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COLLECTIONResearch notes
TITLEYerrinbool Report on Scholarship: 1998
AUTHOR 1Graham Hassall
ABSTRACTOverview of worldwide Bahá'í scholarship projects, publications, and events - 1998.
NOTES Association for Bahá'í Studies Australia, prepared for presentation at the Scholarship Institute, Yerrinbool, 2-4 April, 1999.

See also Report 1997 and Report 1999.

TAGS- Bahá'í inspired schools; Bahá'í Studies, Associations for; Bahá'í studies; H-Bahá'í (email list); Scholarship
Contents: Report on Scholarship

Affiliate Associations for Bahá'í Studies Australia
Association for Bahá'í Studies —Japan

Institute/School/Foundation Reports Wilmette Institute
Reports by Individuals Christopher Buck
Diana Carson
Phyllis Chew
Rodney Clarken
Glen Duncan
Bronwyn Elsmore
Zaid Lundberg
Sepehr Manuchehri
Sen McGlinn
John Noyce
Payam Pakravan
Afsaneh Paymani
Brent Poirier
Tahereh Pourshafie
Ron Price
Martha Schweitz
Peter Smith
June Manning Thomas

Reports on Conferences held in 1998 Sixth Bahá'í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group Conference
Seventh Bahá'í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group Conference
Human Rights Education. Raising Individual & Community Awareness of A Culture of Human Rights
Mini-Course & Religious Studies (SIG) Seminar
The Fourth European Bahá'í Conference on International Law and Order
‘The Moral Maze’ The 1988 ABS (ESE) Annual Conference
The Lesser Peace and The Millennium: The 8th Conference of the Bahá’í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group (BIPOLIG)

Forthcoming Conferences Centre For Bahá'í Studies of Acuto
Returning to The Hague: The Third International Peace Conference
The Twenty Second `Irfan Colloquium

Publications in 1998

Internet Reports Bahá'í Faith Index
The Leiden list

Bibliography of publications in Bábí and Bahá’í Studies, 1997-1998


Report on Scholarship

In gathering together information on activities on Bahá'í scholarship in diverse parts of the world that took place in 1998 this Report on Scholarship provides an indicative survey of subjects under investigation, and approaches to research. Bringing together reports from individuals, institutions, courses, and Associations for Bahá'í Studies, will allow a picture of general trends to emerge. The report also acts as a 'clearing house' for information.

Affiliate Associations for Bahá'í Studies

The homepage of the Association for Bahá'í Studies of North America ( lists affiliate Associations in Australia, Argentina, Bermuda, Brazil, Chile, English-Speaking Europe, Francophone Europe, German-Speaking Europe, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Russia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Also listed is the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Persian (established in 1987 to promote, support and propagate the study and application of the Bahá'í literature in its original languages of Persian and Arabic).

This year just three affiliate Associations forwarded responses for inclusion in the report.


Members: Dr Ratnam Alagiah (from July 98), Mr Colin Dibdin, Ms Susie Haake, Dr Graham Hassall, Dr Natalie Mobini-Kesheh, Ms Sandra Langshaw, Mr Babak Mohajerin, Dr Golshah Naghdy (until Nov. 98)

Highlights and Achievements:

  1. The Association’s 17th Annual Conference, on the theme "Moral Development", was held at the University of Auckland, NZ, 11-12 July 1998. About 18 papers were presented, including 4 by Australians. The keynote speaker was Professor Dwight Allen from the USA. About 120 people attended. This was our first joint conference with ABS New Zealand.
  2. The inaugural national symposium in Persian studies was held at Macquarie University on 10-11 October, attracting a high level of attendance. It is intended that this will become an annual event.
  3. A conference on Human Rights, Faith & Culture was held in Canberra on 7 and 8 November 1998, in collaboration with the Bahá'í Office of External Affairs. Many high-profile speakers participated, only two of whom were Bahá'í.
  4. A Scholarship Institute, 'The Role of Scholarship in the Bahá'í Community: Reflections on Practice' was held at Yerrinbool Bahá'í Centre of Learning from April 10-13, 1998. Professor Sabir Afaqi and Dr Seena Fazel were guests. About 25 attended.
  5. The ABS Newsletter was produced in February, June, September and December 1998, and distributed to members and a large complimentary list comprising tertiary Bahá'í societies, national committees, Counsellors, regional National Assemblies, all ABS affiliate organisations, and Centres of Learning.
  6. A second volume of papers on the Kitab-i-Aqdas, including a new paper by the Hand of the Cause Dr Varqa and four papers presented at the conference on the Kitab-i-Aqdas held in Sydney in 1993, was published and sent free to members.
  7. Progress was made with the proposed journal, Australian Bahá'í Studies. In future members will receive two issues of the journal per year, along with the ABS newsletter, as their membership entitlement.
  8. We had direct communication with all Bahá'í Societies at universities, with the assistance of a temporary part-time employee, Ms Ladan Rahmani, to whom we are very grateful.
  9. The Bahá'í Society handbook has been revised and will be sent to all societies, and will be available on the ABS-Australia web site.
  10. Regional ABS activities took place in NSW, where the regional ABS committee organised a conference on "Successful Morality" on 28th March, 1998, and in WA where Bahá'í students organised a conference called "SPEAK" which looked at contemporary Australian issues.
  11. The Board assisted a number of scholars with inquiries and manuscript development.
  12. ABS facilitated the participation of Bahá'ís at scholarly conferences (eg. Chris Jones, Graham Hassall and Seena Fazel presented papers at the annual conference of the Australian Association for the Study of Religion).
  13. Preparation for publication of Mr Furutan and Mr Faizi at Yerrinbool (CD of the talks given at the 1953 Summer School with an annotated transcript) is progressing.

Concerns and Issues:

  1. It has been difficult to find volunteers who have time to support the various activities of the Association.
  2. Hopes and Opportunities:

    1. ABS is holding its 1999 annual conference on Arts and Culture in Victoria.

    2. ABS is holding its third annual scholarship workshop at Yerrinbool at Easter 1999.

    3. ABS looks forward to the development of more scholarship initiatives at regional level.

    4. ABS is considering convening another studies conference in the Persian language, following on the success of the October 1998 conference.

    8. ABS hopes to facilitate regular participation by Bahá'í scholars at the annual conference of the Australian Association for the Study of Religion. A scholarship has been established to assist possible speakers with the costs of attendance. The 1999 conference is to be held 30 Sept. to 3 Oct. at the University of Melbourne.

    10. In the longer term, ABS seeks to increase the number of active interest groups. This development requires the active interest and collaboration of ABS members.

    11. ABS intends to continue developing its use of the Internet, and requires collaboration with specialists in this field. The web site is at

    12. The new ABS journal will be an important tool to achieve the Four Year Plan goal of further developing university teaching.


