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COLLECTIONEncyclopedia articles
TITLEEncyclopaedia Iranica: Selected articles related to Persian culture, religion, philosophy and history
AUTHOR 1 Encyclopaedia Iranica
CONTRIB 1Arjen Bolhuis, comp.
TITLE_PARENTEncyclopaedia Iranica
PUB_THISColumbia University
ABSTRACTSorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles.
NOTES The total Encyclopaedia Iranica currently consists of around 9,000 articles, and is not yet completed. Other articles, more directly related to the Bahá'í Faith, can be found elsewhere at Bahá'í Library Online.

Note that the column "Description and comments" is AI assisted (edited output of questions to ChatGPT 3.5 like "summarize text in maximum 25 words"). Without that it would have been much more time consuming to create.

See other Encyclopaedia Iranica articles linked from this site, and see About the Encyclopaedia Iranica.

Tip: To read long articles on the Encyclopedia Iranica on a (mobile) screen can be inconvenient for some. It may be helpful to copy and paste content that interests you into a Word file and then and send it to your e-reader or e-reader app (if needed after converting it to EPUB format (with software like Calibre).

CROSSREFDeciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam (Annemarie Schimmel)
TAGS* All subjects; - Basics; - Calendars (general); - Christianity; - Chronology and timelines; - Interfaith dialogue; - Islam; - Judaism; - Metaphors and allegories; - Philosophy; - Reference works; - Shahs; - Zoroastrianism; 1260; Abjad system; Afghanistan; Akbari (Shiite school); Alchemy; Alexander Tumansky; Alexander the Great; Andaruni and biruni; Angels; Apocalypse; Aql; Arabic language; Aramaic language; Archeology; Architecture; Armenia; Arts; Ashgabat; Asia; Asia Minor; Astrology; Astronomy; Atabat (Holy cities); Attar (poet); Austria; Avicenna (Ibn Sina); Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Banners; Begging; Belgium; Bible; Birds; Bookbinding; Burial (funeral); Calligraphy; Camphor; Candles; Caravans; Caravanserai (caravansary); Carpets; Cemeteries; Central Asia; China; Class systems; Cleanliness; Clothing; Coffeehouses; Colonialism; Color; Communication; Conspiracy theories; Conversion; Cosmology; Courts; Creation; Cultural diversity; Dajjal; Daniel (Bible); Day of Judgment (or Day of Resurrection); Dead Sea scrolls; Denmark; Dervishes; Deserts; Devil (Satan); Dhikr (Remembrance); Diaspora; Divine nonfulfillment (Bada); Dreams and visions; Dualism; East India Company; Education; Edward Gibbon; Encyclopedia Iranica; Encyclopedias; Epics; Equality; Eschatology; Etiquette; Euphrates; Europe; Europe; Evil; Evil eye; Exegesis; Fables; Falcons; Farabi; Farman; Fasting; Fatalism; Fatimah (daughter of Muhammad); Fatwa; Fiction; Fire (metaphor); Flowers (metaphor); Forgery and interpolation; Fortresses, castles and palaces; Forty (number); France; Free will; Games; Gardens; Gazal; Gender; Germany; Gifts; Glory (general); Gnosticism; God, Anthropomorphic descriptions of; Goethe; Greece; Hadith; Hafez (Hafiz); Haft Sin; Hagiography; Haram and halal; Health and healing; Heaven and hell; Hegel; Hellenism; Henry Corbin; Hermeneutics; Hermes; Hidden Imam; History (general); Holy days; Household; Humor; Hungary; Iblis; Identity; Ijtihad; Illumination (calligraphy ornamentation); Imam Husayn; Imams; Imperialism; India; Intellect; Iran (documents); Iraq; Irfan (concept); Isaiah (Bible); Isfahan, Iran; Ismailism; Isra and Miraj; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jews; Jihad (Holy war); Jinn (genie); Joseph (Prophet); Jurisprudence; Karbala, Iraq; Khidr (Kidr); Kolkata, India; Language; Lebanon; Leyli and Majnun; Light; Literature, Persian; Lithography; Loanwords; Lover and the Beloved; Magi (priests); Magic; Mahdi; Mandaeans; Manichaeism; Manikchi Limji Hataria; Manuscripts; Messianism; Migration; Millennialism; Mithraism; Mulla Nasreddin; Mulla Sadra; Mumbai, India; Music; Mythology; Names and titles; Naw-Ruz; Netherlands; Nietzsche; Nightingales (metaphor); Nomadism; Numbers; Occultation; Omar Khayyam; Ottoman Empire; Paper (general); Parsis (Parsees); Pearls (metaphor); Pen (metaphor); Perfect Man (Pole); Persepolis; Persian culture; Persian language; Philosophy, Ishraqi (Illuminationism); Philosophy, Islamic; Philosophy, Zoroastrian; Planets; Poetry; Poland; Portugal; Prayer; Prophecies; Public baths (bathhouses); Qaim; Queen Marie of Romania; Queen of Sheba; Religion (general); Return; Rivers; Romania; Rose water; Roses; Roses and thorns (metaphor); Rumi (Mevlana); Russia; Saadi (Sadi); Sacred Books of the East (series); Sanai; Saoshyant (Saosyant); Saudi Arabia; Science; Scribes; Self-annihilation (fana); Seven (number); Shaykhism; Shiism; Shíráz, Iran; Silk; Simurgh (Simorg) (metaphor); Solomon (Solayman); Southeast Asia; Southeast Asia; Spain; Sufism; Suhrawardi (Sohravardi); Sunni Islam; Sweden; Syriac language; Taaruf (Tarof); Tabríz, Iran; Tajikistan; Talismans; Talmud; Taqiyyah (dissimulation); Technology; Tehran, Iran; Telegraph; Thailand; Tigris River; Turbans; Turkey; Twelfth Imam; Ulama; United Kingdom; Urdu language; Usuli (Shiite school); Veils; Water (metaphor); Week; Women; Words and phrases; Zodiac; Zoroaster
  1. Religion, philosophy, language, literature etc.
  2. Iran, Persian culture etc.
  3. Relations with other regions and countries

Religion, philosophy, language, literature etc.

