Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

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Date 185-, descending sort earliest first

date event tags firsts
1858 – 1862 It was in this period that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Seven Valleys (Haft Vadi) in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh described the "seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence." These seven stages were originally proposed by the great Persian Sufi poet Shaykh Faridu'd-Din Attar (d1230C.E) in his renowned work the Mantiqu't-Tayr (The Conference of the Birds.) [BBS94; GPB140; BBD206; BBRSM:64; SA150; BKG161-163; RoB1p98-101]
  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA150.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Seven Valleys; Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Sufism; Mysticism; Shaykh Muhyid-Din; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Kurdistan
    1858 Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh.
  • It was Mírzá Áqá Khán while Prime Minister during the arrest and imprisonment of Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran, who transferred the deeds of some of Bahá'u'lláh's properties in Núr into his own name and plundered some of the riches in His home in Tehran. [RoB1p10-11]
  • Mírzá Aqa Khan; - Prime Ministers of Iran; - Prime Ministers; Nasirid-Din Sháh; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; - Shahs; Iran
    1858 19 Jul Nabil, who had met Bahá'u'lláh in 1850, was one of the Bábí leaders who claimed to be the promised messianic figure according to the Báb's prophecies. After his return to Baghdad he withdrew his claim when he recognized Bahá'u'lláh's status as the fulfillment of the Báb's predictions and the leader of the Bábís. He became one of Bahá'u'lláh's earliest followers. [RoB1p202, "Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Nabil-i-Azam; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1857-1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated 'The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40]
  • See Kalemat-e Makuna in Encyclopaedia Iranica by Moojan Momen.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Fatimah (daughter of Muhammad); Tigris River; Rivers; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Interfaith dialogue; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    c. 1857 - 1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Four Valleys, (Chahar Vadi) addressed to Shaykh 'Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání (or Karkútí), a man of erudition and understanding and a leader of the Qádiríyyih Order, someone He had come in contact with in Kurdistán. In it He describes four different paths of approach to the Divine. [SA157–8, BKG163; RoB1p104]

      "The Four Valleys was revealed ... in a mystical language and style, in response to a request made by a prominent Sufi. Yet, despite the traditional Sufi concepts, language, and symbolism employed by Bahá'u'lláh, studying the text in light of the totality of Bahá'í writings demonstrates that its main purpose is to guide the wayfarers to the recognition of the Manifestation of God, soon to be revealed to be Bahá'u'lláh Himself. Furthermore, understanding the text as portraying two complementary paradigms—four parallel paths towards God and the four stages of a single path—leads to integrative and holistic perspectives and practices prescribed in the Bahá'í writings." [Reflections on The Four Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh by Amrollah Hemmat found in the Journal of Bahá'í Studies 30 4 2020]
    * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Shaykh Abdur-Rahman-i-Talabani; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1857 c. The revelation of Sahíiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River or Book of the Tigris) by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See Tablet of the River [Tigris] by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole, 1997 for the background to the Tablet and a translation. Cole contends, by his translation, that at this time Bahá'u'lláh, had no thought of advancing any claim to Revelation.
  • See Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River by Nader Saiedi published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3, 1999 where Saiedi postulates, based on his translation that Bahá'u'lláh was fully aware of His mission from at least the time of his imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal and rejects any suggestion that Bahá'u'lláh's consciousness evolved in this regard.
  • See Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure by Moojan Momen published in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 Association for Bahá'í Studies of New Zealand, 2007, where Momen contends that the controversy is an illusory one caused by the specific nature of the meaning of the word "amr" and that the phrase that is the subject of dispute proves neither side's case, however it is translated. He explains it by say there is a theological schematic of the stages of the evolution of the mission of the Manifestations of God, the phenomenon of a period of messianic concealment followed by a theophanic disclosure. He then imposes this schematic upon the dispensation of the Báb creating a new interpretation of His ministry and further suggests it could be applied to the Revelation of Muhammad and Jesus.
  • Shahifiy-i-Shattiyyih (Book of the River); Rivers; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Birth of Revelation of; Bahá'u'lláh, Declaration of; Tigris River; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1856 (after Bahá'u'lláh's return) Siyyid Asadulláh of Khuy was an influential and devoted Bábi whom the Báb had designated "Dayyán" (Judge). During Mírzá Yahyá's leadership in Baghdad he had found him so weak and the community so desperate that he, like some twenty others, declared himself to be to be the Promised One. He soon rescinded his claim after Bahá'u'lláh's return when he, as the Báb had promised, became the third person to believe in Bahá'u'lláh. Mírzá Yahyá saw this man a threat and ordered his servant Mírzá Muhammad-i-Mázindarání to murder him. [MCS562]

    In Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (p174-176) Bahá'u'lláh mentions Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar, a relative of the Báb and Abu'l-Qásim-i-Káshí and states "several other suffered martyrdom through the decree pronounced by Mírzá Yahyá."