    Association for Bahá'í Studies —Japan



    Annual Report, March, 1999

    I Members of the Executive Committee

    A. ABS-Japan is now divided into two ABSs, Japanese and English, with S. Fotos as coordinator

    III Selected Reports

    C. Publications

    1. Proceedings of the 6th and 7th Annual Conferences to be published in the fall of 1999

    2. Newsletter: two issues, April and September, 1998

    IV Activities in 1998

    A. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

    1. Seven SIGs: English, Arts, Religious Studies, Translation, Education, Moral Education, Community Development

    2. Report from Religious Studies SIG. Two meetings at Tokyo Bahá'í Center in 1998:

    a. Dr. Courosh Mehanian, physicist from California, showed a slide program of the World Center and talked on "high tech" aspects of the Faith (June 11)

    b. Dr. Fariborz Moshirian of the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia, talked on "The Industrial Revolution versus the Spiritual Revolution" (July 6)

    3. Report from Moral Education SIG. Many projects in 1998:

    a.Virtues Project 12 hour workshop in Yokohama on January 17-18, sponsored by the Yokohama and Kanto area Bahá'ís. Ruth Suzuki facilitated

    b. Virtues Project training workshop in Machida-Atsugi at Friberg's NTT Housing Complex (2/27-3/1) facilitated by Toshiko Tanikawa, Ruth Suzuki and Cathy Hirano

    c. Conference presentation at 1998 Womens' Studies Forum on Gender Research, August 8, held in Chiba, at the National Women's Education Center, by Toshiko Tanikawa, Ruth Suzuki and Sodeyo Friberg

    d. Virtues Project 16-hour workshop (2 hours per week for 8 weeks) in Sapporo in June and July. Facilitated by Ruth Suzuki with the assistance of Keiko Sakamoto and Kathleen Riggins

    4. Report from Community Development SIG. First meeting was held in Machida on March 8 to consult on a proposal for Bahá'í community development prepared by Dr. Mohan Narula. A checklist for the steps of community development was made:

    a. find communities which have potential for development

    b. determine needs of the community (needs analysis)

    c. prioritize needs and determine which are most important

    d. discuss ways to achieve results

    e. develop a plan of action and a way to evaluate results

    f. take action

    g. evaluate the results

    5. ABS-Japan representatives at ABS-North America conference in Montreal, Canada, September 24-27

    a. paper by Stephen Friberg on "Abdu'l Baha and Evolution" was read at the Science and Religion SIG meeting on September 24

    b. workshop for the development of a Bahá'í-inspired ESL curriculum (as requested by the World Center) was organized by Sandra Fotos and Joy Allchin (ABS-North America) on September 25

    B. The Seventh Annual Conference of ABS-Japan, was held Oct. 30 - Nov. 1, 1998, at the Sapporo Guest House, Sapporo, Hokkaido

    1. Theme: "The Asia Pacific Axis: Cultural Diversity, Development and Human Potential"

    2. Site committee

    A. Chairs: Keiko Sakamoto and Kathleen Riggins

    B. Other members: Ruth Suzuki and Terry Riggins

    4. Guest speakers:

    a. Michael Bond, Chinese University of Hong Kong

    b. Nadia Marchuk, Yuzhno Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin

    c. Jane Nishi Goldstone, National Spiritual Assembly

    d. Kimiko Schwerin, National Spiritual Assembly

    e. David Chittleborough, University of Adelaide, Australia

    e. Anjam Khursheed, Singapore

    5. Conference report published in Bahá'í News and posted to the ABS-Japan website.

    V The Eighth Annual Conference of ABS-Japan, 1999

    A. Venue: Kyoto

    B. Site chair, Mary Noguchi

    Respectfully submitted, S. Fotos (acting secretary)

    Tokyo Bahá'í Center 7-2-13, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan. email:




    On February 13/14 the Association for Bahá'í Studies of Venezuela held its first International Conference on Social and Economic Development. Three international speakers presented the following development themes: Counsellor Gustavo Correa of Colombia spoke on FUNDEAC and the Rural University, Dr. Steven Gonzales on Bahá'í Education, and Mr. William Mahoney on microfinancing. Also from Venezuela the following presentations were made: Prof. Maxine Roth spoke on the Institute for Moral Education, Mrs. Susan McLaren on Development and the Arts, and Prof. Donald Witzel on the New Vision of Deepening of the Association. On Saturday night February 13th a public meeting on development was held with four panelists including the representative of education of the municipal government in Barquisimeto in central western Venezuela near where the Conference took place at the Wilma Thomas National Bahá'í Institute in Cabudare. The public meeting was specially well received and some 86 Bahá'ís and over 40 other interested people mostly from development agencies, universities and women's organisations were in attendance. This was the most successful Bahá'í Studies Conference yet held, and the first attempt to significantly reach the public.

    On July 3,4 and 5th this year another Bahá'í Studies Conference will be held on "The Life and Work of Shoghi Effendi: Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith". Its venue will also be the National Bahá'í Institute in Cabudare, Venezuela.

    The New Deepening Vision of our Association for Bahá'í Studies was approved by the Executive Committee on September 25, 1998 as follows: (translation from Spanish) "To reach at national, regional and local levels, a greater erudition throughout different forms of systematic deepening using the Bahá'í sacred writings and teachings as well as their application for the welfare of society".


    1. To promote profound study of the Bahá'í Writings in order to achieve individual and collective transformation.

    2. To introduce the Bahá'í teachings and answers on relevant themes adapted to society's needs.

    3. To encounter new means and ways to reach people of capacity.

    4. To offer our services to help in the deepening of the friends and institutions at local, regional and national levels. For example: courses requested by National and Local Spiritual Assemblies, National and Regional Teaching Committees, Summer and Winter Schools.

    5. To prepare materials for the systematic deepening of the believers.

    6. To promote investigation of new topics from the Writings of the Faith, required for institutions and individuals.

    Also we publish a yearly magazine in Spanish called "Imagenes" as well as two Newsletters each year.

    With loving greetings, Donald R. Witzel


    Institute/School/Foundation Reports


    Wilmette Institute


    The Wilmette Institute will soon be offering a two-month distance learning course on "Judaism for Dialogue and Deepening," part two in its series "World Religions: An Integrated Approach." This course will introduce Bahá'ís to the origin, founders, development, teachings, practices, and followers of Judaism from a Bahá'í perspective. It is designed to foster

    * Dialogue--that is, to help a Bahá'í understand the basics of other religions well enough to interact with their followers with confidence and carry out Bahá'u'lláh's exhortation to "consort with the followers of all religions with friendliness and fellowship." Such interaction is essential if one wishes to introduce the Faith to others and foster the process leading to entry by troops.

    * Deepening--that is, to help a Bahá'í understand better the basics of the other religion and the Bahá'í Faith. It has been said that one of the best ways to learn about one's own religion is to study another one, because comparison is a light that sheds illumination on both. Since Bahá'ís see all the world's major religions as divinely founded, study of them allows one to understand the background for the revelation of the Bahá'í writings.

    The "World Religions: An Integrated Approach" series studies other religions from the perspective of the Bahá'í Faith. Since the Bahá'í perspective on specific teachings or movements is often not defined, the student will be able to participate in the effort to explore and discover the Bahá'í principles relevant to study of other religions. The series uses some of the techniques of the scholarly study of religions (often called comparative religion). The courses are "formally organised" and "systematic"; they are designed to be equivalent to a college evening course. There are no prerequisites.