Article Description and comments Authors Year
Rose and nightingale (gol-o-bolbol) Literary and decorative metaphor in Persian literature, Sufi poetry, as well as the Bahá'í Faith Layla S. Diba 2001
Rose (gol) Same as above Hušang A'lam 2001
Nightingale (bolbol) Same as above Hūšang A'lam, Jerome W. Clinton 1989
Beloved (ma'suq) Term occuring in Persian literature, Sufism and the Bahá'í Faith, with a variety of meanings. J. T. P. de Bruijn 1989
Candle (sam') Metaphor J. T. P. De Bruijn 1990
Color (rang) Color symbolism in Persian literature and art Annemarie Schimmel, Priscilla P. Soucek 1992
Simorg (simurgh) Mythical bird Hanns-Peter Schmidt 2002
Burial Burial practices in Zoroastrianism, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith Multiple authors (incl. Vahid Rafati) 2000
Cemeteries Cemeteries in Persian folklore Mahmoud Omidsalar 1990
Camphor (kāfūr) Essential oil used in Islamic funerary rituals Hūšang A'lam 1990
Calendars Various calendars Antonio Panaino, Reza Abdollahy, Daniel Balland 1990
Seven (haft) Cultural significance of the heptad in Persian history A. Shapur Shahbazi 2002
Week (hafta) History of the weekly calendar in Iran Badri Gharib 2009
Festivals Religious and communal festivals and commemorations Multiple authors 1999
Nowruz Persian New Year Mary Boyce, A. Shapur Shahbazi, Simone Cristoforetti 2000
Haft sin Seven items beginning with the letter sin (S), a ritual of the Nowruz festival A. Shapur Shahbazi 2002
Fasting Fasting in Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith Jamsheed K. Choksy, Denise Soufi 1999
Exegesis Commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts Multiple authors, incl. Todd Lawson 1999, 2000
Hermeneutics The development of Shi'ite exegetical methods over time Todd Lawson 2003
Baten (hidden) and zaher (visible) Concepts associated with knowledge ('ilm) in Shi'ism and Sufism B. Radtke 1988
Baqa (annihilation) and fana (subsistence) Exploring the mystical experiences of Sufis G. Böwering 1988
Cella (forty day period) Term referring to any forty-day period Mahmoud Omidsalar, Hamid Algar 1990
Cosmogony and cosmology The origin and structure of the universe in various religious traditions. For Shiism this includes elements like the divine throne and the pen. Multiple authors, incl. Moojan Momen 1993
Conversion Aspects of religious conversion in Iranian history Multiple authors 1993
Taqiya (dissimulation) Concealing one's true beliefs in times of imminent danger Louis Medoff, Kamran Ekbal 2015, 2012
Islam in Iran The advent and spread of Islam in Iran, messianism and millenarianism, jihad, and Islamic political movements Multiple authors 2007
Hadith Introducing Hadith literature, consisting of reports on the Prophet Muhammad's actions and sayings. Shahab Ahmed 2002
Shiite doctrine Focusing on the Imams and a dualistic view. Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi 2005
Hierarchy in the Imamiyya Hierarchy involving believers, ulema (religious scholars), and internal ranking systems Rainer Brunner 2010
Imamite-Sunnite relations Relations in the 19th and 20th centuries Rainer Brunner 2010
Imams in Twelver Shi'i Islam Articles about each of the twelve Imams Multiple authors 1985-2015
Imam Husayn Third Imam Wilferd Madelung, Jean Calmard, Peter Chelkowski 2004
Mahdi Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad who is expected to return Said Amir Arjomand, Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Verena Klemm) 2007
Gayba Occultation of the Hidden Imam Said Amir Arjomand 2000
Raj'a (return) Spiritual and eschatological interpretations in Shi'i Islam Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi 2005
Eschatology Final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity. In Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Shi'i Islam, Bábí and Bahá'í Faits Shaul Shaked, Werner Sundermann, Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Stephen Lambden 1998
Apocalyptic The development of End Time prophecies in Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Islam Mary Boyce, I. K. Poonawala 1986
Dajjal Evil figure in Islamic prophecies, who will pretend to be the promised Messiah, appearing before the Day of Judgment Hamid Algar 1993
Ismailism Prominent Shi'ite Muslim community Multiple authors 2007
Ijtihad (ejtehad) Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning by an expert in Islamic law Aron Zysow 1998
Jurisprudence (fiqh) Expressing God's law (sharī'a) through exposition, analysis, and argument Norman Calder 1999
Akbariya School in Shi'ism, emphasizing Imams' traditions as the main source of religious knowledge E. Kohlberg 1984
Shaykhism School of Twelver Shi'ism founded in the 19th century by Shaykh Aḥmad Aḥsā'i Denis Hermann 2017
Fatima Daughter of the Prophet Moḥammad Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi, Jean Calmard 1999
Angels (fereshteh) Angels in Islam and Persian folklore. In supplement (not online?) 1999
Bada Theological term referring to a divine change in decision or ruling based on new circumstance Wilferd Madelung 1988
Cleansing Cleansing practices in Islamic Persia Hamid Algar 1992
Dhikr (dekr) The remembrance of God through reciting His name, in Sufism and the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths Gerhard Böwering, Moojan Momen 1994
Dua (Doa; prayer) Islamic prayer of invocation, supplication or request Hamid Algar 1995