    Dayyan (Mírzá Asadullah); Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mírzá Muhammad-i-Mazindarani; Mírzá `Alí-Akbar; Abu'l-Qasim-i-Kashi; He Whom God shall make manifest; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1856 Mar During Bahá'u'lláh's absence Mírzá Musá rented a house near the Al-Kazimiyya mosque and shrine, in the Kādhimayn district in Baghdad. (It is the burial place of Imam Musa Al-Kadhim and Imam Muhammad Al-Jawad, they are respectively the Seventh and the Ninth of the Twelve Imams.) The house was large, two or three stories, and was made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house was purchased. He later named it "The Most Great House" and designated it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet to be used when making a pilgrimage to the House. [GWB111-114; 114-115]
  • House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Pilgrimage; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Mírzá Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq
    1856 19 Mar Áqá Kalím, Bahá'u'lláh's faithful brother, felt that Bahá'u'lláh should return from his self-imposed exile owning to the state of the community so he sent his Arab father-in-law, Shaykh Sultán, to find Him and try to convince Him to return. He carried letters from several family members, including Mírzá Yahyá, pleading with Him to return. [Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandi Sufis in Iraq, 1854-1856 p20-21]

    Bahá'u'lláh returned from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán two years after His withdrawal, a moment Shoghi Effendi has described as "a turning point of the utmost significance in the history of the first Bahá'í century." [GPB127]

    Baha'u'llah's return revived and animated the Bábí community.

    "He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

    We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Mírzá Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq; Kurdistan
    1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period were so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He revealed a vast number of works and then commanded that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Missing, lost or destroyed Writings; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq
    c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-'Ulyá (Fatimih). Samadiyyih Khanum; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq First daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
    1855 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. Robert Turner; Births and deaths; USA First African-American Baha'i.
    1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. [Bahá'í Chronicles] Hyde Dunn; Birth; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; London, England; United Kingdom
    1855 During Bahá'u'lláh's absence At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182] Mírzá Aqa Jan; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Sháh; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point prior to Bahá'u'lláh's retirement to the mountains of Kurdistán, had joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home.
  • See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals.
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq
    1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh in Sulaymaniyyih
    Bahá'u'lláh suddenly left Baghdád and went to the mountainous wilderness of Sar Galu, around Sulaymaniyyah in Iraqi Kurdistán. [BKG115-122; DB585; GPB120-124; TN38; CH256; KI250-251; AB392]
  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1,]
  • Bahá'u'lláh lived for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He took the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
  • See photo.
  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed by thieves on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was, in reality, the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. By this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nonother than the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-'Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih (Ode of the Dove). It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
    • As his position as nominal head deteriorated Mírzá Yahyá became more desperate, he had one such claimant, Mírzá Asadu'lláh Khí'í Dayyán, assassinated around 1856. [Bahá'u'lláh and the Naqshbandí Sufis in Iraq by Juan Cole p4]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them in August of 1940.
  • Also see Bahá'í News No 145 July 1941 p11 and 12.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Dervishes; Sar Galu Mountain; Aqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sufism; Mysticism; Daoud Toeg; Caves; - Interfaith dialogue; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Dayyan (Mírzá Asadullah); Kurdistan; Baghdad, Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih, Iraq; Iraq
    1854 (prior to His departure for Sulaymaniyyih) "Mirza Yahya had never lifted a finger to protect the Faith of which he was supposed to be the nominal head. Now, incited and aided by Siyyid Muhammad and a few, very few, others of the same nature, Mirza Yahya began a secret campaign to discredit Baha'u'llah. He circulated wild rumours, ascribed to Baha'u'llah actions, opinions, views and intentions totally at variance with truth. These undercurrents and innuendoes became so perilous for the integrity of the Faith of the Bab, threatening it with bitter controversies and even fatal divisions, that Baha'u'llah reached the decision to take Himself away from Baghdad and from the society of men whom He knew - and who knew Him... "

    "Mirza Aqa Jan himself has testified: 'That Blessed Beauty evinced such sadness that the limbs of my body trembled.' He has, likewise, related, as reported by Nabil in his narrative, that, shortly before Baha'u'llah's retirement, he had on one occasion seen Him, between dawn and sunrise, suddenly come out from His house, His night-cap still on His head, showing such signs of perturbation that he was powerless to gaze into His face, and while walking, angrily remark: 'These creatures are the same creatures who for three thousand years have worshipped idols, and bowed down before the Golden Calf: Now, too, they are fit for nothing better. What relation can there be between this people and Him Who is the Countenance of Glory? What ties can bind them to the One Who is the supreme embodiment of all that is lovable?' 'I stood,' declared Mirza Aqa Jan, 'rooted to the spot, lifeless, dried up as a dead tree, ready to fall under the impact of the stunning power of His words. Finally, He said: "Bid them recite: 'Is there any Remover of difficulties save God? Say: Praised be God! He is God! All are His servants, and all abide by His bidding!' Tell them to repeat it five hundred times, nay, a thousand times, by day and by night, sleeping and waking, that haply the Countenance of Glory may be unveiled to their eyes, and tiers of light descend upon them." He Himself, I was subsequently informed, recited this same verse, His face betraying the utmost sadness." [BKG114]

  • For further information on the above incident and more on the prayer "Remover of Difficulties" by the Báb, see The Invocation 'Is There Any Remover of Difficulties Save God...' by Muhammad Afnan, translated by Adib Masumian.
  • Misconduct of believers; Remover of Difficulties (invocation); Mírzá Aqa Jan; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); * Báb, Writings of; - Invocations; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1853 - 1854 The birth of Áqá Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí Abharí, (b. 1853-1854 in Abhar, d. 30 January 1919 in Tehran), also known by the designation Ibn Abhar [Ibn-i-Abhar]. He was appointed a Hand of the Cause in 1868 and was an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB268; Bahá'í Encylopedia Project] - Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahá'u'lláh; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Abhar, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1853 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrived in Shíráz. More Bábís were executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads were later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Shíráz, Iran; Nayriz, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Ábádih, Iran; Iran
    1853 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of some 180 martyrs. This fulfilled an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245; For17] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Prophecies; Nayriz, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1853 Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5;]
  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na'ím-i-Núrí, arrested a large number of Bábís and pillaged their properties. The Bábís retreated to the hills to take up defensive positions against hundreds and then thousands of troops that had been called in from the region by the governor in Shiraz. [BW18:382; GPB17]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen.
    • October: Mirza Na'im-i-Nuri, the new Governor, began to treat the Bábl's harshly, arresting a large number of them and pillaging their property. In response the Bábis fled to the hills and took up defensive positions there.
    • mid—October: Mirzá Na'i'm's troops launched major attack on the Bábl' positions in the hills during the night but were thrown back in much confusion and with great loss of life.
    • 31 October: Bábis asked to negotiate terms.
    • early November: Bábis tricked into leaving their positions then attacked and over a hundred killed. Some 600 women prisoners, 80-180 male prisoners and the heads of some 180 martyrs were taken to Shiraz.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
  • Nayriz upheaval; - Upheavals; Mírzá Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Nayriz, Iran; Iran
    1853 It was during the Baghdad period that 'Abdu'l-Bahá became conscious to the station of His Father.

    "The Bab states that the first one to believe in a Manifestation of God is the essence of the achievement of the preceding dispensation; and so, 'Abdu'l-Baha, the first to believe with His whole being in the Mission of His Father, was the most eminent representative of the virtues called forth by the Bab." [AB13]

  • See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1853 (Summer) Bahá'u'lláh revealed His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. He was the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." [BKG109–11; GPB115–16; CoB181]
  • See a story about Mírzá Áqá Ján and his first inclination that Bahá'u'lláh was indeed the One promised by the Báb.
  • See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Mírzá Aqa Jan; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest."
    1853 4 May An earthquake struck in Shiraz. It destroyed many homes and killed several thousand citizens. It also demolished the majority of the schools and mosques. The House of the Báb was severely damaged and the mosque next to it was completely demolished. At this time the House had been rented to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn, who was occupying the House with no written documentation. A lease is dated January 1854 and it recognized the owner as Siyyidih Fatimih Bagum and stated that the repairs were to be made at the leasee's expense. After this document was signed, Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn realized the cost of the repairs was prohibitive. Consequently, he leased the House to two brothers, Samad and Ibrahim, who were bakers. They took up residence with no formal documentation. Gradually they took over all the affairs of the House and claimed sole ownership. [MBBA169] Báb, House of (Shiraz); Shíráz, Iran
    1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-'Ulyá. [CB 125]
  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]
  • Mírzá Muhammad Ali; Births and deaths; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Wives of; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Firsts, other; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq First son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá; first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival Baghdád
    1853 or 1854 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta'ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]
  • The revelation of this Tablet pointed out Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
  • This Tablet also describes five Worlds of God.
  • It is an esoteric scriptural Tablet expository of Qur'an 3:87 [93] and incorporating issues of Bábi authority and religiosity. It is addressed to the Bábi believer Ḥajjī Mīrzā Kamāl al-Dīn Narāqī (d. Narāq c.1298/1881). An inadequate printed text is found in Ishrāq Khavari (comp.) Mā'ida-yi āsmani IV :265-276 and a slightly better one in Rahiq-i makhtum II :416-426. A superior photocopied ms. is to be found in INBMC 36:268-277. [U of Cal. MERCED]
  • Tablet of All Food translated by Stephen Lamden.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1853 Shortly after Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdad, the first messenger to reach Him was Shaykh Salmán who returned to his native Hindiyan with Tablets addressed to the friends. This became his habit, once a year he would set out on foot to see Bahá'u'lláh bringing letters and leaving wth Tablets, faithfully delivering each on for whom it was intended. He visited Him in Baghdad, Adrianople and Akka, carrying Tablets to many cities, Isfahan, Shiraz, Kashan, Tehran... During the 40 years that he continued this service and never lost a single letter or Tablet.

    He always travelled on foot and ate noting but bread and onions. He earned the title "The Bábí's Angel Gabriel". After the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he continued to provide courier service between Persia and the Holy Land.

  • See An Illiterate Genius: The Early Baha'i Shaykh Salman.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.

    He died in Shiraz. [MoF13-16]

  • Shaykh Salman; India; Iran
    1853 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád

    Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrived in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gave birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1853 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayriz upheaval; - Upheavals; - Governors; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution; Assassinations; Nayriz, Iran; Iran
    1853 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rested in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz; Khaniqayn; Iraq
    1853 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family departed for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh was accompanied by His wife Navváb (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son 'Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of the child, the mother of Àsíyih Khánum. They were escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108; MM31; RoL165]
      In a letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 1998-10-14 it is stated that there is very little historical information on who took care of Mírzá Mihdí until he was transported to Baghdad to rejoin the Holy Family.
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • 'Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey. During His crossing of the Atlantic on his way from Naples to New York He said the His feet had become frostbitten during the trip to Baghdad. [SYH52; Light of Faith: A collection of stories by Paris Sadeghzadeh and Behnam Golmohammadi p84-86]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Mírzá Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mírzá Musa (Aqay-i-Kalim); Mírzá Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mírzá Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment); Tehran, Iran; Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1853 -1863 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed His mystical Writings. * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Mysticism; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • Mírzá Májíd-í-Ahi, the Secretary to the Russian Legation in Tehrán and brother-in-law of Bahá'u'lláh, Prince Dolgorki, the Russian Ambassador, pressured the government of Násirí'd-Din Sháh to either produce evidence against Bahá'u'lláh or to release Him. In absence of any proof, Bahá'u'lláh, Who was initially condemned to life in prison, was forced by the King to choose a place of exile for Himself and His family. The Czar sent and escort of fifty officers to accompany Him to a place of safety from Tehran to the Iraqi border. [BKG99; Sunburst P129]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. [DB650]
    • It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would almost certainly have been misrepresented by others as having political implications. [BBIC:8]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mírzá Aqa Khan; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment); Tehran, Iran; Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith was first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez" ("To the History of Education in Persia") where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reported on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu; SUR77; GPB66] Newspaper articles; Mentions; First mentions; Budapest, Hungary; Hungary First mention of the Faith in Hungary
    1852 (Between Oct - Nov) The revelation of Rashh-i-Ama (The Clouds of the Realms Above) while in the Síyáh-Chál in Tehran. This tablet is considered to be among the first revealed by Bahá'u'lláh after being apprised that He was to be the Manifestation of God.
  • See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, "These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu't-Tá'am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-'Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen."
  • See also RoB1p45-52 for information on "The First Emanations of the Supreme Pen". Taherzadeh explains that this tablet has great significance in Islamic prophecy where it is said that when the Promised One appears He will utter one word that will cause the people to flee Him. Islamic prophecy also holds that the well-known saying, "I am He" will be fulfilled. In this tablet and many that were to follow, Bahá'u'lláh proclaims that "I am God".
    Taherzadeh also states Bahá'u'lláh disclosed for the first time one of the unique features of His Revelation, namely, the advent of the "Day of God".
    "In a language supremely beautiful and soul-stirring, He attributes these energies to Himself. His choice of words, and the beauty, power, depth and mystery of this poem...are such that they may well prove impossible to translate." [RoB1p45]
  • In 2019 an authorized translation of this poem was published in the collection The Call of the Divine Beloved.
  • See a study outline by Jonah Winters (1999).
  • See Clouds and the Hiding God: Observations on some Terms in the Early Writing of Bahá'u'lláh by Moshe Sharon published in Lights of Irfan, Vol 13, 2012,p363-379 for an exploration of the mystical terms found in the Tablet.
  • Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Poetry of; Poetry; Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahá'u'lláh, Birth of Revelation of; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh had a vision of the Maiden, who announced to Him that He was the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • "While engulfed in tribulations I heard a most wondrous, a most sweet voice, calling above My head. Turning My face, I beheld a Maiden-" [SLH5-6]
  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to 'cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of 'Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
  • Subsequently in His Writings Bahá'u'lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.
  • While Bahá'u'lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, 'Abdu'l-Bahá stated that Bahá'u'lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá'ís also believe that Bahá'u'lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá'ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá'u'lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaipedia]
  • See P&M195-196 (1969), 298-299 (1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, "These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu't-Tá'am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-'Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen."

      "While engulfed in tribulations I heard a most wondrous, a most sweet voice, calling above My head. Turning My face, I beheld a Maiden—the embodiment of the remembrance of the name of My Lord—suspended in the air before Me. So rejoiced was she in her very soul that her countenance shone with the ornament of the good pleasure of God, and her cheeks glowed with the brightness of the All-Merciful. Betwixt earth and heaven she was raising a call which captivated the hearts and minds of men. She was imparting to both My inward and outer being tidings which rejoiced My soul, and the souls of God's honoured servants.

      Pointing with her finger unto My head, she addressed all who are in heaven and all who are on earth, saying: By God! This is the Best-Beloved of the worlds, and yet ye comprehend not. This is the Beauty of God amongst you, and the power of His sovereignty within you, could ye but understand. This is the Mystery of God and His Treasure, the Cause of God and His glory unto all who are in the kingdoms of Revelation and of creation, if ye be of them that perceive. This is He Whose Presence is the ardent desire of the denizens of the Realm of eternity, and of them that dwell within the Tabernacle of glory, and yet from His Beauty do ye turn aside." Súriy-i-Haykal para 6-7; SLH5-6

  • See Two Episodes from the Life of Bahá'u'lláh in Iran (2019) pp12-20 by Moojan Momen for an analysis of the provisional translation of a Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh. His interpretation is as follows: As a child Bahá'u'lláh read a story of the sufferings and unjust killing of the Banú Qurayza tribe in the time of Muhammad. It filled Him with such sorrow that He beseeched God to bring about what would be the cause of love and harmony among the people for the world. While imprisoned in the Siyáh Chál, He had an experience that caused great turmoil within Him and elevated His spiritual state. The duration of this state is considered as the beginning of His mission as a Manifestation of God and occurred over a twelve day period from 2 Muharram to 13 Muharram 1269, which equates to 16 October to 27 October 1852 A.D. It was after this that He began to reveal verses. Later He openly manifested Himself in the Garden of Ridván in Baghdad. Finally He revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and then a series of Tablets such as Ishráqát, Tajalliyyát, the Tablet of the World and the Book of the Covenant in which he gave all of the guidance necessary to eliminate the causes of suffering, distress, and discord and to bring about unity and fellowship, thus fulfilling what He had longed for in His childhood.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Dreams and visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; Promised One; Prophecies; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Firsts, other; - Missing, lost or destroyed Writings; Tehran, Iran; Iran first emanations of the Supreme Pen
    1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink was given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Photo of the entrance to the Siyah-Chal (Black-Pit) where Baha'u'llah was imprisoned in Tehran.
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • A silent video presentation on Bahá'u'lláh's time in the Síyáh-Chál made for the 150th anniversary of the event.
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • Another who helped the family was Mírzá Muhammad Tabrizi who rented a house for them in Sangelak. [PG122]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, was attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties were plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5; DB663; BKG94–8 and Bahá'í Stories for the story of 'Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • For the story of His faithful follower and his martyrdom, 'Abdu'l-Vahháb see TF116-119.
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá fled to Tákur and went into hiding. He eventually went to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); `Abdu'l-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Tehran, Iran; Takur, Iran; Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1852 Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís were arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

    Many Bábís were tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís were martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes were gouged in his body and nine lighted candles were inserted. He joyfully danced to the place of his execution. His body was hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions were so severe that the community was nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappeared from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; - Sháh; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar, Iran; Sulayman Khan; Milan, Italy; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 26 Aug An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
  • See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
  • Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; - Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís were distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Iran
    1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
  • Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
  • Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 (days following 16 Aug) Bahá'u'lláh was then taken on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán, a distance of 15 miles, where He was cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7, 631-634; ESW20; GPB71]
  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–608 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
  • See Epistle to the Son of the Wolf p20.
  • Where He had a dream:
      "Verily, We shall render Thee victorious by Thyself and by Thy Pen. Grieve Thou not for that which hath befallen Thee, neither be Thou afraid, for Thou art in safety. Erelong will God raise up the treasures of the earth—men who will aid Thee through Thyself and through Thy Name, wherewith God hath revived the hearts of such as have recognized Him." [Epistle to the Son of the Wolf p21]
  • In God Passes By p101-102 Shoghi Effendi quotes Bahá'u'lláh's Súrih of the Temple where He describes the moment that He had a vision of the Maiden symbolizing the 'Most Great Spirit" proclaiming His mission.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said:

      She went to that garden with consummate dignity and composure. Everyone said that they were going to kill her, but she continued to cry out just as she had before, declaring, "I am that trumpet-call mentioned in the Gospel!" It was in this state that she was martyred in that garden and cast into a well. [Talk by Abdu'l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)
    iiiii
  • Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; - Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in 'The Abode of the Birds' (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Mírzá Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; - Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; - Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Zargandih; Iran
    1852 -1853 "In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned. Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile. The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices, had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed, leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Bábí history; Iran
    1852 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh in Afcha, near Tehran. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja'far-Qulí Khán wrote immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh was denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the 'would-be murderer'. Ja'far-Qulí Khán offered to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
  • Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; - Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Iran
    1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stayed at the summer residence of Ja'far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Jafar-Quli Khan; - Grand Viziers; Afchih, Iran; Lavasan, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returned to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
  • He was the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); - Grand Viziers; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq; Iran
    1852 20 Mar The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. [Wikipedia]
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe was an ancestor of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who was a grandmother of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker.
  • Uncle Toms Cabin: Life Among the Lowly; Literature, English; Literature; Race; Harriet Beecher Stowe; Ellen Beecher; - Hands of the Cause; Dorothy Baker; USA
    1852 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths; New York, USA; USA
    1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán was killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]
  • He chose to have his veins opened and he bled to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
  • Shoghi Effendi described him has being "arbitrary, bloodthirsty and reckless". [GPB4]
  • Mírzá Taqi Khan; - Prime Ministers; Assassinations; Public baths (bathhouses); Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Mírzá Aqa Khan; Kashan, Iran; Iran
    1852 Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí'), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Badi (Mírzá Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Mashhad, Iran; Iran
    1851 Dec When the news of the martyrdom of the Báb reached Shiraz, Fatimah Bagum, the mother of the Báb, having previously consulted with her Son about the journey to the `Atabat, (literally means the sublime thresholds.Thea are the shrines of six Shia Imams which are in four cities of Iraq, namely Najaf, Karbala, Kadhimiya and Samarra) decided to leave Shiraz. She wanted to put behind her the constant barrage of insults aimed at her family by the city's divines.
  • Before she left, it was decided that Khadíjih Bagum would live with her half-sister in the house of the martyred-uncle of the Báb, Háji Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí, and the Blessed House be entrusted to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Bazzaz, son of Mírzá Asadu'llah. He was not a believer in the Báb but a native of Shiraz and a close acquaintance of the family. This decision ushered in a period where the House was in the hands of non-believers. [MBBA167-168]
  • Fatimih Bagum; Báb, Family of; Báb, House of (Shiraz); Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Báb); Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1851 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, was dismissed from his post and told he was only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]
  • He was succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
  • Mírzá Taqi Khan; Mírzá Aqa Khan; - Prime Ministers of Iran; - Prime Ministers
    1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, was put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]
  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
  • Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Iran
    1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [DB31; BKG67–68]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
  • See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
  • Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Báb, Life of (chronology); Amanuensis; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Imam Husayn; Prophecies; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq first to believe in Bahá'u'lláh.
    1851 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stayed for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Pilgrimage; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Karbala, Iraq; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1851 4 Aug Áqá 'Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák was blown from a canon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Canons; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution
    1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spent most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB90, 591] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Kirmánsháh, Iran; Iran
    1851 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání was beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán met with Bahá'u'lláh and told Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. A few days later, He left for the 'Atabát (the Sacred Thresholds) on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587, 591] Mírzá Taqi Khan; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Tehran, Iran; Iran; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1851 1 May Áqá Husayn was blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Canons; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1852 (In the year) It was sometime when 'Abdu'l-Bahá was seven years old that he contracted tuberculosis and all indications were that there was no hope of recovery. He recounted while in Paris that He was rarely sick and that if He fell sick there was a purpose. `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Tuberculosis; Tehran, Iran
    1851 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl was executed in Yazd when he refused to recant. [BW18:382] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1851 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján were executed in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ended the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See Bab187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See Bab187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
  • Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; - Upheavals; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1851 (In the year) Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin), a prominent mujtahid, became a Bábí, in Najafábád. Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Iran
    1850 29 Dec Hujjat died of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
  • Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; - Upheavals; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1850 early Dec Hujjat was wounded in the arm. His companions laid down their arms and rushed to his assistance. The royal forces took advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
  • About 100 women and children were taken captive. They were left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, sheltered in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
  • The bombardment of the fortress was stepped-up and Hujjat's house was particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby were killed. [B187; DB572–3]
  • Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; - Upheavals; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1850 Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tried to deceive Hujjat into surrendering by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responded by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who had them thrown into a dungeon. This signalled the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Muhammad Khan; Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; - Upheavals; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1850 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions were executed in Shíráz. Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1850 25 Aug The arrival of 'Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting began in May continues. He took charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]
  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
  • Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; - Upheavals; Ashraf; Mothers; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1850 Aug c. Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí. Hájí Amin (Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani); - Hands of the Cause
    1850 Jul The Faith of the Báb had spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • Bab148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
  • By this time "there was no province in the entire country in which from a few up to ten Bábí communities had not been established. These early Bábí communities of Muslim converts, who were generally from Shaikhi background, had come from various strata of Persian society, although a few Jews and Zoroastrians had also joined the movement (Māzandarānī, 1943, p. 395; Samandar, p. 348)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Statistics; Bábí history; Iran; Iraq; - Middle East
    1850 11 Jul The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
  • The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
  • The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
    • Shi'is believe that dogs would not eat the flesh of 'holy imams' as their bodies are not composed of the same substance as that of ordinary people. [TN27-28]
    • Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
    • And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
  • Báb, Martyrdom of; Báb, Remains of; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1850 10 Jul The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [Bab159; DB518; TN28; Sunburst P128-129]
  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
  • Russian officials; - Consuls; Báb, Sketches of; Báb, Martyrdom of; Báb, Life of (chronology); Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1850 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

    In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [Bab155; DB508]

  • The warrants were already prepared. [Bab155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to 'soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [Bab156–7; DB509–10]
  • At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [Bab157; DB512]
  • When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [Bab157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
  • The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [Bab158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb was untouched. [Bab158]
  • At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [Bab158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
  • During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. After paying bribes to the guards, tIhe bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [Bab159; TN27; LWS147]
  • See David Merrick's Outline for Researchers.
  • See Sen McGlinn's blog 750 Muskets.
  • See It was in the news.... In this blog SMK points out the parallel between the history of early Christianity and that of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
  • Báb, Martyrdom of; Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Remains of; Holy days; Anís Zunízí (Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zunízí); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Báb, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1850 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [Bab153; DB507]
  • That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [Bab154–5; DB507–8]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anís Zunízí (Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zunízí); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1850 29 Jun The Báb arrived in Tabríz. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
  • RR397 says He arrived two days after the government troops succeeded in suppressing the first Nayríz uprising.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1850 29 Jun Vahíd was martyred in Nayríz. [Bab182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body was dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265; For24]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
  • See PG109-110 for the story of Jenabeh Vahid's show of reverence towards the Báb.
  • Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Nayriz, Iran; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1850 Jun The first known written Bábi marriage certificate was between Mírzá Muhammad Ja'far Khan and Tuba Khánum, the daughter of Vahid. It was signed and dated a few days before Vahid's martyrdom and was written in Vahid's handwriting. The dowry was set at one Vahid (19 mithqals of gold). [Vahid's Heroic Stand - Nayriz 1850 video at 11min 21seconds] Mírzá Muhammad Jafar Khan; Tuba Khanum; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Marriage; Marriage certificate; Nayriz, Iran; Iran first written Bábi marriage certificate
    1850 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; - Upheavals; Shíráz, Iran; Nayriz, Iran; Iran
    1850 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
  • Vahíd was forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement had been reached. The Bábís left the fort, were set upon and killed. [Bab181; BW18;381]
  • Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Nayriz upheaval; - Upheavals; Nayriz, Iran; Iran
    1850 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd received a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leave the fortress and were received into the camp of his enemies where he was entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Truces; Nayriz upheaval; - Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Nayriz, Iran; Iran
    1850 Jun c. The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [Bab152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
  • His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [Bab152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to 'Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word 'Bahá'. [Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • This Blessed Tablet of the Bab was obtained in Cyprus by the Larnaca District Commissioner Claude Delaval Cobham, and he donated it to the British Library. It had been in the possession of Mirza Yayha in Famagusta. Mishkin-Qalam served Cobham toward the end of his 18 year exile in Cyprus, as a translator, which has nothing to do with this Tablet but it is interesting Baha'i history in Cyprus. [from an message from Anita Graves, National Bahá'í Archivist, Cyprus to Janis Zrudlo 25 April 2021.
    • Here is a link to a similar tablet at the British Libary website.
    • See Gate of the Heart 329-330 for a further explanation of the symbol of the pentagram and the circle.
  • Mírzá Taqi Khan; Báb, Life of (chronology); Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; - Letters of the Living; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); * Báb, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Chihríq, Iran; Tabríz, Iran; Urumiyyih; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1850 27 May-
    21 Jun
    First Nayríz upheaval.

    Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum'ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381; For23]

  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
  • See BW19p381 for a chronicle of events.
      The main events were:
    • 27 May: Entry of Vahid into Nayriz; his address at the Jum'ih mosque; the Governor made moves against him; Vahid ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih..
    • about 6 June: Arrival of Mihr-'Ali Khan-i-Nuri with troops from Shiraz.
    • about 8 June: Night sortie by Bábis routed troops.
    • about 9 June: Prolonged fighting on this day led to many deaths on both sides.
    • 17 June: Vahid, having received a promise of safety written on the Qur'án, left the fort for Mihr-'Ali Khan's camp.
    • 21 June: The Bábis were, through treachery, induced to leave the fort, then set upon and killed.
    • 24 June: The arrival in Shiraz of thirteen severed heads of Bábfs which were paraded through the town.
    • 29 June: Martyrdom of Vahfd.
    • 11 July: Mihr-'Ali Khan arrived in Shiraz with Bábi' prisoners and decapitated heads.
  • Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Mosque of Jumih; - Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; - Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Nayriz, Iran; Yazd, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran First Nayríz upheaval
    1850 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, (Mulla Muhammad-Ali) which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
  • The first episode of a podcast about Zaynab.
  • - Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Mobs; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1850 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Firsts, other; Zanjan, Iran; Iran first of the martyrs
    1850 13 May 1850 - 2 Jan 1851 c. The start of the Zanján upheaval. Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town and tension mounted between the Bábís and the 'ulamá. [DB540–1, 527–81; Bab185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; GPB44–5; TN245]
  • See BW19p381 for this chronicle of events by Moojan Momen.
    • 19 May: Mir Salah dispersed a mob sent against Hujjat by the Governor; the Governor sent to Ṭihrán for reinforcements; the town divided into two.
    • 1, 13 and 16 June: Arrival of troop reinforce ments.
    • 1 July: Capture of an important Bábi position.
    • 25 July: Capture of an important Bábi' position.
    • 4 August: Fierce fighting ending in Bábi victory and recapture of lost positions.
    • 17 August: General assault on Bábi positions repelled, but Bábi's lost ground.
    • 25 August: Arrival of 'Aziz Khan-i-Mukri, commander-in-chief of 1ran's army.
    • 3 September: General assault ordered by 'Aziz Khan repelled.
    • 11 September: Arrival of troop reinforcements.
    • early October: Bombardment and assault took several Bábi' positions, leaving the Bábis confined to a small number of houses.
    • mid-November: Arrival of further reinforcements.
    • 29 December: Martyrdom of Hujjat.
    • about 2 January 1851: General assault resulted in capture of remaining Bábi' positions and killing of several hundred Bábi men and women. End of Zanjan upheaval.
  • Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; - Upheavals; Ulama; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Zanjan, Iran; Iran
    1850 (Spring) The house of Vahíd in Yazd was attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd was dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd left Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mulla Muhammad-Rida (Ridar-Ruh); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Mobs; - Persecution; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1850 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís were executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8; BW19p381]
  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims were so eager to be martyrs that they asked the executioner if they could be the first to die. [Bab183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies were left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the 'Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to 'walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See Bab206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
  • The were: Haji Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali (uncle of the Báb, the middle brother, known as "The Greatest Uncle"), Mirzá Qurban-'Ali, Haji Mullá Isma'il-i-Qumi, Sayyid Husayn-i-Turshizi, Háji Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Kirmani, Muhammad—Husayn-i-Maraghi'i. [BW19p381]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for the story of the three uncles of the Báb, Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali (the Greatest Uncle - he was the middle brother), Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad (the Greater Uncle, the eldest) and Haji Mirza Hassan Ali, the younger Uncle.
  • Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Seven martyrs; Seven martyrs of Tihran; - Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1850 19 - 20 Feb The Bábi group in Tehran had been infiltrated by an informer who betrayed about fifty of its members to the authorities. Fearing a plot the government had seven of the leading members of the group executed including the Báb's uncle and guardian. These men were of high social status, three merchants, two prominent ulama, a Sufi spiritual guide and a government official. [BBRSM28] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1850 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrived in Mázindarán and carried out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mulla Adi-Guzal; Báb, Life of (chronology); Mazandaran, Iran; Iran
    1850 - 1851 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, (b. 1850-1851 Mashad, d. 2 April 1928 in Tehran) later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause.
  • His father, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas had left his native Khurasan and travelled to the city of Karbila where he saw the Báb. Subsequently he went to Isfahan where he encountered Mullá Husayn Bushrui who led him to the recognition of the Promised One. He and Quddús were later dragged through the streets of Shiraz and expelled from the city. [PG108; Bahá'í Encylopedia Project]
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad); - Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Khurásan, Iran; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq; Mashhad, Iran; Iran
    1850 (Early in the year) Vahíd clashed with the authorities in Yazd. He escaped and made a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
  • Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Yazd, Iran; Fars, Iran; Iran

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