    DATES: Mar. 1-Apr. 30 1999. Further information from the Wilmette Institute website,, or the Registrar, Heather Gorman, at

    Reports by Individuals


    Christopher Buck

    My forthcoming book, Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999) is going to press on April 16 (hardcover) and April 30 (softcover). Kindly announce this to the friends. Orders may be placed immediately through Kalimat Press or Non- Bahá'í publishers have to realize a substantial *market* in order to underwrite Bahá'í studies publications, which are all too rare. And right now I am negotiating an advance contract for another Bahá'í studies publication with another academic press, so being able to demonstrate that there is a market is a very pragmatic consideration.

    DR. CHRISTOPHER BUCK , Assistant Professor
    Department of Religion
    Millikin University
    1184 West Main Street
    Decatur, IL 62522-2084
    E-mail: CBuck@Mail.Millikin.Edu


    Diana Carson

    I have started studying toward my bachelor's degree in a distance learning program through Vermont College, while pioneering in Puerto Rico. 55 is a great age to get started finishing unfulfilled dreams, and this is one of mine. The program is mostly semester long research projects broken down into 5 packets, each emphasising one aspect of the project. My current project is: exploring a concept I call Connectivity Listening, based on my experience with peer counselling and years of immersion in the Writings of the Faith. At present I am working on packet three about how virtues relate to intimate, spiritual, listening friendships. The virtues that I have prioritised are trustworthiness, chastity, humility, and the ability to "see in the other the beauty of God reflected in the soul, (Don't know what to name that one) and patience.

    Diana Carson

    Phyllis Chew

    I am currently doing research on Chinese religion particularly on the women and the nature of the soul. Also on the early history of the faith in South East Asia, as well as the history of World Religion Day.

    Phyllis Chew


    Rodney Clarken

    Dr Clarken's scholarly activities are accessible at his homepage, These include papers from a sabbatical year in China; papers and information on teaching, social studies and other topics; Papers presented at the American Educational Research Association; Papers related to multicultural education, world citizenship and social studies and information on the Bahá'í Education Network and related documents on Bahá'í education, including correspondence courses. The Proposal for Establishment of a Bahá'í Education Network proposes establishing and maintaining a forum for dialogue on education based on the Bahá'í Writings, initially facilitated primarily via electronic communications, such as web pages, email networks, and data bases.

    Specific objectives are 1. To further the understanding, application, and promotion of Bahá'í principles and ideals related to education; 2. To explore and encourage research and development related to Bahá'í education; 3. To draw connections between Bahá'í Writings and other educational resources; 4. To create a forum to network and exchange ideas, information, and experiences; 5. To encourage meetings at and involvement with professional education associations; 6. To catalogue Bahá'í educational resources, experiences and materials; 7. To provide a forum to consult on ideas, proposals, materials, papers and articles; 8. To serve as a clearinghouse for resources, information and ideas; 9. To facilitate collaboration and conferences on Bahá'í education; 10. To serve as a resource to Bahá'í institutions; 11. To encourage "that beneficial articles and books be written, clearly and definitely establishing what the present-day requirements of the people are" (SDC, p. 109); 12. To encourage the "use of adequate arguments and the adducing of clear, comprehensive and conclusive proofs" to direct public opinion on education. (SDC, p. 110); 13. To "stimulate different individuals who have the talent to attempt the task" of making a compilation on training children and "interesting text books for the children" (Bahá'í Education, #130); and 14. To encourage the gradual incorporation of basic Bahá'í principles in college and university programs. (Bahá'í Education, #139)

    Dr. Rodney Clarken, can be contacted at the Department of Education, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855, Tel: 906-227-1881; Fax: 906-227-2764. Email: Web page:


    Glen Duncan

    Glen is pursuing a PhD in Knowledge Management. Present day organisations operate in an environment of constant rapid change. Increased competition resulting from a variety of factors including globalisation, advancements in technology and more discerning government spending have forced organisations to rearrange their organisational structure. Downsizing and/or the adoption of less functionally oriented divisional centralised structures in favour of decentralised teams-based product oriented structures have been occurring in many organisations. Whilst these changes have had many positive effects, one of the major problems that has resulted is that knowledge vital to the continuing success of the organisation has departed with the loss of employees or is no longer being successfully shared between product groupings. In addition, knowledge is increasingly being recognised as a resource to be managed for competitive advantage.

    Simultaneously, a new management theory termed "knowledge management" has emerged that may hold the answer to these new challenges. Knowledge management has been defined by one author as a "conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping people share and put information into action in ways that strive to improve performance". The PhD thesis will be in the general area of knowledge management. Because the field is so new, there are many potential areas for specific research. The research is sponsored by a major Australian aerospace company who are hoping that the outcomes will have direct application to the management problems outlined above.


    Duncan, G., Beckett, R., Marsh, R., and Soliman, F., "The Role of Critical Information in Enterprise Knowledge Management", 4th International Conference on Networking Entities, "NETIES’98: Networking for the Millennium", Leeds — 15 & 16 October 1998.

    Duncan, G., Beckett, R., and Soliman, F., "A Comprehensive Organisational Model For Enterprise Knowledge Management", ICEIS'99 Conference, Portugal, 1999.

    Glen Duncan

    PhD Candidate

    School of Management

    Faculty of Business, UTS

    PO Box 283

    Randwick, NSW, 2031



    Bronwyn Elsmore

    1) For a Bahá'í contribution to an Oxford (UK)-based collection on spiritual experience in different religions, I am seeking stories which illustrate this aspect of the Faith. If you would like to share specific instances of 'spiritual experiences' you have had, or would like to make comment/share insights into the more general area of spiritual experience (Bahá'í beliefs about, etc), I would welcome your input. Your name will not be published in relation to any specific experiences.

    2) To continue a longer-term interest, I am interested in hearing of specific instances of religious prejudice experienced by Bahá'ís, and members of any religion. My original study on this area was specifically on New Zealand (see my book Creedism: Religious Prejudice in New Zealand, Nagare, 1995) but I am also interested in getting a picture of instances elsewhere in order to gain comparisons.

    3) As a playwright I am also interested in making contact with others who are actively involved in writing plays - perhaps to share ideas on productions.

    Please write to:

    Dr Bronwyn Elsmore

    Senior Lecturer

    Religious Studies

    Massey University

    Palmerston North

    New Zealand



    Zaid Lundberg

    I'm a graduate student in History of Religions at Lund University, Sweden. 1996 I wrote my MA thesis, entitled Bahá'í Apocalypticism: The Bahá'í Concept of Progressive Revelation. Currently I'm trying to finish my PhD dissertation, provisionally entitled Progress and Prophecy: The Bahá'í Doctrine of Progressive Revelation. First of all I'm arguing that progressive revelation is a central Bahá'í doctrine; secondly, I'm examining both the term and concept comparatively and historically (especially ideas and doctrines of progress - 19th century Europe/America, and tentatively, the idea of a "chain of prophecy" in various religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam); and finally from various interrelated approaches: as a narrative (narratology), sacred history (historiography), legitimation of being a new world religion (rhetoric), and as a case of "inter-religious hermeneutics." I hope, God willing, to defend my dissertation in Sept/Oct this millennium . . .