Halal (permissible) and haram (prohibited) Islamic term for "permissible" and "forbidden" things Dana al-Sajdi 2003
Iblis (Eblis) Devil-ike figure in Islam; the symbolic and moral dimensions of Iblīs in Sufism Hamid Algar 1996
Hell (duzak; jahannam) Hell in Zoroastrianism and Islam Philippe Gignoux, Mahmoud Omidsalar 2003, 2000
Jinn (genie) Supernatural beings from Islamic tradition, folklore beliefs in Persian tradition Mahmoud Omidsalar 2000
Kidr (Khidr, Kezr) A prophet in Islamic tradition, influenced by diverse myths Anna Krasnowolska 2009
Mi'raj (me'raj) The Prophet Muhammad's heavenly ascent, often associated with the night journey (isrā') Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi 2010
Sheba (Saba), Queen of (Belqis) Prominent figure in Persian and Arabic literature, known for her encounters with King Solomon (Solayman) Golām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī 1989
Christianity Various aspects of Christianity in Persia, includingChristian Influences in Persian Poetry Multiple authors, incl. Annemarie Schimmel 1991
Bible Persian translations of the Bible Multiple authors 1989
Daniel (Dānīāl-e Nabī) Biblical prophet, highlights prophetic elements and diverse traditions Multiple authors 1993
Isaiah, Book of Book of the Bible, containing prophecies Shaul Shaked 2006
Joseph (Yusuf) Joseph in Persian literature, Qur'anic exegesis, and Persian art Asghar Dadbeh, Annabel Keeler, Chad Kia 2009
Gnosticism Gnosticism had various forms in pre-Islamic Iran, blending influences from different religious traditions Kurt Rudolph 2001
Dead Sea scrolls Collection of manuscripts discovered at the Qumran Caves, in which a number of Iranian elements can be discerned Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin) 1994
Judeo-Persian communities Starting with the Babylonian exile until the present day; language, literature and music contributions, and Persian impact on Judaism Multiple authors 2009
Persian elements in the Talmud Persian influences on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud Jacob Neusner 2005
Talmud (continued) The impact of Middle Persian culture on Babylonian rabbinic Judaism Yaakov Elman 2010
Zoroaster Prophet of ancient Iran, whose religion became the dominant faith in Iran until the rise of Islam Multiple authors 2000
Ahura Mazda The one uncreated God in Zoroastrianism Mary Boyce 1984
Dualism Dualism in Zoroastrianism, and its influence on Judaism, early Christianity, Gnosticism, and Manicheism Gherardo Gnoli 1996
Farrah (glory) Term translating to "glory" in Iranian languages, linked to concepts like peace, and happiness; present in Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Manicheism Gherardo Gnoli 1999
Fire (ātaš) Concept in Zoroastrianism Mary Boyce 1987
Water (Āb) Concept in Zoroastrianism Mary Boyce 1982
Saosyant Saviour figure in Zoroastrian William Malandra 2000
Hataria Manekji Limji Parsi from India who served the Zoroastrian community in Iran from 1854 to 1890; Bahá'u'lláh sent several replies to his questions Firoze M. Kotwal, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Christopher J. Brunner, and Mahnaz Moazami 2016
Pre-Islamic religions in Iran Indo-Iranian practices and Zoroastrianism Philip G. Kreyenbroek 2006
Indo-Iranian religion Commonalities between ancient Iran and India Gherardo Gnoli 2004
Magi Priests of western Iranians during various historical periods Muhammad A. Dandamayev 2000
Mandaeans Ethno-religious group, followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic and monotheistic religion with Greek, Iranian, and Jewish influences Edmondo F. Lupieri 2008
Manicheism Persian religion (former world religion) founded by the prophet Mani in the 3rd century CE Werner Sundermann 2009
Mithraism Roman mystery religion centered on the god Mithras Roger Beck 2002
Hermes Greek god; article explores Hermes' influence in the Roman, Egyptian, and Iranian worlds Albert de Jong 2003
Nosayris Syncretistic sect close to Shi'ism, forming Syria's largest minority Meir M. Bar-Asher 2003
Sacred Books of the East Collection of 50 volumes translated into English between 1879 and 1910 by leading scholars supervised by Friederich Max Müller Carlo G. Cereti 2000
Alchemy (kimia) The origins of alchemy, Persian influence and Islamic development; alchemy's mysticism, medical applications, and lasting impact on Western science Pierre Lory 2008
Philosophy (falsafa) Mazdean philosophy blends Greek thought (mainly Peripatetic and Neo-Platonic) with Zoroastrianism, covering topics like Being, Time, Space, Movement, Nature, Man, the Prime Cause, influenced by diverse philosophical traditions Mansour Shaki 1999
Aql The term " 'aql" denotes intellect, crucial in Islamic philosophy, Sufism and literature F. Rahman, W. C. Chittick 1986
Perfect Human Being (Insan-i-kamil) Concept central in Islamic mysticism, originating with Ibn Arabi (1165 – 1240), embodying oneness with God, moral perfection, and cosmic significance. It evolved from diverse influences Gerhard Böwering 1998
Irfan Islamic theosophy, merging Sufi thought and Shi'ite philosophy, Gerhard Böwering 1998
Evil The concept of evil in Zoroastrianism and Shi'ism Gherardo Gnoli, Etan Kohlberg 1998
Fatalism Fatalism in Islamic philosophy and Persian literature, where destiny, predetermined by God, shapes human existence 'Abd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb 1999
Free will Free will in Shi'ism Multiple authors 2000
