Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

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Date 186-, descending sort earliest first

date event tags firsts
1869 25 Dec A mob attacked the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two were severely beaten. [BW18:383] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Mobs; - Persecution; Faran, Iran; Khurásan, Iran; Iran
1869 17 Nov The Suez Canal was opened to navigation. At this time the canal was164km (102 miles) long and 8 metres (26 feet) deep, 72 feet wide at the bottom, and 200 to 300 feet wide at the surface. Consequently, fewer than 500 ships navigated it in its first full year of operation. Major improvements began in 1876 and by 1887 night navigation was allowed, a measure that doubled its capacity.
  • In the 1950s the waterway was substantially expanded, deepened and lengthened to accommodate the demands of shipping companies. By 1956 when Egyptian President Nasser nationalised it, the canal was 175km (109 miles long and 14 metres (46 feet) deep and could take takers with a capacity of 30,000 tonnes and a draft of up to 10.7 metres (35 feet)
  • A major expansion in 2015 increased the length to 193km (120 miles) and its depth to 24 metres (79 feet). Ships as large as 240,000 tonnes with a draft of 10 metres (66 feet) could be accommodated. Throughput was increased to 50 ships daily.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt pg96 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's "The Spiritual Lesson Drawn from the Material Progress of Port Said and the Suez Canal".
  • Suez Canal; Unity; Teaching; Port Said, Egypt; Egypt
    1869 Jul Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
  • Badi (Mírzá Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; - Shahs; Nasirid-Din Sháh; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Tablets to kings and rulers; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Iran
    1869 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. Clara Dunn; - Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; London, England; United Kingdom
    1869 1 May Nabíl met Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57] Nabil-i-Azam; Akka, Israel
    1869 Feb Nabíl made a second attempt to enter `Akká. He was able to remain for 81 days and met Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but did not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
  • DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
  • Nabil-i-Azam; Akka, Israel
    1869 (In the year) The Tablet of Fu'ád, was revealed in 1869, soon after the premature death in Nice, France, of Fu'ád Pasha, the foreign minister of the Sultan and a faithful accomplice of the Prime Minister in bringing about the exile of Bahá'u'lláh to 'Akká. It was revealed in honour of one of Bahá'u'lláh's most devoted apostles, Shaykh Káẓim-i-Samandar (father of the late Hand of the Cause of God Ṭaráẓu'lláh Samandarí). The Tablet contains a clear prediction of the downfall of 'Álí Páshá and of the Sultan himself. [Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World] Tablet of Fuad; Fuad Páshá; Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel
    1869 (In the year) The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182. Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
    • Regarding the tablet to the Sháh

      "Bahá'u'lláh's lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign" -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri'd-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri'd-Dín Sháh, Bahá'u'lláh's lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to 'Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí', a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá'u'lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur'án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to 'The Summons of the Lord of Hosts')]

    • See Three Momentous Years in The Bahá'í World for the story of Badí.
  • Badi (Mírzá Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Sháh; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Youth; Akka, Israel; Mosul, Iraq; Iraq; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1869 (In the year) Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but failed to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116] Franz Josef; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Tablets to kings and rulers; Jerusalem, Israel; Israel; Hungary
    1869 Early in the year Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrived in `Akká from Iran and was the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
  • He was `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This was the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
  • Hájí Amin (Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Public baths (bathhouses); Pilgrims; First pilgrims; Akka, Israel First pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká
    1869 – 1872 A great famine occurred in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population died and a further 10 per cent emigrated. [BBRSM86; GPB233] Iran, General history; Famine; History (general); Iran
    1868 end Oct Nabíl entered `Akká in disguise but was recognized and after three days was expelled from the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
  • He spent the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
  • Nabil-i-Azam; Akka, Israel
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
  • The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
  • Palestine was a neglected outpost of the Ottoman Empire when the Templers first settled in Haifa. Other settlements were soon founded in Jaffa (1869), Sarona (1871) and Jerusalem (1873) and, a generation later Wilhelma (1902), Bethlehem (1906) and, but a splinter group in Waldheim (1907). From initially hard beginnings, these communities went on to build the foundations for success: farms, flourmills, workshops, factories, shops, banks, hotels, hospitals, schools and even roads. Haifa was the largest Templer settlement. To this day, its main road is said to be the most magnificent in Israel.

    The Templers flourished in Palestine for nearly 80 years; they even survived the British occupation during World War I when many Templers were deported and interned in Egypt. Palestine was a British Mandated Territory from 1923 until 1948. Great Britain's entry into World War II signalled the end for the Templers in Palestine. The settlements of Wilhelma, Sarona, Betlehem and Waldheim were turned into internment camps, housing close to 2,000 people. In 1941, a large number of Templers (536) was deported to Australia along with 129 other German nationals. The last remaining Templers were expelled in 1948 when the State of Israel was established. [TSA website]

  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
  • See Der Herr ist Nahe: The Lord is Near: The Divine Mystery of the Transformation of Mt. Carmel by Harry Liedtke.
  • Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); - Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies; History (general); Haifa, Israel; Jaffa; Israel; Palestine
    1868 c. Oct Nabíl was released from prison in Egypt and departed for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
  • He visited Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
  • Nabil-i-Azam; Cairo, Egypt; Egypt; Akka, Israel; Cyprus
    1868 (End of summer) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet to the Chief) to Alí Páshá to condemn him for his cruelty and inhuman treatment of His followers. [Lawh-i-Raís: Tablet Study Outline]
  • The Tablet has been published in Summons of the lord of Hosts p159-173
  • For a brief biography of 'Alí Pasha see BKG469.
  • See GPB208.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablet to the Chief; Akka, Israel
    1868 5 Sep The ship that had delivered the exiles to 'Akká carried on and Mírzá Yahyá arrived in Cyprus with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá 'Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá 'Abdu'l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus became the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
  • Mishkin-Qalam; Mírzá Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile (banishment); Cyprus exiles; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Islands; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships; Famagusta, Cyprus; Cyprus the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
    1868 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar; Akka, Israel; Israel
    1868 (After summer) The second Lawh-i-Salmán was revealed in Akka sometime shortly after the summer 1868, so known because in the Tablet Bahá'u'lláh mentions the exile of the believers from Baghdad to Mosul, which occurred in that summer. It was revealed for Shaykh Khánjar Hindiyani, named Shaykh Salmán by Bahá'u'lláh in honour of the loyal disciple of Muhammad whom that Prophet re-named as "Salmán.

    Parts of this Tablet has been translated in Gleanings XXI, CXLVIII, and CLIV, and one paragraph was translated in Promised Day is Come 115-16. [RoB2p281-290; Uplifting Words; Wilmette Institute notes on the Tablets of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh ]

    Shaykh Salman; Lawh-i-Salman II; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Akka, Israel
    1868 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • See also The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen.
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much needed assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Mírzá Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile (banishment); Firsts, other; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'í World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; - Bahá'í World Centre; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships; Haifa, Israel; Famagusta, Cyprus; Akka, Israel; Israel; Cyprus First night in citadel in `Akká
    1868 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Ships; Jaffa; Haifa, Israel; Israel
    1868 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrived in Port Said. At nightfall it traveled on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Ships; Port Said, Egypt; Jaffa; Israel
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh and His companions docked at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG267-2368; RB3:6]
  • The exiles changed ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles went ashore to make purchases. One passed by the prison house where Nabil-i Aʿẓam had been detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognized one of the companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi, a Christian Syrian doctor who had been imprisoned for the non-payment of debt wrote and who had just recently become a Bahá'í, wrote letters to Bahá'u'lláh which were delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returned with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • It is believed that Faris Effendi was the first Christian to have embraced the Bahá'í Faith. Shortly after His arrival in Akka, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a tablet to Raḍa'r-Rúḥ, a believer from Mashad. In the tablet, Bahá'u'lláh told Raḍa'r-Rúḥ that, while waiting to set sail from the port in Alexandria, He was given a letter by a messenger, which was from a Christian physician known as Faris, who was imprisoned in Alexandria with Nabil-i-Azam. In this letter, Faris declared his belief in Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'u'lláh expresses to Raḍa'r-Rúḥ how thrilled he was to receive this moving declaration from Faris. The Tablet to Rada'r-Rúh has been translated by Nosratollah Mohammadhosseini.
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles left Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
  • See the story in complete detail written by Christopher Buck serialized on Bahá'í Teachings. The first instalment is called The First Christian to Become a Baha'i.

    The second is titled Baha'u'llah's Welcome to the First Christian Baha'i.

    The third - The First Christian Baha'i, and His Letter to Baha'u'llah.

    The fourth - Baha'u'llah Replies to the First Christian Baha'i—and to All Christians.

    And the fifth and final instalment - Baha'u'llah's Most Holy Tablet—to the Christians.

  • After his release Nabil travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. ["Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Gifts; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships; Faris Effendi; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Alexandria, Egypt; Egypt The First Christian to Become a Baha’i
    1868 23 Aug The steamer left Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she reached on the morning two days later. [BKG265] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Ships; Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria, Egypt; Egypt
    1863 - 1868 See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1863-1868 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Istanbul, Turkey; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey
    1868 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrived at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days and left at night. [BKG264; GPB182; N&N22]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitated his removal to the hospital. He died before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá could return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá maked arrangements with the local funeral director. They held a simple funeral and burial took place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man had arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Mírzá Aqay-i-Kashani; Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey
    1868 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
  • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stopped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mírzá Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa `Abdu'l-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile (banishment); Cyprus exiles; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Austrian Lloyd steam ships; Ships; Gallipoli, Turkey; Smyrna (İzmir), Turkey; Famagusta, Cyprus; Turkey; Cyprus
    1868 16 Aug They arrived in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
  • They remained there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Gallipoli, Turkey; Turkey
    1868 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrived in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Gallipoli, Turkey; Turkey
    1868 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. The tablet, Súriy-i-Ra'is (The Epistle to the Chief) was revealed in Arabic in honour of Ḥájí Muḥammad Ismá'íl-i-Káshání, entitled Dhabíḥ (Sacrifice) and Anís (Companion) by Bahá'u'lláh, and addresses 'Álí Páshá, the Ottoman Prime Minister, referred to here as Ra'ís (Chief or Ruler). [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409-417; BBS141; SLH141-149]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • N&N26 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih. This is incorrect; it should read the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. iiiii
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); `Alí Páshá; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Káshánih, Turkey; Gallipoli, Turkey; Turkey
    1868 Aug Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh was poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383] Mulla Muhammad-Rida (Ridar-Ruh); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1868 Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1868 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh's banishment to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Sultán `Abdu'l-Azíz; Khurshid Páshá; Firmans; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Gallipoli, Turkey; Akka, Israel
    1868 c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází was arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Egypt
    1868 c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, other; Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Baghdad, Iraq; Mosul, Iraq; Iraq First charity fund
    1868 c. 7 Jun Nabíl had a dream in which Bahá'u'lláh appeared to him in his cell and assured him that he will have reason to rejoice within the next 81 days. [BKG267] Nabil-i-Azam; Cairo, Egypt; Egypt
    1868 c. May Bahá'u'lláh sent Nabíl-i-A`zam Zarandi to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–8; EB268; GPB178; "Nabil-e aʿzam Zarandi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10]
    • Lawh-i-Aqdas ("Most Holy Tablet," otherwise known as "The Tablet to the Christians" late 1870s?) is thought to have been addressed to Dr Fáris Effendi but this cannot be substantiated.
  • Nabil-i-Azam; Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; - Interfaith dialogue; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Cairo, Egypt; Egypt First Christian to become a Bahá'í
    1868 Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople were arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it was to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
  • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
  • Among those arrested was Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He was particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these were given to him. [BKG252]
  • Mishkin-Qalam; Calligraphy; - Persecution; - Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Turkey; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1868 (In the year) Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) was imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
  • Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí); Mulla Ali Kani; - Hands of the Cause; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]

    The writings of Bahá'u'lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206]

  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of Law-i-Ra'ís..
  • The Súriy-i-Haykal (Súrih of the Temple) was also revealed in Adrianople, and later recast after His arrival in `Akká. In this version He incorporated His messages addressed to individual potentates -- Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh instructed it to be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple. See the Introduction Summons of the Lord of Hosts pgi.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.

  • President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. Copied below is a list of other heads of state of the Americas who were contemporary with Bahá'u'lláh in 1872-1873 as compiled by Bahá'í scholar Peter Terry. [BFA1:80N]
      Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, president of Argentina; John A. Macdonald, prime minister of Canada; Federico Errázuriz Zanartu, president of Chile; Eustorgio Salgar and Manuel Murillo Toro, presidents of Colombia; Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez, president of Costa Rica; Buenaventura Báez, president of the Dominican Republic; Gabriel García Moreno, president of Ecuador; Justo Rufino Barrios, president of Guatemala; Nissage Saget, president of Haiti; Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, presidents of Mexico; José Vicente Cuadra, president of Nicaragua; Francisco Solano López, president of Paraguay; Manuel Pardo, president of Peru; Ulysses S. Grant, president of the United States of America; Lorenzo Batlle y Grau and Tomás Gomensoro, presidents of Uruguay; and Antonio Guzmán Blanco, president of Venezuela.
      ...some of the most celebrated passages of that Book (Kitáb-i-Aqdas) to the Chief Magistrates of the entire American continent, bidding them "bind with the hands of justice the broken," and "crush the oppressor" with the "rod of the commandments" of their Lord. Unlike the kings of the earth whom He had so boldly condemned in that same Book, unlike the European Sovereigns whom He had either rebuked, warned or denounced, such as the French Emperor, the most powerful monarch of his time, the Conqueror of that monarch, the Heir of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Caliph of Islám, the Rulers of America were not only spared the ominous and emphatic warnings which He uttered against the crowned heads of the world, but were called upon to bring their corrective and healing influence to bear upon the injustices perpetrated by the tyrannical and the ungodly. [MA91]
  • `Alí Páshá; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; - Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Tsar Alexander II; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haykal and daira; Akka, Israel
    1867 Between March 1866 and August 1868 The Súratu'l-Haykal (Epistle of the Temple) was revealed during the years in Adrianople, and re-cast later in 'Akká in which messages addressed to individual potentates, Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh were incorporated. It was not written for a particular individual; when asked about the matter Bahá'u'lláh said that he himself was both the addresser and addressee.

    "Ranked as 'one of Bahá'u'lláh's most challenging works', The Surih of the Temple was composed... during the turbulent period which saw the formation of a schism within the rank and file of the Bábí community,. This eloquent and incisive Arabic epistle combines a mystical and proclamatory style to enunciate Bahá'u'lláh's Mission to those among the Báb's followers who had failed to recognize His Revelation. " [BBS132] [Tablet of the Temple (Suratu'l-Haykal) by John Balbridge]

  • The Tablet was published in its entirety in Summons of the Lord of Hosts by the World Centre in 2002.
  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of this Tablet.
  • See The Body of God: A Reader's Guide to Bahá'u'lláh's Súrih of the Temple by John Hatcher and published by ABS 29 July 2022.
      See a review of the book by Tom Lysaght.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Akka, Israel
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336; BW19p584]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as 'the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, 'for the first time, directed His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–325 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • Tablet to the Kings (Súratu'l-Mulúk): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters.
  • See the Introduction to Summons of the Lord of Hosts piii.
  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of the Tablets in the Summons of the Lord of Hosts.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk

    • Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
    • Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
    • Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
    • Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
    • Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
    • Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
    • Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
    • Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
    • Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
    • Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
    • Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
    • Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
    • Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
    • Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
    • Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
      [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952: Information Statistical & Comparative p41]
  • Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A'zam was dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He was further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • Nabil was the first Bahá'í to perform pilgrimage to the house of the Báb in Shiraz in fall 1866, in accordance with the rites prescribed in the Surat al-ḥajj revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. He also went to Baghdad and performed the pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in spring 1867, according to another sura, Surat al-damm written by Bahá'u'lláh for that purpose. Nabil's pilgrimage to those two houses marked the inception of pilgrimage laws ordained by Bahá'u'lláh later in his Kitāb-i-Aqdas. For the rites of these two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. [GPB176-177, "Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
    • Lawh-i-Hajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) (Note: there were numerous Tablets revealed with this same name. [BW19p584] (Leiden List shows 18 in total.)
  • Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Shíráz, Iran; Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq The first pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 In this period the extent of the Faith was enlarged with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]
  • While Nabil was in Khorasan in spring 1866, at his suggestion, the greeting Alláh-u-Abhá (God is the most Glorious) was adopted by the followers of Bahá'u'lláh, replacing the old salutation of Allāho Akbar (God is the Greatest), which was common among the Bábis. This was a significant action that gave group identity to the Bahá'ís and was a sign of their independence from the Bábís and the Azális, a Bábí faction that considered Mírzá Yaḥyā Ṣobḥ-e Azál as the legitimate successor to the Báb. The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá superseded the Islamic salutation and was simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176, "Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica,]
  • The phrase 'the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, was discarded and is replaced by the term 'the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176]
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nabil-i-Azam; People of the Bayan; People of Bahá; Allah-u-Abha; Greatest Name; Most Great Separation; Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Khurásan, Iran; Iran; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions began anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution; Azerbaijan; Zanjan, Iran; Nishapur, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1867 Sep Thinking that He will not accept, Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenged Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím. In the end, it was Mírzá Yahyá who did not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]
  • The incident gained Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí', the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
  • The Súriy-i-Ra'ís was published in the Summons of the Lord of Hosts. See Wikipedia for a synopsis of this Tablet.
  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177; GWB39]
  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
  • It was probably about this time that the first Lawh-i-Salmán was revealed for Shaykh Salmán. [RoB2p281-290; Uplifting Words ]
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Tablets to kings and rulers; Kitáb-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Prayer; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Nasirid-Din Sháh; Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); `Alí Páshá; Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Firsts, other; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shaykh Salman; Lawh-i-Salman I; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey First time Bahá'u'lláh directs His words collectively to entire company of monarchs of East and West; first Egyptian centre established; first pilgrimages to residence of Bahá'u'lláh
    1867 Sep "The Most Great Idol" was cast out of the community.

    Mírzá Yahyá's henceman, Siyyíd Muhammad, convinced Yahyá to challenge Bahá'u'lláh to to face-to-face encounter in the mosque of Sultán Salím in a distant part of the city, believing that Bahá'u'lláh would not show. Bahá'u'lláh immediately set out to walk to the appointed mosque. Upon learning this Mírzá Yahyá postponed the interview for a day or two. Bahá'u'llah returned to His home and revealed a Tablet to be delivered to Siyyíd Muhammad when he produced a sealed note stating that should Mírzá Yahyá fail to appear at the trysting-place, he would produce a document refuting Yahyá's claims. Neither were forthcoming and the Tablet to Siyyid Muhammad remained undelivered.

    Prior to this the community had been divided however this incident firmly established His ascendency. The Covenant of the Báb had prevailed [GPB168-170]

  • A period of prodigious activity ensued. Bahá'u'lláh later stated in the Lawh-i-Siraj, "In those days the equivalent of all that hath been sent down aforetime unto the Prophets hath been revealed." [GPB171]
  • See The Azali-Bahai Crisis of September, 1867 by Juan Cole.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Siyyid Muhammad; Covenant-breakers; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to to Mullá-'Alí Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tehran to transfer the casket containing the remains of the Báb from the Imám-Zádih Ma'súm to a safer hiding place so they temporarily concealed it within a wall of the Masjid-i-Máshá'u'lláh outside of the gates of the city of Tehran. After the hiding place was detected the casket was smuggled into the city and deposited in the house of Mírzá Hasan-i-Vazír, a believer and son-in-law of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alíy-i-Tafríshí, the Majdu'l-Ashráf. [GPB177; ISC-1963p32] Báb, Burial of; Báb, Remains of; Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí); Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Imam-Zadih Masum; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1867 c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refused to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had twice petitioned the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sold some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Ottoman government; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 c. Jun (or later) Bahá'u'lláh rented the house of 'Izzat Áqá where He and His family lived until their departure from Adrianople. [BKG239; GPB168; ALM39]

      "The remaining months in the house of Izzat Aqa constituted the most fecund period in the whole course of the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh. Tablets and verses flowed continuously from his pen and His tongue." [ALM42]
  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
  • Picture.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); House of Izzat Aqa; Houses; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 Apr The appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrived at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers]
  • Also see An 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress translated by Manuchehr Derakhshani and Nesreen Akhtarkhavari.
  • Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Other; - Persecution; Baghdad, Iraq; Shushtar, Iran
    1867 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moved back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stayed for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; House of Amrullah; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1867 Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, a Bahá'í physician, was executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

    Áqá Najaf-'Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, was executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

    Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Zanjan, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1867 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
  • Azali Bábís; Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1867 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i'Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Mírzá Badiullah; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1866 1 Dec Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as 'General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.
  • LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.
  • Marion Jack; Births and deaths; Saint John, NB; New Brunswick, Canada; Canada
    1866 Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís were arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Tabríz, Iran; Iran
    1866 14 Nov The 'star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]
  • The falling of stars was predicted in Matthew 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
  • The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

    The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gave the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

    '...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from 'The Revelation of Baha'u'llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

  • See Thief in the Night p198 for a list of astronomical events that occurred coincident to Bahá'í history.
  • Falling stars and comets; Signs; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
    1866 - 1867 Lawh-i Nasir (The Tablet to Nasir). This Arabic and Persian scriptural Tablet was written around 1866-7 after the Azali-Baha'i `Most Great Separation'. It is a reply to a question of Hajji Muhammad Nasir Qazvini (d. Rasht, 1300/1883) about the position of Mirza Yahya Nuri who had challenged the claimed theophanic claims of Bahá'u'lláh. Therein Bahá'u'lláh maintains that "The origins [genesis] of this [Babi-Baha'i] Cause were concealed from all. No one was adequately aware thereof save two souls; one of these two being named Ahmad who suffered the martyrdom in the path of his Lord and returned unto the ultimate abode, while the other was he who was named [Mirza Musa Nuri] al-Kalim "the Speaker" ("He who [like Moses] conversed", with God) who at this moment can be found in our presence" (Majmu`a-yi Alwah-i Mubaraka, 174)". The largely Persian text of the Lawh-i Nasir can be found in MAM (Cairo : 1333/1920. Rep. 1978: 166-202). [UofCal MERCED] * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Tablet to Nasir; Lawh-i Nasir; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey
    1866 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the 'Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233]
  • Photos of the ruins of the House of Ridá Big and the House of Amru'lláh. [BW5p587]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
  • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
  • This was the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh used the term 'people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the 'people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
  • Lawh-i-Bahá; Khatun Jan; Rida Big; Firsts, other; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers
    1866 Mar Khurshíd Páshá took up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] Khurshid Páshá; - Governors; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of 'Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • It should be noted that the Báb never appointed a successor or an interpreter. Shoghi Effendi refers to him as the "titular head" and "a mere figurehead". [GPB90]
    • Bahá'u'lláh Himself conceived of the plan to elevate Yáhyá's status in the eyes of the public to divert attention from Himself. [TN37; RoB1p53-54]
    • See [RoB2p241-242] for the story of the nightingale and the crow.
    • See [UD631n] for information in his titles.
    • See as well the memorandum from the Research Department to the Uniververal House of Justice regarding the appointment of Azal and his titles.
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1866 22 Feb Nabil Zarandi received a letter from Bahá'u'lláh giving him permission to proclaim the new religion openly and to reveal what he had witnessed in Baghdad of the actions of Azal and Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani. Prior to this time he had been asked to conceal this information. Almost all of the Bábís in Tehran became Bahá'ís upon hearing this news. [BCI1p14]
  • At this time number of Bahá'ís in Tehran was constantly being supplemented by those who had fled the persecution in their home towns. [BC1p15]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Nabil-i-Azam; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1865 - 1866 Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of 'Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
  • The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
  • The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
  • The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb. [BW19p584]
    • The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
    • The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam. [N&N27]
    • The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
    • The Lawḥu'r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
    • The Lawḥu'r-Riḍván
    • The Lawḥu't-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
      [GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062]
    • Súriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command) (Leiden list suggests late 1865 - early 1866]
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Lawh-i-Nuqtih (Tablet of the Point); Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Suriy-i-Ashab (Surah of the Companions); Lawh-i-Sayyah (Tablet of the Traveller); Suriy-i-Damm (Tablet of Blood); Suriy-i-Hajj; Lawhur-Ruh (Tablet of the Spirit); Lawh-i-Ridvan (Tablet of Ridvan); Lawhut-Tuqa (Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1865 Nov Nabil Zarandi arrived in Tehran where he remained for four months. At that time the proclamation of Baha'u'llah was not common knowledge although some had been commissioned to slowly reveal to the Babis of Tehran the extent of Azal's opposition to Baha'u'llah. [BCI1p14] Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1865 May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Law-i-Laylatu'l-Quds in honour of Darvish Sidq-'Alí*. In this Tablet He exhorts His followers to be united in such wise that all traces of division and estrangement may vanish from among them. [* MoF36-8; BKG482] [RoB2p188]
  • There is a partial translation of the Tablet in Gleanings.
  • See Tablet of the Sacred Night by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole.
  • See Lawh-i-Laylatu'l-Quds: Letter from the Universal House of Justice, plus translator's introduction, notes by Sen McGlinn, Juan Cole, Ahang Rabbani. [BW19p584; N&N23]
  • See The Lawh-i Laylat al-Quds by Stephen N. Lambden.
  • See Bahaipedia.
  • Law-i-Laylatul-Quds; Tablet of the Sacred Night; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey
    1865 17 May The first international standards organization, the International Telegraph Union, was established in Paris where delegates were gathered in conference from 20 European states. The mandate was to help connect telegraphic networks between countries. The Union was tasked with implementing basic principles for international telegraphy which included the use of the Morse code as the international telegraph alphabet, the protection of the secrecy of correspondence, and the right of everybody to use the international telegraphy.

    In 1906 Berlin was the host of a conference to consider radiotelegraph standards. It was attended by representatives of 29 nations and culminated in the International Radiotelegraph Convention. An annex to the convention eventually became known as ITU Radio Regulations. At the conference it was also decided that the Bureau of the International Telegraph Union would also act as the conference's central administrator. The name International Telecommunication Union was adopted in 1932 to reflect its expanded responsibilities over radio and the telephone. On 15 November 1947, the ITU entered into an agreement with the newly created United Nations to become a specialized agency within the UN system.

    The mandate of the ITU has broadened with the advent of new communications technologies. It promotes the shared global use of the radio spectrum, facilitates international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, assists in developing and coordinating worldwide technical standards, and works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world. It is also active in the areas of broadband Internet, optical communications (including optical fibre technologies), wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, TV broadcasting, amateur radio, and next-generation networks.

    Based in Geneva, Switzerland with regional offices on every continent. the ITU's global membership included 193 countries as well as more than 1,000 businesses, academic institutions, and international and regional organizations. [ITU Website]

    United Nations; International relations; International Standards; Geneva, Switzerland; Switzerland; Paris, France; France; Berlin, Germany; Germany
    1865 Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He was buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] - Prime Ministers; Mírzá Aqa Khan; Qom, Iran; Iran; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1865 (In the year) Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University published Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26] (Conflict: see 1905.) Bábísm; Mírzá Kazem-Beg; - First publications; St. Petersburg; Russia First Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion
    c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864.
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad. He had walked from Baghdad to Constantinople, a distance of 1,600km on his way to visit Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople. He was some 220km away when he received the Tablet. Upon reading it he understood that Bahá'u'lláh wanted him to proclaim that Bahá'u'lláh was the promised successor to the Báb and so he immediately started his journey to Persia, a 3,200km trip.
  • See Bahá'í News No 432 March 1967 pg 1 for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story can be found in the April 1967 edition. Alternatively see Blogspot and Bahá'í Library.
  • The Ocean of His Words by John Hatcher deals with this Tablet in chapter7.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
  • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See Commentaries on Three Major Tablets by John Kolstoe pages 1-86.
  • See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
  • See YouTube On the Tablet of Ahmad by Richard Gurinsky.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1865 (In the year) French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. He relied heavily on the Násikhu't-Taváríkh (The History to Abrogate All Previous Histories) written by Lisánu'l-Mulk. Bahá'u'lláh had condemned this account as "a falsification of history, one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce". [SUR36-37]
  • "The Comte de Gobineau's work with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ, was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau's book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold's view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies." [Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
  • Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still known as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September 1863.). iiiii
  • This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512
  • Comte de Gobineau; Bábísm; Edward Granville Browne; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Matthew Arnold; France; Iran
    1861 / 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Persian Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad-i-Fársi) sometime between 1864 and 1865 for Haji Mirza Ahmad-i-Kashani, "a self-professed devotee of His whose scandalous acts and insincere behaviour had outraged other members of Bahá'u'lláh's retinue. In this relatively long letter Bahá'u'lláh admonishes Mirza Ahmad and others like him to cast off their waywardness and direct themselves to the path of piety and righteousness." [BB.S118]
  • Hájí Mírzá Ahmad-i-K´sháni was a close companion of Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání. See BKG231 and EGB64-65 for his fate. [BKG222-223]
  • Two passages can be found in Gleanings, CLII, CLIII.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Persian)); Hájí Mírzá Ahmad-i-Kashani; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá began his attempts on Bahá'u'lláh's life about one year after the arrival of the exiles. He invited Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shared a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh was ill for 21 days following this attempt and was left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life.
  • Bahá'u'lláh was attended by a foreign Christian doctor named Shíshmán who died shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him.
  • On another occasion he poisoned the well which provided water for the family and companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG225]
  • Mírzá Yahyá tried to convince the barber, Ustád Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Salmání, to assassinate Him at the public bath. This enraged the barber and, contrary to Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, he disclosed Mírzá Yahyá's intentions to the community thus causing further discontent. [CH60, BKG225–30, CB82–3, GPB165-166 and RB2:158–61]
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahá'u'lláh, Attempts on; Poison; Ustad Muhammad-`Alí Salmáni; Doctor Shishman; Public baths (bathhouses); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaints to the authorities. They alleged that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria for the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
  • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Aqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Antichrist; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He was succeeded by 'Árif Páshá, who was not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] - Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Páshá; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 c. After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name was mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey; Akka, Israel
    1864 c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] Báb, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); * Báb, Writings of; Mírzá `Abdu'l-Karim Qazvini; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics; - Missing, lost or destroyed Writings; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 (between Jun and Oct) Bahá'u'lláh and His family moved to the house of Amru'lláh (The Cause of God) located to the north of the Mosque of Sultán Salím and close to it. They occupied the upper floor, Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and his family the middle one and some of the attendants were housed on the ground floor. Other houses were found in the same quarter, one for Áqáy-i-Kalím and his family and one for Mírzá Yahyá and his. [BKG221, ALM35]
  • Picture - The Mosque of Sultan Salim.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • It was while they were in this house that Mírzá Yahyá, a discontent since the early days in Baghdad, began to rebel more openly with support from Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani. It was the "first major internal convulsion which seized a newly re-arisen community and which threatened to cause an irreparable breach in the ranks of its members". Bahá'u'lláh designated this period and the time following as Ayyám-i-Shidád (Days of Stress) . [BKG223-233; GPB163]
  • House of Amrullah; Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-'Ulyá. [BKG222] Mírzá Diyaullah; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 Apr Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, 'the Wolf', ordered the arrest of several hundred Bábis and had them brought to Iṣfahán. Mirzá Habibu'lláh and Ustzád Husayn-'Ali-i-Khayyat were executed and a number of the prisoners were sent on to Ṭihrán where they languished in prison for several months before being set free. On their return to Iṣfahán, Haji Mullá Hasan and Hájí Muhammad-Sádiq were beaten and then executed in June. [BW18p382] Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; The Wolf; Persecution, Iran; Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeded Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both were admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254] Sulayman Pasha; Sufism; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; - Governors; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1864 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád
  • Several hundred Bahá'ís were arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as 'the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He was dissuaded from this plan by other 'ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners were executed, 18 were sent to Tihrán and the remainder were sent back to Najafábád where they were severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán were put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these were beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Najafabad upheaval; - Upheavals; Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1864 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas (pen name of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas), who later became an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] A.L.M. Nicolas; Births and deaths; Rasht, Iran; Iran; Europe
    1864 Circa. 1864 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Suriy-i- 'Ibad (Tablet of the Servants) for Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahájí Ismu'lláh, who, at that time, was the custodian of the Most Great House in Baghdad.

    In it the urges him to live a pious life, to cleanse his heart from the defilement of the world, and to become detached from his own self and all created things. Bahá'u'lláh extols His own Essence, and states that for many years He had revealed the Words of God in great profusion while hiding His glory behind many veils of concealment. When the appointed hour had struck, however, He unveiled His exalted station and shed an infinitesimal measure of the light of His countenance upon all created things. As a result of this outpouring, the Concourse on high and the chosen ones of God were awestruck and dumbfounded. [RoB2p274]

  • The title Ismu'lláhu'l-Mihdí (The Name of God, the Guide) had been conferred upon the siyyid by Bahá'u'lláh but after His passing he became a Covenant-breaker and became know as Takhthe-Kanah-si (Bedbug) because of his stubborn personality. [MMoB720]
  • Suriy-i-Ibad; Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Dahaji; Covenant-breakers; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey
    1864 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Mírzá Hadi Shirazi; Shoghi Effendi, Family of; Births and deaths; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1864 (or early in the sojourn in Edirne) 'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the well-known Islamic tradition 'I was a Hidden Treasure …' for 'Alí Shawkat Páshá.
  • See Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Moojan Momen. In the article, he refers to another provisional translation done by Baharieh Ma'ani in collaboration with Hooper Dunbar.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Response to the Doctrine of the Unity of Existence by Keven Brown Fourth Section.
  • See as well BNE52. Here, 'Abdu'l-Bahá is described as "about fifteen or sixteen years of age".
  • Mention of this Tablet is made in Messages to Canada, p34-35, where, in a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, it is stated that the Tablet is about 50 pages in length and had been published in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's second volume of His Tablets published in Egypt.
  • A Tablet of Baháʼuʼlláh, recently discovered by Necati Alkan and available in provisional translation by Adib Masumian, indicates that it was written during the sojourn in Edirne. The original text has been published in Safíniy-i-ʻIrfán, vol. 6, p. 10 (2003). In the Tablet Bahá'u'lláh says that Ali (Şevket/Shawkat) Pasha requested 'Abdu'l-Bahá to write His commentary "during the days of stopover/residence in the Land of Mystery" (dar ayyám-i tavaqquf dar Ard-i Sirr).

    And now concerning the extensive commentary on the Islamic tradition which begins, "I was a hidden treasure…" During the days of Our sojourn in the Land of Mystery, ʻAlí Páshá had asked the Most Mighty Branch of God—may My life be a sacrifice for the ground which His most pure footsteps have trodden—to provide a commentary on this hadith. This He did in accordance with the exigencies of the time, and His purpose was that all may benefit from it…

    As per a 1995 article prepared for The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, it was previously believed that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was 17 years old at the time of writing, if so, this would have dated the Tablet at about 1861. Given that this new evidence proves that it was written in Edirne, He would have been 19 years old but more probably in his early twenties. [Thanks to Necati Alkan for providing this correction and to Adib Masumian for doing the translation at his request.] iiiii

  • * `Abdu'l-Bahá, Writings and talks of; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); - Philosophy; `Alí Shawkat Páshá; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Necati Alkan; Adib Masumian; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1863 c.22 Dec - 22 Jun or 22 Oct Bahá'u'lláh and His family spent about six to ten months in another house in the Murádíyyih quarter near the Takyiy-i-Mawlaví. Those who were still in the caravanserai moved to the house thus vacated. Next door to this house a place was rented for Áqáy Ridá, Mírzá Yahyá and their families. [BW19p584; BKG221]

    During this time He revealed the following:

  • Lawh-i-Sayyáh (Tablet of the Traveller. [BKG220] (Leiden list suggests "following Separation, February - June 1867]
  • Lah-i-Naqtih (Tablet of the Point). [BKG220]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1863-1873 During this period Bahá'u'lláh made His proclamation to the kings and rulers.

    Also during this period the decline and breakdown of the Ottoman Empire continued. It was often referred to as the "Sick Man of Europe." This decline was characterized by administrative inefficiency, territorial losses, and the rise of nationalist movements in many of its provinces.

  • Serbia had been taken steps to loosen the Ottoman control since the early 1800s. In 1867 the Turks had to evacuate their fortress there. In 1876, Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, participating in the broader conflict known as the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878). Following the war the Treaty of Berlin (1878) recognized Serbia's full independence. Its territory was further expanded in the subsequent years. Muhammad Ali Pasha was taking Egypt out of the Ottoman fold and his dynasty continued until 1952.
  • Moldavia and Walachia were united into the autonomous principality of Romania in 1861 or 1862. In 1877-1878, Romania played a significant role in the Russo-Turkish War, and after the Treaty of Berlin it was officially recognized as an independent nation. The country's independence was further solidified in 1881 when Carol I became the first King of Romania.
  • The Greek War of Independence (25 March 1821) laid the foundation for the modern Greek state and it was a significant chapter in the broader context of nationalist movements and the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century.
  • Pan-Slavism, supported by Russia and its agents in the region, had become the prevailing ideology in the Balkans during Bahá'u'lláh's time in Adrianople (1863-68). A serious insurrection broke out in Herzegovina in 1875, followed by an uprising in Bulgaria in 1876 and a declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire by Serbia and Montenegro. Russian armies crossed the Ottoman frontiers and occupied Sofia and Adrianople, fulfilling Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy that:
      "the day is approaching when the Land of Mystery [Adrianople], and what is beside it shall be changed, and shall pass out of the hands of the king, and commotions shall appear, and the voice of lamentation shall be raised, and the evidences of mischief shall be revealed on all sides, and confusion shall spread by reason of that which hath befallen these captives at the hands of the hosts of oppression..." [The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p143]
    [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Bahá's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p16]
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
    1863 c. 12 - 21 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His family stayed for one week at a house in the Murádíyyih quarter of the city, in the north-eastern section near Takyiy-i-Mawlavi. The house was located on high ground with a good view of the city and close to the Muradiyyih mosque. The rest of the exiles remained at the inn. [BKG218] During this time He revealed:
  • Kitáb-i-Badí' (The Wonderous or Unique Book) .
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1863 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His party spent three nights in the Khán-i-'Aráb caravanserai. [BKG218] Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1863 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison") ("The Land of Mystery") (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.

      "at a time when the forces of schism had rent asunder the ties that united the little band of exiles which had settled in Adrianople and whose fortunes seemed then to have sunk to their lowest ebb!" [BW5p175]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Firsts, other; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey; Europe
    1863 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá'u'lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Winter; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Exile (banishment); Istanbul, Turkey; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1863 Dec Prelude to the exile from Constantinople:
  • It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
  • News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
  • Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
  • Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles." [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
  • The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159]
  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
  • "...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-`Abdu'l-Aziz-Va-Vukala (Tablet to the Sultan); Mírzá Husayn Khan; Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safa; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultán `Abdu'l-Azíz; - Missing, lost or destroyed Writings; Istanbul, Turkey; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey
    1863 Sep Because the Shamsi Big residence was too small Bahá'u'lláh and His family were moved to the house of Visi Pasha, situated near the mosque of Sultan Fatih Mehmet. They spend three months in this residence. [ALM21] Visi Pasha; Bahá'u'lláh, Houses of; Shamsi Big; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1863 16 Aug -16 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
  • The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
  • He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583]
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí; Báb, Declaration of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey; Egypt
    1863 c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-'Ulyá. Her body was buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Sadhijiyyih; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Edirne Gate; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

    "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217]

    Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultán `Abdu'l-Azíz; Lawh-i-`Abdu'l-Aziz-Va-Vukala (Tablet to the Sultan); - Grand Viziers; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Istanbul, Turkey; Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey; Turkey first among the sovereigns to receive the Divine Summons.
    1863 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Constantinople at noon. He was received with great honour by a government official appointed. At that time it was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • Picture.
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and now numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey first time a Manifestation of God had set foot on the European continent.
    1863 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Ships; Samsun, Turkey; Sinope, Turkey; Anyabuli, Turkey; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1863 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235; BKG176-178]
  • On the day of His departure from Firayjat Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawḥ-i-Firáq (In 'Iráq it is known as Lawḥ-i-Firayját) [Tablet of Firayját (Lawḥ-i-Firayját) / Tablet of Firáq (Lawḥ-i-Firáq) compiled by Violetta Zein]
  • The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
    • Gawhar Khanum, Bahá'u'lláh's third wife whom He married in Baghdad before the declaration of His mission, remained in Baghdad with her brother, Mirza Mihdiy-i-Kashani. [MoF95] The dates of her birth, marriage and death are not known. For some years she was among the Bahá'í refugees in Mosul and later went to 'Akka at Bahá'u'lláh's instruction. She gave birth to one daughter, Furughiyyih; mother and daughter both became Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [CoC22]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They passed through the following:
    • Judaydih
    • Dilí-'Abbás
    • Qarih-Tapih
    • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    • Dúst-Khurmátú
    • Táwuq
    • Karkúk (stay two days)
    • Irbíl
    • By the River Záb
    • Bartallih
    • Mosul (stay three days)
    • khú
    • Jazírih
    • Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
    • Hasan-Áqá
    • Márdiín (three day halt)
    • Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
    • Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
    • Khárpút (one day's travel) (stay two or three days)
    • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    • Dilik-Tásh
    • Sívás
    • Túqát (Tokat)
    • Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
    • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • Picture
  • The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Journeys; Caravans; Howdahs (hawdajs); Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Gawhar Khanum; Furughiyyih; Mírzá Mihdiy-i-Kashani; Lawh-i-Firayjat; Lawh-i-Firaq; Exile (banishment); Iraq; Turkey; Firayjat, Baghdad, Iraq; Samsun, Turkey; Istanbul, Turkey; Judaydih, Iraq; Dili-Abbas, Iraq; Qarih-Tapih, Iraq; Salahiyyih, Iraq; Dust-Khurmatu, Iraq; Tawuq, Iraq; Karkuk, Iraq; Irbil, Iraq; Bartallih, Iraq; Mosul, Iraq; Zakhu, Iraq; Jazirih, Iraq; Nisibin, Turkey; Hasan-Aqa, Turkey; Mardiin, Turkey; Diyar-Bakr, Turkey; Madan-Mis, Turkey; Kharput, Turkey; Madan-Nuqrih, Turkey; Dilik-Tash, Turkey; Sivas, Turkey; Tuqat, Turkey; Amasia, Turkey; Ilahiyyih, Turkey
    1863 3 May When Bahá'u'lláh left Baghdad for Constantinople, He bade Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dahájí Ismu'lláh move into His house and become its caretaker. [RoB2p273-274]
  • For details of the life of this man see RoB2p274.
  • Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 3 May Bahá'u'lláh left the Garden of Ridván.
  • This initiated the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He was about to leave He revealed a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brought relief and happiness to those who received it. [EB222]
  • His leaving was accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rode a horse rather than a donkey and wore a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

    Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • There they stayed in a borrowed garden for a week while Bahá'u'lláh's brother, Mirza Musa, completed dealing with their affairs in Baghdad and packing the remaining goods. Visitors still came daily. [SA235]
  • One of the loyal followers who was left behind was Ahmad-i-Yazdi. He would later make the journey to Constantinople where he received a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh. [C3MT17]
  • Ridvan Festival; Bahá'u'lláh, Declaration of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mírzá Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris River; Rivers; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days; Baghdad, Iraq; Firayjat, Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1863 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joined Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]
  • This initiated the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
  • Ridvan Festival; Bahá'u'lláh, Declaration of; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Ridvan Festival; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá fled Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had, since Bahá'u'lláh's return, concealed himself indoors ore, whenever danger threatened, would withdraw himself to Hillih or Basra where he disguised himself as a Jewish shoe merchant. [BKG224]
  • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople, joining the exiles when they passed through Mosul. He had obtained a passport in the name of Mírzá 'Alíh-i-Kirmánsháhí. [ESW167–8; RB1:255; BKG224]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
  • Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Baghdad, Iraq; Mosul, Iraq; Iraq; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey; Iran
    1863 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year fell on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh left His house for the last time and walked to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterward known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise). This garden was on an island in the Tigris River and belonged to the governor of Baghdad, Najib Pásha. The river has since changed its course and the island is now a park on the north bank of the Tigris. [C3MT15]
  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wore a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]
  • Bahá'u'lláh entered the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer was being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]
  • On this day Bahá'u'lláh declared His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
  • On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He revealed the Lawh-i-Ayyúb (Tablet of Job) (also known as the Súriy-i-Sabr (Súrat of Patience), Madínatu's-Sabr (City of Patience) and Súrat Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí whom He surnamed Ayyúb (Job). He was a veteran of the battle of Nayríz. The Tablet praised Vahíd and the believers of Nayríz. [SA239; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh]
  • He also revealed the Tablet of Ridván, an Arabic tablet beginning with "He is seated upon this luminous throne.... [SA239]
  • ...and Húr-i-'Ujáb (The Wondrous Maiden). [SA239]
  • ...as well as Qad atá Rabí'u'l-Bayán, ...The Divine Springtime is come.... [SA240]
  • and an Arabic Tablet that begins...When the gladness of God seized all else. [SA240]
  • 'Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153. iiiii
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiated the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marked the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh made three important statements to His followers:
    1. He forbade the use of the sword.
    2. He stated that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This was later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí' and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
    3. He stated that, as from that moment, all the names and attributes of God were manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

    During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confided to 'Abdu'l-Bahá that He was 'Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Ridvan Festival; Naw-Ruz; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Firsts, other; Taj; Holy days; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq First time Bahá'u'lláh wears tall táj as symbol of His station; First Day of Ridván; first epoch of Heroic or Apostolic Age
    1863 22 Apr - 3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

    The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wikipedia]

    Extract from a Tablet of Baha'u'llah-Khadimu'llah. (Edited provisional translation below)

      "On the first day that the Ancient Beauty occupied the Most Great Throne in a Garden which hath been designated Ridván, the Tongue of Grandeur uttered three blessed verses.
      [1] The first of them was that in this Manifestation the use of the sword in holy war is put aside.
      [2] Secondly, prior to the completion of a millennium any theophanological claim put forward by any person must be considered baseless. In this respect the year should be considered a complete year.
      [3] Thirdly, the True One, exalted be His Glory, at that time manifested all the Divine Names upon all things.
        "Verily, all created things were immersed in the sea of purification when, on that first day of Ridván, We shed upon the whole of creation the splendours of Our most excellent Names and Our most exalted Attributes". [Kitab-i-Aqdas para75 p47]

      And the following choice verse was subsequently revealed but has been ordained to be of the same rank as the preceding three; namely, whatever personal designations are mentioned before the Face, whether living or dead, such have thereby attained the Presence of God by virtue of being mentioned by the King of Pre-Existence. [UCMERCED site]
    Ridvan Festival; Bahá'u'lláh, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Gardens; Holy days; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 (Prior to the Declaration) See Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1853-1863 compiled by Jonah Winters.
  • See also Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials by Jonah Winters.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 Between 1857 - 1863 Bahá'u'lláh revealed Lawh-i-Fitnih, "Tablet of the Test". The Tablet, as its title indicates, is about tests and trials which are associated with the Day of God. In it Bahá'u'lláh alludes to His own Revelation and states that through His advent the whole creation will be tried; no soul will be exempt. All those who are the embodiments of piety and wisdom, of knowledge and virtue, every accomplished man of learning, the servants of God and His sincere lovers, the angels that enjoy near access to God, the Concourse on high, every righteous man of discernment, every mature embodiment of wisdom, even the realities of the Prophets and Messengers of God -- all will be tested. [CoCp35]
    • There is a tradition in Islam quoted by Shoghi Effendi in his Persian writings which sets forth the difficulties and perils encountered by man on his journey to God. It describes how all men will perish and die except the believers; all the believers will perish and die except those who are tested, all who are tested will perish and die except those who are sincere, and those who are sincere will be in great danger. [CoCp35]
    * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Lawh-i-Fitnih (Tablet of the Test); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. William Harry Randall; Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá; Births and deaths; Boston, MA; Massachusetts, USA; USA
    1863 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh met the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him and advised that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá, the governor of Baghdad, could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news in person. At first he summoned Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul-General, Mirza Burzurg Khan, had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia to an uncertain fate. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68; RoB1p142-147]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; - Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship; Ottoman government; Exile (banishment); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1863 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. The Tablet was revealed to the friends present and Nabil wrote that they understood it portended to a new period and greater tests. His further exile was being foretold. Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the announcement that he was to be transferred to Constantinople. [RB1:228-229; SA163-165, 234; BKG154; GPB147]
  • The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations by Aziz Mboya. .
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mírzá Aqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Mazraiy-i-Vashshash, Iraq; Iraq; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1863 Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrated the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra'iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Naw-Ruz; Rivers; Mazraiy-i-Vashshash, Iraq; Tigris River; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of 'five successive commands' from 'Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; - Governors; Namiq Pasha; - Grand Viziers; `Alí Páshá; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey First of ‘five successive commands' to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople
    1863 (In the year) The passing of Hájí Mubárak, the servant of the Báb. He was born in 1823 and died at the age of 40. He was buried in the grounds of the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
  • He had been purchased in Bushir at the age of 5 by Hájí Mírzá Abú'l-Qásím, the great-grandfather of Shoghi Effendi and brother-in-law of the Báb and was sold to the Báb in 1842, just prior to His wedding, at the age of 19 for fourteen tomans. [BP5, 18]
  • Hájí Mubarak; In Memoriam; Bushihr, Iran; Iran; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offered Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offered Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]
  • Bahá'u'lláh declined the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
  • Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British history; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1862 22 Aug Concessions by the Persian government in the Qajar period (1789-1925) included grants of political and extraterritorial rights to the Russian and British governments, as well as monopolies, contracts, and licenses to British and Russian citizens and companies to carry on specific economic activities on Persian territory. Please see Encyclopaedia Iranica for details of concessions to both the British and the Russians.

    The following is an example of one such concession: The Telegraph Concession in Iran in 1862 was a significant agreement that allowed a British company to construct and operate a telegraph line in Persain territory. This concession played a crucial role in the development of telecommunication infrastructure and British influence in Iran during the 19th century.

    The concession was granted to a British entrepreneur named Charles Morrison by, Nasir al-Din Shah. The agreement gave Morrison the exclusive rights to build a telegraph line across Persia. This line was intended to connect the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea with branches extending to Tehran and other important cities.

    The British government supported Morrison in securing the concession as it served British interests in the region. It was not only a means of communication but also had strategic importance as it facilitated the transmission of information and news across the vast Iranian territory and contributed to British control over their interests.

    Construction began in 1864 and was completed in several stages over the following years. The concession allowed Morrison's company to operate for 70 years. The telegraph line facilitated communication between Persia and British India, which was also under British control at the time, and it played a role in the coordination of British interests in the region.

    Imperialism/colonialism; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requested that the Ottomans move the Bahá'u'lláh farther from Persia. Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Banishment of; Exile (banishment); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1862 5 May Mírzá Mihdíy-i-Káshaní was directed to remain in Baghdad to guard the Holy House. He remained until banished, along with the other Bahá'ís, to Mosul. [MoF96] House of Bahá'u'lláh (Baghdad); Caretakers; Mírzá Mihdiy-i-Kashani; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1862 c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-'Ulyá (Fatimih). Sadhijiyyih; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís were arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They were banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí spent the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, SDH32-66] Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí; Persecution, Egypt; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Egypt
    1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lived in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 2min56sec]
  • Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí Afnán; Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); Afnan; Báb, Family of; First Bahá'ís by country or area; Shanghai, China; Hong Kong; China First record of Bábí or Bahá'í living in China
    c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Tehran, Iran; Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1862 (Dates undetermined) In order to regain ownership of the House of the Báb, Mírzá Áqá Nuri'd-Din convinced the residents of the fact that because of the recent earthquakes some parts of the House had been structurally damaged, making it unsuitable to live in. He agreed to purchase or lease another dwelling for them while he did repairs.
  • After some minor repairs, a believer named`Abdu'r-Razzaq lived there for three years.
  • After him, it was occupied by the late Hájí Abu'l-Hasan [Bazzaz], who had accompanied the Báb on His hajj journey to Mecca and was one of the first believers of Shiraz.
  • Afterwards, the House was leased to Mulla Áqá Buzurg-i-Zarqani, who was a Bábí but not known as one.
  • Following him, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan lived in the House with his wife and two sons, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Mírzá Muhammad-Baqir, who later adopted the surname Dihqan. His wife was a relative of the Imam-Jum`ih Abu-Turab and, consequently, the family enjoyed some measure of protection. After five years of living in the Blessed House, his wife passed away and the protection of the `ulama was withdrawn. Because he was known as a Bábí, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan was forced to leave the city in the middle of the night, taking his two young sons with him. He departed in January of 1872.
  • With Zarqani's departure, in January 1872 a mother and daughter of Nayriz, who were brought as captives to Shiraz after the battles of 1853, occupied the House in order to preserve it. They remained there until about 1872. [MBBA169-170]
  • Mírzá Áqa Nurid-Din; Báb, House of (Shiraz); Shíráz, Iran
    1861 25 Jun Death of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz to the Ottoman throne. He ruled until 1876. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
  • Sultán `Abdu'l-Majid; Sultán `Abdu'l-Azíz; Ottoman Empire; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1861 -1862 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), 'a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. In the early days this Tablet was referred to as the Risáliy-i-Khál (Epistle of the Uncle). [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
  • Online at bahai.org: Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude.
  • The Tablet was revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle and caregiver of the Báb (the Greater Uncle, the eldest of the three brothers). He had been persuaded by a devout Bábí, Aqá Mírzá Núru'd-Dín, to make a pilgrimage to the holy Shrines of the Imáms in Iraq and where he could put these questions to Bahá'u'lláh as well as visit his sister, the mother of the Báb, who was not yet herself a Bábí. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It was revealed in the course of two days and two nights in early January. [BBS107; BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. See Reflections p149 for the story of the receipt of the original tablet, written in the hand of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Shoghi Effendi in the Holy Land. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It was probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
  • BEL1.77 gives the year of Revelation as 1862.
  • * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude); Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad; Báb, Family of; Báb, Uncles of; - Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Quran; Christianity; Bible; Prophecies; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq; Tehran, Iran; Iran First (probably) of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print
    1861 or 1862 Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and became a follower. Previously he had recognized the Báb through a dream and the memory of seeing Him in the congregation during a sermon he had delivered in a mosque in Karbila when a ray of light shone on the lap of the Báb as he sat listening attentively. [BKG18; PG108-109] Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1860 Probably during the Baghdad period. Of the Suratu'l-Bayan (The Epistle of Utterance) it is written: "This highly eloquent and challenging treatise highlights some key spiritual verities from am Bahá'u'lláh's teachings. Written entirely in the Arabic language, its timeless message is primarily addressed to the generality of His faithful followers. " [BBS124-131]

    In this Tablet the Maiden appears as the personification of the spirit of God. The Maiden has emerged from her hidden chamber symbolizes the appearance of Bahá'u'lláh's revelation in the world, and her afflictions mirror that of Bahá'u'lláh's. In the Surah of the Bayan Bahá'u'lláh identifies with Himself a passage in the Qayyumu'l-Asma in which the Báb had referred to "the Maid of Heaven begotten by the Spirit of Baha" (SWB:54).

  • In all likelihood this treatise was revealed during the in Baghdad during the visionary, allegorical period of His Writings, however the manner in which Bahá'u'lláh refers to the "Maiden" is in keeping with the style of the Akka period.
  • Portions of this treatise can be found in Gleanings CXXIX, CXXVIII, And CXLV.
  • Suratul-Bayan; * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Epistle of Utterance; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1860 circa 1859/1860 The revelation of Javáhiru'l-Asrár, (meaning literally the "gems" or "essences" of mysteries) (in Arabic) by Bahá'u'lláh in reply to a question posed by Siyyid Yúsuf-i-Sihdihí Isfahání, who, at the time, was residing in Karbilá. One of the central themes of the treatise is the subject of "transformation", meaning the return of the Promised One in a different human guise. The second theme can be said to be mystical in nature. It has many similarities to The Seven Valleys. Bahá'u'lláh described the seven valleys, but the names and orders of valleys are slightly different from those found in the book of The Seven Valleys [GDMii]
  • BBS94 says this was revealed at about the same time as the Seven Valleys.
  • It was published in English in 2002 under the title Gems of Divine Mysteries. [Chronology 2002-06-26]
  • For a synopsis of the treaties see Gems of Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár): Wilmette Institute faculty notes by Muin Afnani, 1999.
  • See The Seven Cities of Bahá'u'lláh compiled by Arjen Bolhuis. 2002.
  • See Seven Cities in the Spiritual Journey to God: Gems of Divine Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár) and Seven Valleys by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadl Mazandarani) originally published in "Star of the West", 13:11, pages 301-303, 1923-02.
  • See A Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith by Christopher Buck published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4, page 1–48, Ottawa: Association for Bahá'í Studies, 1998. iiiii
  • Javahirul-Asrar (Gems of Divine Mysteries); * Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of; Siyyid Yusuf-i-Sihdihi Isfahani; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1860 (In the year) Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273]
  • He was a nephew of Nabil-i-Akbar. He traveled to India and later to Haifa . He was sent to Ishqábád by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to take care of the education of children. Along with other believers he helped to complete the unfinished writings of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wikipedia]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Qá'iní; Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl; Naw-Firist; Birjand, Iran; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan
    c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, was taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He was about 12 years old. [RB3:205]
  • He traveled with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-'Ulyá (Fatimih Khanum). [Mihdí, Mírzá (1848–70)]
  • Mírzá Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Tehran, Iran; Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq

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