    With loving Bahá'í greetings and best wishes,

    Zaid Lundberg

    Lund University




    Sepehr Manuchehri

    1) Presented a paper at the last Persian Bahá'í Studies Conference in Sydney (Oct 1998) titled "A Brief Analysis of the Features of Babi Resistance at Shaykh Tabarsi". This paper looked at the uprising from a number of different perspective: military training, socio-economic backgrounds, battle experience and planning, families and loved ones, geographic distribution and general organisation of the Babi participants at Shaykh Tabarsi. Based on unpublished manuscripts from Haji Mirza Jani, Tabatabai Zavarehi and Fadil Mazandarani, the paper traces the attitude of the royal troops, Ulama, average Mazandarani and friends of the Babi's to the Shaykh Tabarsi uprising. It gives numerous accounts of those who tried - unsuccessfully - to join the battles and were some how prevented. It proves that their numbers inside the fort were fluctuating depending on the intakes and the fatalities. It also demonstrates that by the time of Shaykh Tabarsi battles, the Babi faith had spread widely amongst the Persian population - noted by the geographical presence of most major towns and centres - itself a tribute to the teaching efforts of the Letters of Living. This paper has since been translated by the author and included in the H-Bahai Research Papers' section and Jonah Winter's Bahá'í Library.

    I am still continuing my research in to the life and rebellion of Mirza Yahya Subh-i-Azal, Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother. A book is planned for completion by 2001. It is a trip through Bahá'u'lláh's tablets, Babi accounts, Browne's memoirs, Muslim sources and political accounts dealing with Azal. It aims to portray this character during his various stages of life: from a child raised in His household, to plotting against Him, to his isolated and forgotten funeral ceremony in Cyprus. Written in Persian, this book is in need of a competent English translator and a publisher.


    Sepehr Manuchehri


    Sen McGlinn

    Studying at Leiden University in the Netherlands (Persian, Islamic Philosophy). Edits the Leiden List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh. List owner of the Mashriq list and moderator of the H-Bahai list. Research interests in theology, especially of social institutions and relations (The state, church and state, the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, House of Worship & House of Justice, The administrative order, the guardianship and the House of Justice, the collective and the individual, the individual per se.)

    Sen McGlinn


    John Noyce

    This year I will be publishing Religion and Development: a bibliography which covers Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Bahá'í. Section 7: Bahá'í includes sub-sections on Bahá'í and Development (that's "Development" as in Development Studies which seems to be slightly different from Bahá'í usage of the term); Bahá'í and Economics; Bahá'í and Science. (I am not a Bahá'í. I am part of the Sahaja Yoga/Vishwa Nirmala Dharma movement, a Hindu-based world religion.)

    Best wishes

    John Noyce


    Payam Pakravan

    Current interests include:

    1. Investigating the guidance relating to Bahá'í social and economic development. How does it fit into the pattern of Bahá'í community life around the world, and what does it mean to be systematic in our development efforts?

    2. Elementary study of the nature of organic change, using, as an example, the processes of integration and disintegration elaborated by Shoghi Effendi in "The Unfoldment of World Civilisation".

    3. Thinking, at a very preliminary level, about "Divine Economy" in light of the provisions of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, its supporting Tablets, and the Writings of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi wrote that Bahá'u'lláh has "specifically laid down a set of Laws, established definite institutions, and provided for the essentials of a Divine Economy" (WOB, p.19). What are the latter, and how do they relate to the Laws and institutions of the Faith?

    Payam Pakravan



    Afsaneh Paymani

    I am studying at the Flinders University of SA. My project is on the demographic characteristics of the Bahá'ís in Australia. I am hoping to cover things such as the history of the faith in Australia, How it has grown over the years, the demographic profile of the Bahá'ís at present (such as age and sex profile, ethnicity, martial status, geographical distribution).

    With regards



    Brent Poirier

    The only thing I have published, as far as Bahá'í material, has been the article on the Covenant published in Deepen magazine that has been reprinted in a few national Bahá'í journals in various countries. I am now working on a commentary on the Kitáb-i-Iqán, particularly as it relates to the Bible. I am working with the Wilmette Institute on this. It may all be posted to a website. I also have an abiding interest in preparing annotations to the Master's Will. My materials are intended for deepening of the friends.

    Warmest greetings

    Brent Poirier

    Las Cruces, New Mexico USA or


    Tahereh Pourshafie

    Currently the topic of my research is "Achieving inner and outer balance: an exploratory study of the role of the school in the child's acquisition of wisdom". As a first step, this thesis proposes to integrate ideas from four perspectives, those of philosophy, psychology, cultural studies and comparative religious studies, in order to define wisdom. The second step will be to look at the possibilities and processes of the acquisition of wisdom by children, and its facilitation by teachers and care-givers. The primary reason for this research is what Sternberg (1990:332) lucidly describes in his paper:

    It is hoped that research on wisdom will help to develop useful tools to assist world and national leaders in the increasingly complex problems facing humanity. Many crucial decisions, from nuclear waste to water use, face leaders and policy makers each day. Thus, wisdom is not simply for wise people or curious psychologists: it is for all people and the future of the world.

    Delors (1996:14), chairperson of the UNESCO International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, states that the reawakening of the moral and cultural dimensions of education would need to begin "with self-understanding through an inner voyage", whose aim is not only to foster the development of the full range of human capacities, but also "to grasp the individuality of other people and to understand the world's erratic progression towards a certain unity". As an appropriate example, exploring the above mentioned ideologies within its universal principles, the Bahá'í world community will be studied - Bahá'í schools around the world.

    Best regards,


    GPO Box 2100

    Adelaide SA 5001


    Ron Price

    Since the last presentation of his poetry to the ABS at its July 1998 Conference in New Zealand, Ron Price has written three booklets of poetry and some two hundred poems. His poetry draws from a very interdisciplinary mix of subject material to produce an immensely diverse repertoire of poetry. There is an incessant and insistent comparison between Bahá'í history and dogma on the one hand, and the experiences of human beings in the wider currents of history and thought on the other. A single coherent story runs like a seam through poem after poem of Price's now burgeoning collection of over 4000 poems. His poetry offers a unique blend of juxtapositions, relationships and analogies. Even those who are not attracted to poetry, as a genre will find some surprising insights in his gently academic, autobiographical, work.


    Martha Schweitz

    My field is international public law and international organisations. I have also been drawn into gender issues through local activities with a city women's centre and certain Bahá'í activities. My professional writing in recent years has focused on participation of organs of civil society in international organisations. My Bahá'í writing to date has been on the Kitab-i-Aqdas, on Bahá'í communities as development organisations, and on gender equality. I would love to hear from anyone interested in these areas who might wish to collaborate, to bounce ideas around, or just to get acquainted and encourage each other.

    I recently completed a chapter entitled "Women's Rights in the Bahá'í Community: The Concept of Organic Equality in Principle, Law, and Experience" that will be published by Transnational in a three-volume work, Women and International Human Rights Law. The chapter manuscript is some 70 pages long (it would be shorter if I were doing it again), and addresses both the teachings and experience to date in the Bahá'í community worldwide concerning gender equality. Although I had previously written on Bahá'í subjects for publication in Bahá'í journals, this was my first experience writing on a Bahá'í topic for a general law readership. I imagined it would be tough; it was tougher. It was a great experience, and one I would like to discuss with others who have written or are considering writing on Bahá'í principles and teachings for academic/professional publications. My goal was to advocate persuasively for a Bahá'í vision and methods of gender equality without "pushing" the Faith as a whole; to write as a believer but remain credible as a researcher/scholar; to present the very mixed experience to date in the Bahá'í community in promoting equality, identifying problems but remaining faithful to the potential we know inheres in the processes directed by the Writings. Whether these goals were achieved remains to be seen.

    Martha Schweitz

    Prof. of International Law

    Seinan Gakuin University

    Nishijin 6-chome, Sawara-ku

    Fukuoka, Japan 814

    home tel/fax: 81-92-831-1923

    Peter Smith

    Forthcoming publications:

    1. A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld, 1999.

  3. (ed.) The Bahá'í Faith in the West. Los Angeles: Kalimat Press, late 1999.
  4. Peter Smith

    Mahidol University International College, Thailand


    June Manning Thomas

    I. My most recent work has focused on the means by which Shoghi Effendi exemplifed the best qualities of "planning," through analysing the letters he wrote to the Bahá'ís of North American during three global plans from 1937-57 (two Seven Year Plans and the Global Crusade). I've recently completed a book which the Association for Bahá'í Studies (Ottawa, Canada) is releasing in April 1999. Planning Progress: Lessons from Shoghi Effendi is aimed toward Bahá'í and non- Bahá'í audiences. It includes practical lessons about how to use Shoghi Effendi's tools to help us reach our own individual and organizational goals. Chapters are organized to explain the spiritual principles of planning, Shoghi Effendi's use of vision, his means of moving the community from vision to action, and his monitoring style. One chapter includes brief analysis of some of his letters to Australia, as an example of how he used plans as a way to build leadership and institutional capacity.

    II. My other scholarly work focuses on the nature of neighbourhood planning and the implications of such activities for inner-city organisations in the U.S. Current research builds on the examination of social and economic development and of racial justice that has occupied my time for the past twenty years. Much of this research focuses on Detroit, Michigan as a site for analysis and potential reform. One publication that emerged in 1997 was Redevelopment and Race: Planning a Finer City in Postwar Detroit (Johns Hopkins University Press). With this and other books and articles one major goal has been to incorporate teachings on racial unity, global prosperity, and social-economic development into traditional academic publications in my field, urban and regional planning.

    Professor, Urban and Regional Planning Program

    201 U.P.L.A. Building

    Michigan State University


    East Lansing, MI 48824-1221

    Reports on Conferences held in 1998


    Sixth Bahá'í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group Conference

    The sixth conference of the Bahá’í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group (BIPOLIG), held in February 1998, proved to be the most successful to date, drawing around 130 attendants. The conference was unique in BIPOLIG’s short history because it was focused around a single theme — The Lesser Peace. The aim of the conference was to address this theme from both theoretical and practical approaches.

    The conference began with a speech by John Huddleston, who shared his understanding of the lesser peace and how current international affairs related to the concept. Drawing from his relevant books, Achieving Peace by the Year 2000 and The Search for a Just Society, and sharing his most recent thoughts on the issue, Mr. Huddleston provided the audience with an understanding of the Lesser Peace that was detailed and truly insightful.

    This was followed by a panel of three speakers, who each assessed the Lesser Peace through different perspectives: the environment, the role of institutions in the process, and the changing nature of warfare in the prelude to the Lesser Peace.

    The afternoon session started with Shahriar Razavi, who took a practical approach to the Lesser Peace, and spelled out discerning and practical ways that Bahá’ís at the local level can promote the concept and provide a fuller understanding to the community at large. This was followed by a presentation by Jeffrey Huffines, the representative of the US National Spiritual Assembly to the United Nations. Mr. Huffines, who was kind enough to travel from New York to join us, looked at the practical measures taken at the international level by the Bahá’í International Community (B.I.C.) to promote the Lesser Peace. He did this by outlining the various proposals within B.I.C. documents promoting issues that might stimulate international political unity. Furthermore, he assessed the degree to which these suggestions had been taken into account and put into practice by the world community. To round off the afternoon session, two workshops were conducted simultaneously by John Huddleston and Jeffrey Huffines. Both of these workshops expanded on various themes put forward earlier by the speakers during their presentations.

    The evening program was unique, as it combined the BIPOLIG conference with a public proclamation event. The program consisted of three speakers, John Huddleston, Dan Wheatley and Paul Coleman, who each provided a different perspective on the achievement of world peace. Mr. Huddleston looked at the issue as a function of the development of more advanced international institutions, which he explained were necessary to the security guarantees that world peace would require. Dan Wheatley assessed the role of the individual as a world citizen in the promotion and maintenance of world peace. Paul Coleman, who had travelled the world on foot promoting ecological restoration, shared many touching stories of his experiences and conveyed how peace was possible through simple individual initiatives. Of the more than 70 attendees, about 20 were drawn from the London School of Economics community, who learnt of the event from posters put up at the school. This was an inspiring event which touched the minds and hearts of those present. It represented the successful conclusion to the best-yet BIPOLIG Conference. The next BIPOLIG Conference is scheduled for 20 June 1998. Further details can be obtained from or Naz Ghanea-Hercock nghanea@hotmail

    Report by Babak Bahador


    Seventh Bahá'í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group Conference

    In a celebratory atmosphere of end of term activity at the London School of Economics on Saturday 20 June 1998, a group of Bahá'ís and friends gathered to participate in a challenging and inspiring examination of the rise of global institutions, their relationships to Bahá’í principles and the guidance which the Faith gives us with regard to the future of such institutions. Following on from the successful conference held in February on the theme of the Lesser Peace this conference went a stage further in discussing 'Emerging Global Institutions in Bahá’í Perspective'.

    The opening speaker, Rod Rastan, gave some fascinating insights into the concept of 'Supreme Tribunal' as described in the Bahá’í Writings. A graduate of York and Nottingham universities, he has recently returned from working at the War Crimes Tribunal at the Hague. He was able therefore to give a wealth of material on the history and workings of an International Criminal Court. The problems which arise from the establishment of such a court seem daunting but it was interesting to note how the very presence of these problems, such as failure to define aggression and an unwillingness of governments to accept accountability, highlights the contribution which the Faith has to make. The second speaker, Dr. Wendi Momen, has had an enduring interest in global institutions and her research and expertise both in the material subject matter and the spiritual perspectives resulted in an original and thought-provoking paper illustrated by her comprehensive knowledge of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi. The uniqueness of Bahá’u’lláh’s institutions, the necessary curtailment of national sovereignty, the negative elements of globalisation and the doubts which haunt many concerning the place of personal freedoms in global organisations, all these points were linked by the necessity to examine everything in the context of the Bahá’í Writings, to remember that though the stages we may have to traverse to reach our Most Great Peace are necessary, contingencies can always be contained. Some of the institutions we have today, though not perfect, will take us some of the way. As we see the emergence of the concept of world citizenship as opposed to national identity, as we experience the process of crisis and victory in action, we can rest assured that the Plan of God and His Covenant are at the heart of all.

    After lunch it was a great honour to welcome Charles Lerche of Boston University Brussels, Professor of International Commerce and with experience in European, African and international politics. His talk, 'Everything that Rises Must Converge', literally did take us above petty distinctions, but also above easy answers in a world where the pace of events is fast, significantly far-reaching and often very far from the Bahá’í vision. Yet it is the Bahá’í vision itself which can close the gap simply, or perhaps not so simply, through its concept of the unity of humankind. Problems of power, of leadership, of decision-making, of value structures, melt away when seemingly impossible choices are resolved through Bahá'í practice. At the same time we cannot impose our agenda, we can only show that our special kind of responsible reaction is one that works for the happiness of all. We as individuals are at the centre, trying to ask the right questions, trying to reopen the most basic and most human concepts of justice and equality, through our common ideal of one human family.

    The last distinguished speaker was Augusto Lopez-Claros who, having spent fourteen years with the International Monetary Fund, is now Chief Russian Economist with an investment Bank in London. His themes of interdependence and cooperation in relation to the emergence of global institutions highlighted, through his detailed knowledge of economic interaction, the opposing forces of construction and destruction of which we are all aware. Yet the crises which are so apparent have forced upon nations an interdependence which has greatly modified their behaviour. It has also created conflict between national sovereignty and collective welfare. Greater economic integration has been force-fed by technological change and this may well happen in other areas where national institutions can no longer address key problems and where their actions often lead to unforeseen consequences. The twenty-first century will see more and more interactions, and force is no longer an option. Problems of poverty are problems of individuals who are not necessarily involved in the organisations which govern their lives; and this means that governments, as well as individuals, have to accept spiritual as well as physical responsibilities in order to release the unimaginable capacities of humanity. It will not be easy, there will be no 'deus ex machina', but we are told that the promised Day of God will come. After such a comprehensive survey of the implications of globalisation from all four speakers it was not difficult to find a wide range of material to explore in workshops led by Wendi and Charles. The evening session was well attended and newcomers were able to enjoy some restatement of the issues of the day. It was clear from discussion however that questions concerning personal freedom within a superstate were high on the agenda but we were led by the Panel to an inner assurance that the guiding hand of God, through the Holy Spirit, would be ever active in the life of humanity as a whole. We were left with the knowledge of future challenge, probably pain and certainly many difficult choices but also a conviction that the Covenant of God will never fail.

    - Report by Margaret R. Paton

    For details of the next conference e-mail , or write to BIPOLIG, 140 Dover Rd, Ipswich, IP3 8JJ, UK


    Human Rights Education. Raising Individual & Community Awareness of A Culture of Human Rights

    This was a study session organised by the European Bahá'í Youth Council, 6-13th September 1998. 35 youth drawn Bahá’ís and NGOs from all over Eastern, Central and Western Europe, as well as from Latin America, Asia and Africa -have just returned, having been trained up in educating for a culture of human rights at the Council of Europe’s European Youth Centre in Strasbourg France. They were participating in a week long training study session organised by the European Bahá’í Youth Council and financed by the Youth Directorate of the Council of Europe. The program looked at how to give practical effect in ordinary people’s daily lives to the numerous international treaties on human rights. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was signed up to exactly fifty years ago this year, but most of us still have no idea what rights we have been given, and even less to what their purpose and use is in our own daily lives", said one participant. "Human Rights Education is about educating ourselves not only about our rights, but also our responsibility as individuals and citizens to understand, promote and protect the rights and welfare of others. It’s about building the foundations for a full and responsible engagement in civic life in our local communities and a working for a culture of tolerance and peace."

    Human Rights Education has indeed become the subject of much activity of both intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations in recent years, and encapsulate various themes such as teaching tolerance, conflict resolution, race-relations, individual empowerment, values education and civic participation. Its aim is to build a universal culture of human rights, through the imparting of knowledge and skills and the moulding of attitudes; in strengthening respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms; in its holistic approach towards the full development of respect for the human personality and the sense of its dignity; in the promotion of understanding, tolerance, gender equality and friendship; and in enabling all persons to participate effectively in a free society. (From the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Plan of Action for the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004, para 2 (1995)).The activity was quite a departure from traditional conferences and seminars organised by the European Bahá'í Youth Council. The program’s emphasis lay in training participants to act as multipliers (training of trainers) in order for them to become empowered to organise their own activities in the field of human rights education; while the methods used were interactive, creative, participatory and experiential, enabling participants to draw on their own talents and develop their own approaches. The event also brought the European Bahá'í Youth Council into a more active relationship with European youth structures, and revealed the many opportunities for future co-operation and assistance. As an initial follow-up, participants are being requested to contact their National Youth Council in order to reach other youth NGO's working in areas related to human rights education; take particular note of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; sustain plans developed by the various project groups during the course of the study session; and establish youth groups with friends and colleagues to develop other local projects.

    - Report by Rod Rastan


    Mini-Course & Religious Studies (SIG) Seminar

    An Introduction to academic Bahá'í Scholarship on Religious Studies lines by Moojan Momen, Stephen Lambden and others was held 30/12/98 until 1/1/99. This event was followed by the bi-annual ABS-ESE Religious Studies (SIG) seminar. The orientation of this event was largely on religious studies lines. All persons wishing to embark upon such systematic study are welcomed to attend; formal qualifications were not necessary though an openness to modern academic approaches was be expected. Consultative instruction over the two days included informal presentations about the field, history and current state of Bábí-Bahá'í scholarship; various academic methodologies; primary and secondary source materials and access to them; the study of the various scriptural languages; research needing to be done; computing, cyberspace and Bahá'í scholarship; and Bahá'í scholarship the Bahá'í community.

    Participants were encouraged to read: Booth, W; Columb & Williams, J. The Craft of Scholarship, Chicago Univ. Press. ISBN 0-226-06584-7, `Doing Bahá'í Scholarship in the1990s, A Religious Studies Perspective,' and other articles in Bahá'í Studies Review (UK) 3/1 (1994). The bi-annual ABS-ESE Religious Studies (SIG) seminar included papers by: Lil Abdo, `Interest in Alternative Spirituality and in Political and Social Thought in the Early British Bahá’í Community' Stephen Lambden, `Isolated, Disconnected, Mysterious Letters and Ciphers in Abrahamic Religious Texts and in Bábí-Bahá’í Scripture.' Moojan Momen, 'Some Aspects of Islamic Anti-Bahá’í Polemic'.

    Over the last few decades the Religious Studies (SIG) seminars have to a considerable extent become internationalized. Leading Bahá'í scholars from many parts of the world have attended or presented papers and discussion has included many aspects of Bahá'í scholarship and publication. Opportunity also exists for that human interaction which goes beyond philological or intellectual analysis into something like intimate Bahá'í fellowship. Bahá'ís and other empathetic persons are more than welcome to attend these informal academic seminars. Formal academic qualifications are not required though the papers and discussions are usually of a high academic standard.

    The Fourth European Bahá'í Conference on International Law and Order

    This conference was held October 30 to November 2 1998, on the theme: 'Rethinking Human Obligations and Rights". Speakers and titles: Mr. John Packer: "Does the UN Bill of Human Rights and its Implementation System Work?" Ms. Christa Meindersma: "Traditional, Cultural and Religious Values vs. the Rights of Women: the Example of Asia" Panel discussion: "Philosophical Foundations of International Human Rights"

    Panelists: Dr. Wenqi Zhu: "Perspectives on the Foundations of International Human Rights?"; Mr. John Packer: "Human Rights as Legal Obligation"; Mr. Bonian Golmohammadi: "Universality, Cross-Culturality and Relativity"; Ms. Martha Meijer: "Asian Values?" The evening programme will consist of a classical concert by Ms. Nikan Bergsmo and Mr. Peter Beijersbergen van Henegouwen Sunday’s programme will begin with the Annual Dr. Aziz Navidi Memorial Lecture, by Professor Charles Lerche: "Human Rights, Human Needs and World Order"; Ms. Sovaida Ma'ani: "Secular Law, Divine Law and the Covenant" Mr. Rod Rastan: "State Sovereignty vs. The International Criminal Court" Panel discussion: "Individual Rights in the Bahá’í Administrative Order". Panelists: Professor Charles Lerche: "Are there Individual Human Rights in the Bahá’í Administrative Order?"; Mr. Payam Akhavan: "Is there a Need for a Code of Individual Rights in the Bahá’í Administrative Order?"; Ms. Sovaida Ma'ani: "Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh"


    ‘The Moral Maze’ The 1988 ABS (ESE) Annual Conference

    31 October - 1 November 1998, Oxford

    As a new contributor to the Annual Conference it was with mixed feelings of trepidation and exhilaration that I approached the attractively situated Milham Conference Centre on the outskirts of Oxford. The rain was relentless and by the end of the day one might have been forgiven for conjecturing that a tidal wave of leviathan proportions had attempted to overwhelm our gathering. On the contrary, however, this sizeable meeting of friends from around the world was enveloped by a sense of sharing and of the incipient growth processes which would bear significant harvests in the years to come. My feelings of trepidation were without foundation. It was a conference of youth and age, of male and female, of established scholars and those at the beginning of their careers, of friends and strangers who became friends: It was Bahá’í.

    The proceedings were opened by Barney Leith, General Secretary of the UK National Spiritual Assembly, who emphasised the contributions which scholarship can make to the progress of the Cause and in particular the theoretical and spiritual foundations which it gives to executive functions. This was followed by a presentation from the present writer on Morality and Fulfilment based on the thesis that an ethical foundation is organically necessitous to the acquisition of skills for life. Special emphasis was laid on marriage/family relationships and on the need for the revitalisation of the educational system through the re-introduction of moral values based on religion. Our final Saturday morning session was an energetic exposition from Barry Thorne of attitudes to chastity, drawing on historical examples from literature notable for their preoccupation with repressive tendencies and dominated by male orientation. The Bahá’í ethic however in this respect offers positive approaches which free us ‘from untold spiritual and moral difficulties’ and represents a new era of freedom from the tyranny of our animal natures.

    On Saturday afternoon Babak Javid gave us a lively and comprehensive review of current scientific thinking on the aetiology of homosexuality. Long considered to be a difficult area of discussion for Bahá’ís this examination of the latest biological findings on the possible causes of homosexual behaviour was interesting and useful and clearly revealed that the Bahá’í Faith is in no way reactionary but is, on the contrary, potentially a source of inspiration and guidance in the ways in which we should approach this subject. Similarly, the paper which followed, by Nasim Mavaddat, showed that advances in biotechnology could also bear scrutiny in the light of Bahá’í principles. Although the ethical issues involved in the latest biotechnological advances, especially in relation to genetic engineering, provide us with areas of enormous challenge, this discussion also clearly showed that we are not without guidance and appropriate material for a coherent moral response.

    Our afternoon session was completed by three papers, the first by Robert Ghanea-Hercock entitled ‘Scientists: Mad, Bad, or God?’ This concentrated on the influence which science has had on twentieth century society, especially emphasising its dominance as a result of the waning influence of religion in institutionalised forms. An important debate ensued on the possible channelling of scientific endeavour towards achieving positive results for humanity and the effects of political, military and commercial interests upon scientific orientation. Corinne Podger on ‘Doubt’ and Roger Kingdon on ‘Kant’s Categorical Imperative’ also gave us plenty of food for thought. Both encouraged us to strive towards and understanding of difficult concepts which in the first case can lead to certitude, and in the second can lead us to a positive and consistent pathway through the moral maze. Throughout life, as we read in The Seven Valleys, doubt and certitude co-exist and interact with each other. Similarly action, motivation and the search for moral law are part of an interactive process. Logical analyses and the quest for certitude both in faith and action were clearly and challengingly pursued by both speakers. Our Saturday sessions were concluded by a discussion on Bahá’í Societies, a subject which highlighted the concerns of university and college populations and aspects of Bahá’í academic life which were later broached again in the plenary session the following day.

    Sunday brought with it calm after storm and was a truer reflection of the clear skies of our refreshing and stimulating conference. Undeterred by time and distance a substantial gathering reconvened, many of us further invigorated by the centenary celebrations of the Oxfordshire communities the previous evening. Our proceedings reopened with a contribution from a long honoured member of the Association, Stephen Lambden, who spoke on ‘Colour Mysticism in Bábi-Bahá’í Literature’, a learned and comprehensive presentation of a complex subject. Explanations of key Islamic traditions led us to an understanding of various aspects of mystical cosmology as an introduction firstly to an examination of a central theme, the ‘Divine Throne’, and secondly to the investigation of colour terminology employed by the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh in a large number of their Writings, terminology which reflects Islamic mystical and cosmological thought. Two particular motifs explained were the ‘Snow-White Spot’ and the ‘Crimson Ark’.

    A substantial paper followed on moral education contributed by Roger Prentice. Having outlined a number of principles derived from the Bahá’í Writings in relation to a moral focus in education we were led into an in-depth discussion of the differences between education and training, highlighting issues of openness and multi-consciousness, concentration and focus. This was a practical paper and gave much consideration as to how we teach both the Faith and its principles as well as an extended curriculum.

    Our final presentations were given by two gifted and energetic speakers from France, Anne-Sophie Lamine and Bernard Reber. The former gave us a thorough and meticulously researched paper on the problems raised by pluralism, diversity and values especially in a global context. As members of the Bahá’í Faith we have to assume responsibility on a global level yet at the same time use consultation as a major tool in the resolving of the inevitable conflicts of opinion, making dialogue between religion and culture necessary and possible. The final presentation brought together many threads from other examinations of moral dilemmas in the field of biotechnology as well as raising more questions concerning the relationship between politics, science and ethics. It was suggested that a ‘New Deal’ is necessary to enable science to face the problems raised by new technologies and to consider seriously the contribution which should be made by religion in strengthening a rational and ethical foundation to protect society against the irrational, destructive tendencies of humanity. These become dominant when humankind divorces itself from personality and fulfilment. It seems that the Bahá’í Faith with its developed understanding and expression of unity must have a significant contribution to make.

    After our weekend of formal presentations we were delighted and inspired by the talk given by Mr Hassan Sabri concerning social and economic development projects. In his work and, more recently, through his involvement with BASED-UK, Mr Sabri has had extensive experience in this field and he led us on a historical journey which was informative and uplifting, outlining the heritage we have received from early teachers and exponents of the Faith and illustrating the potentially effective nature of Bahá’í principles in all areas of life. Emphasis was laid on the importance of interaction with cultural specialities, empowerment rather than imposition, so that the naturally inherited gifts and skills of each local community could be used to their highest levels of productivity and fulfilment. This was followed by the final plenary session. Though impossible to summarise or to comment on all the events and thought-provoking exercises of this weekend it was clear to all that the status of scholarship in Bahá’í thinking is a living issue. Any indications of anti-intellectualism existing within the Bahá’í Faith, against the exhortations of Bahá’u’lláh, are to be directed towards a fuller understanding of the value of the contributions which scholarship has to make to our present day society. The presentation of the Bahá’í Faith to a confused world is the vital task to all of us, and it is especially urgent to offer it to those people of capacity who are able to benefit from the depth of insight which the Faith provides on all contemporary issues. It was on a note of hope that the conference ended and a particular wish of the young among us to carry forward their aspirations and their own special awareness as Bahá’ís into the world beyond our immediate community. It is to be hoped that they will receive the encouragement and support their enthusiasm so richly deserves.

    No report of this event however would be complete without due thanks being given to all those who worked so hard to make it a success, both spiritually and physically. We look forward to the next such conference with confidence and trust and return to our communities, families and places of work with a wider and deeper vision of this great Faith which a bewildered world so badly needs.

    - Report by Margaret Paton

    Abstracts of the talks from the Annual Conference may be obtained free of charge from Roger Kingdon (e-mail)


    The Lesser Peace and The Millennium: The 8th Conference of the Bahá’í International Politics and Law Special Interest Group (BIPOLIG)

    27-28 February 1999, London School of Economics. Provisional Program: Introduction and Opening Remarks ‘Social and Economic Development in the Lesser Peace’: Enkhtor Dulamdary; ‘Ecology in the Lesser Peace’: Arthur Dahl; ‘Women in the Lesser Peace’: Wendy Momen; ‘Human Nature in the Lesser Peace’: Nabil Khodadad; ‘International Law in the Lesser Peace’: Danesh Sarooshi; ‘Constructing a New Global Financial System in the Lesser Peace’: Augusto Lopez-Claros; "Human Rights in the Lesser Peace’: Naz Ghanea-Hercock.

    Forthcoming Conferences

    Centre For Bahá'í Studies of Acuto

    Calendar Of Events 1999

    3-7 February European Meeting Of Women's Task Force

    18-25 June Meeting Of Persian Bahá'í Studies (Majmae Erfan)

    17-24 July Annual Meeting Of Abu'lFadl Project

    19-22 August Annual Meeting Of Tahirih - Bahá'í Association

    9-12 September Forum Artis

    For more information and details contact: Centre For Bahá'í Studies Of Acuto, Hotel La Panoramica, Via Capodimonte, 49, 03010 Acuto (FR), e-mail


    Returning to The Hague: The Third International Peace Conference

    "This conference could augur well for the coming century. It would unite into one mighty whole the efforts of all States sincerely striving to make the great idea of universal peace triumph over strife and discord." - Count Mikhail Nidolayevich Muravyou, Russian Foreign Affairs Minister, 1898. In 1899 governments gathered in the Hague for the first International Peace Conference. For the first time in history, a conference was held not to conclude or settle a war, but to focus on building a lasting world peace. It sought to develop permanent mechanisms of international law to contribute to disarmament, the prevention of war and the peaceful settlement of disputes. A Second Hague Peace Conference was also held in 1907.

    These conferences made historic advances in the development of international law. They established the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) and made seminal contributions to the establishment of the League of Nations, the Permanent Court of International Justice, as well as to their successors, the United Nations and the International Court of Justice (ICJ). The ICJ and PCA continue to operate out of The Hague. A Third Hague Peace Conference was proposed to convene in 1915. However, the outbreak of World War I and a series of other conflicts worldwide prevented the conference from occurring. ...Until now. During the last decade, calls for a 1999 Third Hague Peace Conference were initiated by the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and the Russian Federation. The Hague Appeal for Peace has been included by the UN General Assembly as part of this historic gathering. Once again, governments and members of civil society will gather in the name of peace.

    The Hague Appeal for Peace 1999 is a major end-of-century peace campaign dedicated to the de-legitimisation of war. May 1999 marks the 100th anniversary of the First Hague International Peace Conference, organised by the Russian Tsar and the Queen of the Netherlands. One hundred war-torn years later, the Hague Appeal for Peace 1999 is taking up the same vital questions again, in order to make further strides towards a peaceful, sustainable world order. The Hague Appeal for Peace is an ongoing process, initiated and organised by civil society and various non-governmental organisations, with a parallel inter-governmental process convened by the Netherlands and the Russian Federation. The campaign's main focus will be a peace and justice congress in The Hague, the Netherlands, from 11 - 16 May 1999.

    Key themes of the Hague Appeal include: International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights; Conflict Prevention and Resolution; Disarmament; The Roots of War / Building a Culture of Peace. After the conference there will be an intensive and continuing follow-up program to implement its decisions and start making objectives into reality. For more information see:

    Report compiled by Rod Rastan


    The Twenty Second `Irfan Colloquium

    The 1999 session of the `Irfan Colloquium in English in Europe will be held 27-29 August, Trent Park, Middlesex University (London). The program has two parts: (1) Colloquium for presentation of research papers; (2) the Seminar on the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. The main themes of the colloquium will be "World religions and the Bahá'í Faith" and "Principles of the Bahá'í Belief System or Bahá'í Theology".

    From the beginning of the Four Year Plan a series of seminars are organized for the study of the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Seminars in 1999 will be devoted to the Tablets revealed during the early Akka period (1868 - 1884). In addition to Kitab-i-Aqdas and Question and Answers, Tablets addressed to the Kings and Rulers, Ridvanu'l-Adl, Ru'ya, Hikmat, Burhan, Ard-i-Ba, Hirtik, Ihtiraq, Manikchi, Tibb, Ahbab, Ittihad, Aqdas, Laylatu'l-Quds, Istintaq, and Suri-yi-Haykal are among the Tablets of this period that will be presented and discussed in the seminar. Those interested in presenting papers are requested to send their proposals before 21 April to Dr Moojan Momen, Wixamtree, