Town. [BW2:40].
  • In her first week she met Miss Busby who within a very short time is the first person to become a Bahá'í in South Africa.
  • Fanny Knobloch; Cape Town, South Africa; South Africa first Bahá'í in South Africa; the first Bahá'í teacher in South Africa
    1920 11 Jun Shoghi Effendi made application to Balliol College at Oxford University as a non-collegiate student for a period of two years. [PG134] Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College, Oxford University; Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Neuilly; France; Oxford, England; United Kingdom
    1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, (b. 6 May, 1857 in Wisconsin), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. He was interred in Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, USA Show Map Section K Lot 42. [SBR105; Find a grave]
  • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
  • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
  • Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Boston, MA; Massachusetts, USA; USA
    1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Sultanabad, India; Iran
    1920 17 May The Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace was delivered to the Executive Comittee in The Hague.

    Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq learned that the Central Organization had been all but dissolved and that the Executive Committee's objective, to hold a third peace conference, had been surpassed by their country's membership in the recently formed League of Nations in Geneva. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308; EB176]

  • See also The Journey of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to The Hague. It is a photographic chronology by Jelle and Adib de Vries of the Netherlands.
  • See BWNS1378 and BWNS1431.
  • It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 8 1 August 1920.

    On the 12th of June, the Executive Committee of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague responded to 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet. Ahmad Yazdani immediately forwarded it to Haifa.

  • * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad); Peace; World peace; - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Haifa, Israel; The Hague; Netherlands
    1920 mid July - mid October Shoghi Effendi arrived in England to take up his studies at Oxford. His stated objective was:

      "My sole aim is to perfect my English, to acquire the literary ability to write it well, speak it well & translate correctly & eloquently from Persian & Arabic into English. My aim is to concentrate for two years upon this object & to acquire it through the help of a tutor, by attending lectures, by associating with cultured & refined literary circles & by receiving exercises in Phonetics. I would be much obliged if you could help me along that line." [SEO61]
  • He spent one week in London. He brought with him Tablets from the Master for Lady Blomfield, Lord Lamington and Major Tudor-Pole.
  • 21 July: Shoghi Effendi met Dr. Esslemont at a meeting of the believers Lindsay Hall in Notting Hill Gate. The meeting was also attended by Mr and Mrs Ober visiting from America.
  • 22 July: Dr Esslemont called on Shoghi Effendi at his hotel and they went to Miss Grand's home were the Obers were staying.
  • 23 July: Dr Esslemont met Shoghi Effendi at Miss Rosenberg's and together they went to the Grand home where some 17 people were introduced to the Faith. [PG141]
  • 26 July: Dr Esslemont came to London to meet Shoghi Effendi and they both visited Miss Herrick. [PG142]
  • He relocated to Oxford and stayed at the Randolph Hotel. He met with professors and looked for tutors. [PG142]
  • Probably in the early days of August Shoghi Effendi met with Lord Lamington. [PG142]
  • Although it was still the long vacation Shoghi Effendi started his work with the assistance of a tutor. [PG142]
  • 10-15 September: Shoghi Effendi visited Dr Esslemont at the sanitorium where he practiced in Bournemouth. They were joined by Shoghi Effendi's sister Rúhangíz and by a Persian believer Aflátún. [PG142-143]
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Translation; London, England; Oxford, England; Bournemouth, England; United Kingdom
    1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; - Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Design; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Architecture; New York, USA; USA; Wilmette, IL
    1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire as Sir Abbas Effendi in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306; The Glorious Journey by Craig Weaver and Helen Bond p19]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood was in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepted the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He did not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
  • See SoW vol 13 No 11 p298.
  • See Senn McGlinn's Abdu'l-Baha's British knighthood.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Knighthood (KBE); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Mary Basil Hall (Mary Blomfield); - Basic timeline, Expanded; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; Haifa, Israel; Abu-Sinan, Israel; Palestine; Israel
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for France with the intention of taking up his study of English at Oxford University. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
  • Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College, Oxford University; Haifa, Israel; Oxford, England; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France
    1920 10 Apr Clara and Hyde Dunn arrived in Sydney, Australia. [AB445] SBR158 says this was 18 Apr 1919.
  • They are thought to be the first Bahá'í pioneers to have arrived at their post after the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [G. Hassel]
  • Within three years they had visited 225 towns. [Keynote address by Dr. Vahid Saberi at the Heroes Teaching Conference 6-7 April, 2019]
  • By the time Hyde passed away in Sydney in 1941 the Bahá'í Teachings had been taken to every State; Local Spiritual Assemblies had been established in Auckland, Sydney and Adelaide; the National Spiritual Assembly had been established in 1934 and the Yerrinbool Bahá'í School had been inaugurated in 1938. [Spiritual conquerors of this wide, brown land by Graham Hassall]
  • In 2020 the Australian community commemorated the centenary this event.
  • A 26-page booklet called A Vision of Unity was published.
  • See Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1920-1947 by Graham Hassall in SBBH14 p201 and in Journal of Religious History, 16:3, pages 315-338 1991-06.
  • Clara and Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Hyde Dunn; - Hands of the Cause; Sydney, Australia; Australia the first Bahá'í pioneers to have arrived at their post after the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1920 3 Apr The founders of Teheran branch of Societé Nonahalan 'Children's Savings Fund' were Mirza Mohammed Tabib, Miss Lillian F. Kappes, Mirza Nuredin, Doctor Susan I. Moody, and Goodsea Ashraf Khanom. [Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran]

    The Bahá'í Children's Savings Company, known in Iran as Shirkat-i Nawnahalan, began as a savings bank for Bahá'í children in 1917 and was founded through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's encouragement. [Bahá'í Teachings 4 Oct 2012]

    Childrens Savings Fund; Nonahalan Society; Mírzá Mohammed Tabib; Lillian Kappes; Mírzá Nuredin; Doctor Susan Moody; Goodsea Ashraf Khanom; Nawnahalan; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1920 3 Apr The founders of Teheran branch of Societé Nonahalan 'Children's Savings Fund' were Mirza Mohammed Tabib, Miss Lillian F. Kappes, Mirza Nuredin, Doctor Susan I. Moody, and Goodsea Ashraf Khanom. [Women's Worlds in Qajar Iran] Childrens Savings Fund; Nonahalan Society; Mírzá Mohammed Tabib; Lillian Kappes; Mírzá Nuredin; Doctor Susan Moody; Goodsea Ashraf Khanom; Tehran, Iran
    1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois was selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
  • See FMH75-76 for details of a visit by Willard and Doris McKay to his home. He reported that "the inspiration for the Temple was from another realm and that he had been conscious, from the beginning, that Bahá'ulláh was the creator of the building."
  • Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Wilmette; Architecture; - Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Design; * Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (House of Worship); Architects; Wilmette, IL; Chicago, IL; USA first House of Worshp
    1920 Apr Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. [AB443; SBR88; PG127]
  • His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities (1920-1921). [AB443]
  • He stayed for one year. [AB443]
  • He visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi and arrived in time to speak at the World Unity Conference in San Francisco in March of 1925. [Li47; Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
  • See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
  • See SoW Vol 14 for photo.
  • Mírzá Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Manuchihr Khan; Conventions, National; USA
    1920 Mar John and Louise Bosch pioneered in Tahiti until September, the first Bahá'ís to travel to the island.
  • See BW3p368 for an account of their stay written by Louise.
  • Louise Bosch; John Bosch; Tahiti the first Bahá'ís to travel to Tahiti
    1920 27 Jan The passing of Joseph H. Hannen, (b. January 27, 1920, Allegheny, Pennsylvania) Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a truck in Washington, DC. [Washington Evening Star 29 Jan 1920]

    It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace have been accredited to him. [The Washington Times 28 January, 1928]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He and his wife Pauline taught the Faith to African Americans; among those they taught were Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy pp 38-39 by Christopher Buck, Kalimat Press]

    He was buried with his wife, Pauline Amalie Knobloch Hannen (b. 29 August, 1874 d. 4 October, 1939) in Prospect Hill Cemetery, in Washington, DC. iiiii

    Joseph Hannen; Pauline Hannen; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tablets of the Divine Plan; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Pocahontas Pope; Washington, DC, USA; Allegheny, PA; USA
    1920 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a Tablet to a group in Chile. [SWAB:246-50] * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; Chile
    1920 early Jan The arrival of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's hand-built seven-seater Cunningham touring car made in Rochester NY by James Cunningham and Sons. The automobile probably cost in the range from $7,500 to $8.000 and was a gift from Mrs Ella Goodall Cooper. [Coachbuilt website]
    Mr. Fujita accompanied the shipment from the United States to Haifa where he maintained the car and was one of the drivers. The Master gave Shoghi Effendi instructions to see that it was cleared and delivered to the house after receiving notice of its arrival from Port Said. Although it was not a business day, he succeeded in getting the car delivered by taking the papers to the homes of various officials, asking them to sign the documents and give the necessary orders for the car of Sir 'Abdu'l-Baha 'Abbas to be delivered to Him at once.
    Although Abdul-Baha rode in the Cunningham car on occasions, it was predominantly used for transporting the pilgrims. The car has since been restored and pilgrims have the opportunity to see it. [PP28, Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings; PG126]
    `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Ella Goodall Cooper; Saichiro Fujita; Cars; Gifts; Pilgrimage; Haifa, Israel
    1920 - 1922 Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney visited China and the Far East from 1920 to 1922. [Film Early History of the Baha'í Faith in China 8 min 23 sec ] Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; China
    1920 (In the year) Agnes Parsons made her second pilgrimage. It was during this visit that 'Abdu'l-Baha charged her with the responsibility to arrange a convention for amity between the the coloured and the white races in Washington. [SYH124-125; TMW136] Agnes Parsons; Pilgrimage; Race amity; Haifa, Israel; Akka, Israel; Bahji, Israel
    1920 (in the year) Fanny Knobloch arrived in Mozambique, the first Bahá'í to visit this country. She gave some `drawing room talks' at the mansion of the Portuguese Governor-General and spoke at various clubs. [BW2p40] Fanny Knobloch; Mozambique first Bahá'í to visit Mozambique
    1920 (In the year) George Townshend became a Bahá'í, and sent a letter of acceptance of the Faith to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GT49] George Townshend; - Hands of the Cause; Dublin, Ireland; Ireland
    1920 (in the year) Hyde and Clara Dunn arrived in Samoa enroute to Australia, the first Bahá'ís to visit the islands.
  • For a history of the development of the Faith in Australia and in New Zealand, from 1920 when the Hydes arrived until 1947 when the National Spiritual Assembly initiated a systematic teaching campaign, see Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia, 1920-1947 by Graham Hassall in Bahá'ís in the West SBBH Vol 14 pp201-226.
  • It is also available on Bahai-Library.com.
  • Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Islands; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Samoa first to visit Samoa
    1920 (in the year) Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, was martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387]
  • Momen reports the year of martyrdom as 1921. [Bahá'í History of Gílán by Moojan Momen]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Rasht, Iran; Iran
    1920 (in the year) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1920 (in the year) The British Mandate for Palestine began. [BBR488]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
  • For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
  • For details see SA140-3.
  • British history; History (general); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Palestine; Israel

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