Farabi (c. 870 – 950) Islamic philosopher and music theorist, who lived in Baghdad, Egypt and Damascus Multiple authors 1999
Avicenna (c. 980 - 1037) Persian polymath, physician and philosopher, who died in Hamadan Multiple authors 1987
Illuminationism (falsafa-i-ishraqi) Philosophical system introduced by Persian philosopher Sohravardi (Suhrawardi; 1155 - 1191) Hossein Ziai 2004
Isfahan school of philosophy Philosophical movement, emphasizing metaphysical speculation and mystical experience. Key figures include Shaikh Bahai (1547 - 1621), Mir Damad (c. 1561 - 1631) and Mulla Sadra (c. 1571 - 1640) Sajjad H. Rizvi 2007
Mulla Sadra (c. 1571 - 1640) Persian philosopher and theologian, who lived in Shiraz, Qazvin, Isfahan, Qum, Basra and Najaf Sajjad H. Rizvi 2005
Hegel (1770 - 1831) German philosopher, who wrote about Zoroastrian thought and Islamic Persian art M. Azadpour 2003
Nietzsche (1844 - 1900) German philosopher, who admired Persian culture Daryoush Ashouri 2003
Conspiracy theories Conspiracy theories in Persia Ahmad Ashraf 1992
Forgeries Historical forgeries, including genealogies, documents, calligraphy, and painting Multiple authors 1999
Aryans Ancient peoples of India and Iran who spoke Aryan languages R. Schmitt 1987
Persian language Early New Persian's emergence, dialects, and historical context, shaping literature, administration, and scholarship across Islamic civilization Ludwig Paul 2000
Arabic language Arabic influence on Persian, including loanwords and literary impact Multiple authors 1986
Abjad Term referring to the use of letters as numbers; originally used for numbering, it later found applications in religion, poetry, magic and numerology G. Krotkoff 1982
Chronograms Chronograms hide dates in Persian texts using letter values; they are solved through various methods J. T. P. de Bruijn 1991
Codes (romuz) Persian cryptography; codes served diplomatic, religious, and magical purposes C. Edmund Bosworth 1992
Aramaic language Overview of Aramaic language, covering its historical development, dialects, and influence on Iranian languages F. Rosenthal, J. C. Greenfield, S. Shaked 1986
Syriac language An ancient Aramaic dialect, was vital in Christian literature and translating Greek works, influencing Islamic and Western civilizations Multiple authors 2015
Urdu language Urdu, a major language in Pakistan and India, influenced by Persian, serves as a lingua franca for the Indian subcontinent. Its literature heavily borrows from Persian. David Matthews 2005
Loanwords Linguistic loanwords across languages, including Arabic, Persian, Greek, Mongolian, Ossetic, Sogdian, Syriac, and Turkic Multiple authors Multiple years
Persian literature Three main periods of Persian literature: Pre-Islamic, Classical, and Modern Multiple authors 1999, 2006
Persian myths and legends Myths and legends in Iranian culture; their role in conveying fundamental truths and shaping religious beliefs John R. Hinnells 2004
Epics Epics in Persian literature; explores various heroic epics and their characters, including Rostam and Bahman; the national epic Shahnameh (shah-nama), as well as romantic epics like Nizami's works François de Blois 1998
Fables Persian fables, short stories often involving animals, gods, or inanimate objects, used to illustrate moral or ethical teachings; the adaptation of fables from various cultures into Persian storytelling traditions Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar 1999
Fiction Traditional and modern fiction, including novels, short stories, and works from various regions Multiple authors 2000
Gazal A form of Persian lyric poetry, which has influenced Turkish and Urdu poetry J. T. P. de Bruijn, Ehsan Yarshater 2000, 2006
Rhetorical figures Rhetorical figures in medieval Persian literature; the influence of Persian and Arabic traditions on each other's poetic styles Natalia Chalisova 2009
Metrical system (aruz) Metrical system used in Arabic poetry; influenced Persian poetry L. P. Elwell-Sutton 1986
Hagiographic literature Hagiographic literature in Persia and Central Asia focuses on Sufi saints, emphasizing spiritual teachings and symbolic meanings over factual details Jürgen Paul 2002
Omar Khayyam (1048 - 1131) Persian polymath and poet from Nishapur Multiple authors 2017
Sanai (1080 - 1131/1141) Persian poet from Ghazni J. T. P. de Bruijn 2012
Leyli and Majnun (Layli and Majnun) A narrative poem by Nizami (1141 - 1209), composed in 1188 A. A. Seyed-Gohrab 2009
Attar (c. 1145 - 1221) Persian poet and Sufi from Nishapur. Note: Bahá'u'lláh's "Seven Valleys" follows the structure of the Persian poem "The Conference of the Birds", with some variations B. Reinert 1987
Rumi (1207 – 1273) Sufi poet who died in Konya (present-day Turkey) Multiple authors, incl. William C. Chittick 2014
Sadi (Saadi; 1210 – c. 1291) Persian poet from Shiraz Paul Losensky 2000
Hafez (1315 - 1390) Persian poet and mystic from Shiraz Multiple authors, incl. Franklin Lewis 2002
Goethe (1749-1832) German poet, inspired by Sadi Hamid Tafazoli 2001
Calligraphy History of Persian calligraphy Golām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī 1990
Paper Paper, invented in China, spread to Iran and throughout Asia before the Islamic period. Its usage in the Iranian world before printing and its papermaking process are discussed. Jonathan Bloom, Willem Floor 2005, 2017
Cut paper Ornamental technique found in Persian manuscripts and bookbindings from the late 15th to the mid-17th centuries Barbara Schmitz 1993
Pen (qalam) Reed pen used in calligraphy; also bird quills are discussed Sina Goudarzi, Bahram Grami 2016
Bookbinding 1 Bookbinding in Iran evolved with Persian designs, including blind tooling and Timurid innovations like sophisticated stamping and cutwork Duncan Haldane 1989
Bookbinding 2 Bookbinding involves crafting covers for new books or repairing old ones. Persian bookbinders worked with leather, cloth, and various ornamentation techniques. Iraj Afshar 2005
Lithography 1 Lithography in Persia began in 1821, expanding rapidly with private presses, contributing to diverse book production until the early 20th century Olimpiada P. Shcheglova 2009
Lithography 2 In 19th-20th century India, lithography boomed, especially in Lucknow and Bombay, printing diverse Persian books. Educational and theological texts dominated production. Olimpiada P. Shcheglova 2009
Evil eye (casm zakm) Historical roots of the concept of the evil eye in various cultures, and preventive measures against harm Ebrāhīm Šakūrzāda, Mahmoud Omidsalar 1990
Charms Cultural and historical aspects of charms in Persian traditions Mahmoud Omidsalar 1991
Dreams In Persian tradition dreams shape destinies, holding cultural significance, and inspiring believers in Shi'ism. Hossein Ziai 1995
Magic Magic in literature and folklore during the Islamic period; challenges of defining magic and its connection to science and religion; the distinction between high magic, rooted in philosophical traditions, and folk magic, transmitted orally Mahmud Omidsalar 2005
Astrology and astronomy The development of astronomy and astrology in Iran, highlighting influences from Hellenistic, Indian, and Persian traditions D. Pingree, C. J. Brunner 1987
Planets Historical understanding and influence of planets Antonio Panaino 2016
Zodiac The historical development of the Zodiac, its association with astronomy, astrology, and its impact on Iranian calendars and cosmology Antonio Panaino 2009
Henry Corbin (1903 - 1978) French philosopher and orientalist, interpreter of the Persian role in the development of Islamic thought Daryush Shayegan 1993
Aleksandr Tumanski (Alexander Tumansky) (1861 - 1920) Russian orientalist who translated Persian literature and Bahá'í works, notably Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas (1899) Jahangir Dorri 2009

Iran, Persian culture etc.

Article Description and comments Authors Year
Iran Geography, history, culture, people, languages, religions, art, music. Multiple authors 2004
Iranian history: Chronological table Timeline, including index of proper names Ehsan Yarshater 2004
Historiography Historiography of Iran, spanning from pre-Islamic to the 20th century, examining narrative evolution and Western influences Multiple authors, incl. Abbas Amanat and Sholeh Quinn 2003
Archeology Archaeological research methods and findings across various historical periods in Iran and Central Asia Multiple authors 1986
Boundaries Boundaries of Iran with the Ottoman Empire, Russia, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Turkey. Multiple authors 1989
Isfahan Isfahan, a historic city in central Iran, geography, history, population, monuments, and cultural aspects Multiple authors 2006
Shiraz History of the city of Shiraz until 1940 A. Shapur Shahbazi 2004
Tabriz Iranian city, article discusses the 19th century James D. Clark 2014
Tehran Capital city of Iran Xavier de Planhol 2004
Ctesiphon Overview of the ancient city of Ctesiphon, situated on the Tigris near modern Baghdad Jens Kröger 1993
Persepolis Renowned archaeological site northeast of Shiraz, Iran; a center of power and culture, built by Achaemenid Persian kings A. Shapur Shahbazi 2009
Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) Alexander the Great conquered Persia, seizing key cities and defeating Darius III, reshaping the region. See also Eskander-nama (Alexander Romance). P. Briant 1985
Kariz Underground irrigation canals; their significance in agriculture and water management Xavier de Planhol 2011
Ziggurat Terraced temple-towers in Mesopotamia Michael Herles 2000
Architecture Chronological overview of Iranian architecture Multiple authors 1986
Art History of Persian art and architecture Multiple authors 1986
Iranian identity Iranian identity as a collective feeling of belonging to the historic lands of Iran, shaped by common historical experiences, cultural traditions, and mythologies shared among Iranian peoples Multiple authors 2000
Human migration Three types of human migration related to Iran: internal migration, immigration, and emigration Mehdi Aman, Habibollah Zanjani 2004
Diaspora Iranian diaspora across history and regions, including India, Southeast Asia, Ottoman Turkey, Iraq, and worldwide Multiple authors 1995
Education Education in Iranian-speaking regions, spanning ancient to modern times, covering traditional schools, modern education systems, and women's education Multiple authors 1997
Health Health in Iran across historical periods: Pre-Islamic, Medieval, Qajar, and Pahlavi eras Multiple authors 2003
Women in Shi'ism Shi'ite ideology theoretically favors women, but societal norms often limit their rights. Modern debates engage Shi'ite thought, feminism, and societal shifts Moojan Momen 2001
Cador Traditional female garment in Iran, tracing back to pre-Islamic times Bijan Gheiby, James R. Russell, Hamid Algar 1990
Gender relations Gender relations in modern Persia; complex dynamics shaped by tradition, religion, and modernization Farzaneh Milani 2000
Feminist movements Persian feminist movements, spanning the late 19th to 20th century, addressing education, employment, suffrage, and family laws Encyclopaedia Iranica, Janet Afary 1999
Class system in the Qajar period The text outlines class systems across Persian history, including the Avesta, Achaemenid, Parthian, Sasanian, medieval Islamic, Qajar, and Pahlavi periods Multiple authors 1991
Personal names Iranian personal names, including Avestan, Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sasanian Rüdiger Schmitt 2005
Khanum (title) General title of respect for women; formerly a title for elite women C. Edmund Bosworth 2010
Khan (title) Historical and social contexts of the title "Khan," from its significance in Mongol and Safavid eras to its modern usage in Central Asia and India Gene R. Garthwaite 2017
Household in the Qajar period The Qajar household was patriarchal, with gender-segregated areas (biruni and andaruni). Women managed traditions, servants handled daily tasks, while men supervised and entertained guests. Shireen Mahdavi 2009
Carpets Persian carpets; materials, techniques, designs, regional variations, historical periods, Islamic Persia's influence Multiple authors 1990
Decoration The significance of decoration in Islamic Persian art and architecture, its evolution over different historical periods, and its integration of diverse influences Priscilla P. Soucek 1994
Etiquette Evolution of Persian etiquette, rooted in Sasanian customs, shaped by Islamic dynasties, blending tradition with Islamic principles and Western influence Multiple authors 1998
Ta'arof Ta'arof encompasses linguistic deference and social gestures, emphasizing status differentials and hospitality, serving as a social lubricant with strategic implications William Beeman 2017
Gift giving An overview of gift giving in Persia, from pre-Islamic to early modern times Multiple authors 2016
Humor Humor in Persian culture, from classical to modern times, covering its diverse forms, social functions, and evolution under various influences J. T. P. de Bruijn 2004
Mulla Nasreddin A beloved figure in Persian and Middle Eastern folklore, is known for his wit and humor, often imparting lessons through his tales Hasan Javadi 2009
Clothing Overview of clothing in various periods and regions of Iran and neighboring areas, covering historical, cultural, and ethnic aspects Multiple authors 1992
Turban ('amama) The cultural significance and historical evolution of the turban in Islamic societies, its symbolism and variations H. Algar 1989
Pearl (marjan) Pearls symbolized beauty, purity, and perfection, in historical texts and jewelry; diving techniques, pearling vessels, and seasonal activities Brigitte Musche, Daniel T. Potts 2008
Silk (abrisam) Etymology, trade, production, utilization in Iranian crafts and textiles W. Eilers, M. Bazin and C. Bromberger, D. Thompson 1983
Rose water (golab) Rose water from Persian roses, is used in cuisine, medicine, and religious rituals Hušang A'lam 2001
Perfume ('atr) Ancient origins and diverse extraction methods F. Aubaile-Sallenave 1987
Soap (sabun) Soap production in Persia dates back to antiquity; modernization in the Qajar era led to industry growth Willem Floor 2005
Cosmetics Cosmetics in Persian tradition were used for beautification, especially for brides. Rituals included hair removal, henna, eyebrow dyeing, and applying kohl and rouge for weddings. Multiple authors 1993
Henna Origin, medical and cosmetic uses, cultural significance in wedding ceremonies, and historical practices across regions Hušang 'Alam 2003
Bathhouses Historical, architectural, and social aspects of bathhouses in Iran, including their pre-Islamic origins, layout, staff, and cultural significance W. Floor, W. Kleiss 1988
Coffeehouses (qahva kana) The history of Persian coffeehouses, from centers of culture to decline due to social change and modernization 'Alī Āl-e Dawūd 1992
Bazar The origin of "bazar" as "market," its functions, organization, and socio-economic roles Multiple authors 1989
Caravan Organized collective transports of people and goods, primarily using camels, for trade and pilgrimage; usage declined with the rise of modern transportation Bert G. Fragner 1990
Caravansary A caravansary, crucial for travelers, provided lodging along trade and pilgrimage routes. They varied in design and function, from fortified stops to luxurious inns, reflecting historical, architectural, and regional influences Moḥammad-Yūsuf Kīānī, Wolfram Kleiss 1990
Garden (bag) - 1 Gardens, for pleasure, with ornamental layouts and architectural elements, influenced literature and art, notably in Persian culture and its impact on Indian gardens Multiple authors 2000
Garden (bag) - 2 Etymology, general characteristics, and its role in Persian literature, symbolizing beauty, tranquility, and abundance Multiple authors 1988
Desert Overview of Iranian deserts, their characteristics, historical significance, human impact, and cultural perceptions Brian Spooner 1994
Nomadism Seasonal livestock herding by ethnic groups in Iran, sustaining livelihoods through traditional migration patterns Eckart Ehlers 2011
Castles Development of Iranian castles, architectural evolution, defensive strategies, and influences from various civilizations Wolfram Kleiss 1990
Palace architecture Iranian palace architecture, functional aspects, layout, and cultural continuity across historical periods, from Achaemenid to Safavid times Dietrich Huff 2008
Courts and courtiers Iranian court systems from ancient to modern times, including cultural elements like court poetry Multiple authors 1993
Scribe (dabir) The role of dabirs, secretaries and scribes, in pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, their functions and privileges Aḥmad Tafazzoli, Hashem Rajabzadeh 1993
Harem Housed wives and female associates in aristocratic families and royal quarters Multiple authors 2003
Falcon (baz) Bird of prey, which held cultural significance Hūšang A'lam 1989
Falconry (bazdari) Prestigious art and sport in Iran, flourishing in pre-Islamic and Islamic eras among rulers and aristocrats Hūšang A'lam 1989
Banners ('alam, derafs) Banners guided troops amidst dust; their colors and emblems symbolized identity and authority, evolving from early to late medieval periods A. S. Melikian-Chirvani 1988
Begging Begging in early Islam, Sufism, and in later Iran Multiple authors 1989
Darvis The term "darvis" evolved from pre-Islamic asceticism to Islamic Sufism, signifying spiritual poverty and detachment, often involving mendicancy Mansour Shaki, Hamid Algar) 1994
Games (bazi) Games for small children; games for older children and adults; ceremonial games; theatrical games; games of intelligence Fereydūn Vahman 1989
Farman Decrees issued by rulers, their structure, typology, historical development, seals, and writing materials used Bert G. Fragner 1999
Fatwa Rulings on Islamic jurisprudence Hamid Algar 1999
Weights and measures Ancient Near Eastern standards for weight, capacity, and length; their evolution through pre-Islamic periods A. D. H. Bivar 2000
Communication Historical development of communication infrastructure in Persia, covering postal service, telegraph, telephone, press, radio, and television Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi and 'Alī Mohammadi 1992
Telegraph Mirza Malkom Khan introduced telegraph to Persia in 1858, expanding to Tabriz by 1860, enabling swift communication within the country and beyond Soli Shahvar 2009
Railroads The first railway in Iran, built by a Belgian company, linked Tehran to Shah 'Abd-al-'Azim in 1888. Despite challenges like difficult terrain and local superstitions, it operated until 1962. Soli Shahvar 2008
Lighting and heating Iran's historical lighting sources, transitioning from oils and candles to kerosene and gas Willem Floor 2005
Edward Gibbon (1737 - 1794) Gibbon's "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" explores Persia's relations with Byzantium, including military and diplomatic interactions. His conclusions remain relevant. Michael Rogers 2001

Relations with other regions and countries

Article Description and comments Authors Year
Ottoman Persian relations - 1 Relations during the reigns of Sultan Selim I and Shah Esma'il I Osman G. Özgüdenli 2006
Ottoman Persian relations - 2 Relations during the Afsharid and Zand periods Ernest Tucker 2005
Persian manuscripts - Ottoman The rich collection of Persian manuscripts in Ottoman and Turkish libraries, detailing their origins, acquisition, and cultural influence Osman G. Özgüdenli 2005
Topkapi Palace The residence of the Ottoman sultans in Istanbul (Constantinople), Turkey; Persian artifacts, including diplomatic gifts, manuscripts, Qur'ans, weaponry, and textiles, showcasing centuries of cultural exchange Zeren Tanındı 2008
Turkic contacts Linguistic interactions between Iranian and Turkic languages, detailing influences, borrowing, and sociocultural impacts throughout history John R. Perry 2006
Iraq Iraq's historical relationship with Iran, spanning from ancient eras to modern times, including cultural, political, and societal dimensions Multiple authors 2000
Karbala Sacred Shiite city in Iraq Meir Litvak 2010
Atabat Sacred Shiite shrine cities in Iraq, including Najaf, Karbala, Kazemayn, and Samarra, housing the tombs of important Imams. They hold significance in pilgrimage, scholarship, and religious authority within Shiism. H. Algar 1987
Euphrates River in Iraq Samuel N. C. Lieu 1998
Tigris River in Iraq Daniel T. Potts 2006
Israel Diplomatic ties, the Jewish Persian community, Iranian studies, and Persian art collections Multiple authors 2007
Ishqabad (Ashkhabad) Capital city of Turkmenistan since 1924 B. Spuler 1987
Persian image of Europe Persian views of Europe evolved from stereotypes to nuanced understanding. Later, admiration for Western progress spurred reform efforts in Persia. Rudi Matthee 1998
Asia Minor Historical influence of Iranians in Anatolia M. Weiskopf 1987
Central Asia Geography, history, economy, language, literature, music, and relations with Persia Multiple authors 1990
Southeast Asia - 1 Persian cultural influences in Southeast Asia, including language, trade, and religious practices, historical ties and linguistic borrowings M. Ismail Marcinkowski 2004
Southeast Asia - 2 Southeast Asia's Islamization; Shi'ite influences alongside Sunni traditions M. Ismail Marcinkowski 2004
East India Company (British) The British East India Company, formed in 1600, aimed to export English woolen cloths and import goods from the East Indies R. W. Ferrier, John R. Perry 1996
East India Company (French) The French East India Anne Kroell 1996
Afghanistan Geography, flora, fauna, languages, history, literature, and diverse cultures Multiple authors 1983
Arab Arab-Iranian interactions from pre-Islamic times to modern times Multiple authors 1986
Arabia Arabia's significance during the Achaemenid and Sasanian periods Multiple authors 2000
Shiites in Arabia Shi'ite presence in Arabian regions like Ḥejāaz, Bahrain, Yemen, and other Gulf States; historical context, challenges, and contemporary developments Werner Ende 2004
Armenia - 1 Armenia's history, pre-Islamic era, religion, Iranian linguistic influences, Armenian accounts of Iran, and Armeno-Iranian relations post-Islam Multiple authors 1986
Armenia - 2 The image of Persia in Armenia Robert Thomson 2002
Armenia - 3 (women) Armenian women in Persia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries Houri Berberian 2009
Austria - 1 Austrian-Persian relations; alliances, arms trade, and diplomatic negotiations, commerce, and cultural exchanges Helmut Slaby 2005
Austria - 2 Austrian Iranian Studies X. Tremblay and N. Rastegar 2005
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan's historical complexities, from its Achaemenid origins to the Soviet annexation, covering territorial shifts, linguistic changes, and geopolitical dynamics Multiple authors 1987
Bahrain Bahrain's geography, Shi'ite population, and historical relations with Iran X. De Planhol, J.A. Kechichian 1988
Belgium Diplomatic relations between Belgium and Iran, focusing on the period from the late 19th century to the eve of World War II: Technical assistance to Iran in areas like customs, postal service, treasury, cadastral survey sanitation, administrative reforms Annette Destrée 1989
China Chinese-Iranian relations from pre-Islamic to modern times; including trade, diplomatic ties, cultural exchanges, Persian settlements, language teaching, and artistic influences Multiple authors 1991
Denmark Danish-Persian relations; political diplomacy, economic ties, Iranian studies in Denmark, archaeology, language Fereydun Vahman, Jes P. Asmussen) 1994
France France's historical and contemporary relations with Persia; diplomatic, cultural, educational, and linguistic exchanges, archaeological missions, the Persian community in France Multiple authors 2000
Germany German-Iranian relations; diplomacy, archaeology, Iranian studies, travel, art, literature, cultural influence, expatriates, and immigrant communities Multiple authors 2000
Great Britain British influence in Persia from the Safavid era to the present, covering diplomatic relations, cultural exchanges, archaeological excavations, Iranian studies, art collections, and the Persian community in Britain Multiple authors 2000
Greece The relationship between Greece and the Persian Empire, covering political and cultural interactions, influences on philosophy, literature, art, architecture, medicine, language, and scientific exchange between the two civilizations Multiple authors 2002
Hellenism Greek culture's adoption in the 2nd century BCE, fostering mutual cultural enrichment with Eastern civilizations Laurianne Martinez-Sève) 2003
India India's relations with Iran, spanning historical, political, cultural, commercial, literary, artistic, and societal aspects across various periods and influences Multiple authors 2004
Bombay, Persian communities of Zoroastrian and Persian Muslim communities in Mumbai (Bombay), India John R. Hinnells, Momin Mohiuddin and Ismail K. Poonawala 1989
Parsi communities - 1 History of the Zoroastrian community in India, starting from around the 8th to 10th centuries John R. Hinnells 2008
Parsi communities - 2 The Parsi community of Kolkata (Calcutta) Jesse S. Palsetia 2006
Italy Italy's relations with Iran; diplomacy, trade, cultural exchange, travel accounts, Iranian studies, manuscripts, art collections, and academic centers Multiple authors 2007
Japan Japan and Iran share diplomatic, commercial, and cultural ties, including travel, archeological missions, academic studies, book collections, art, and literary translations Multiple authors 2008
Lebanon Shi'ites in Lebanon,the largest religious group in Lebanon Sabrina Mervin) 2005
Netherlands - 1 Dutch-Persian relations, trade, linguistic studies, limited documentation, and Persians' presence in the Netherlands Willem Floor 1996
Netherlands - 2 Dutch archives on Iran and Dutch-Persian relations, covering V.O.C. documents, consular records, private papers, and post-1800 materials Willem Floor 2000
Poland Iranian Studies in Poland Anna Krasnowolska 2000
Portugal Portuguese-Persian relations in the early Modern Age (1500-1750) Joao Teles e Cunha 2009
Romania Romanian-Iranian relations; economic, political contacts, Queen Marie, cultural interest in Persian literature, reflected in translations and collections. There is a separate article about Queen Marie. Keith Hitchins, Della L. Marcus 2014, 2015
Russia Russo-Iranian relations Multiple authors 2000
Spain Spanish relations with Persia in the 16th and 17th centuries José Cutillas Ferrer 2018
Sweden Swedish relations with Persia Multiple authors 2000
Tajikistan Tajikistan's Islamic history since 1917 reflects Soviet suppression, impacting education, religious practices; post-Soviet political and religious developments Muriel Atkin 2005
Thailand Iran's historical ties with Thailand; Persian merchants influenced trade, culture, and diplomacy, shaping Siamese society M. Ismail Marcinkowski 2002
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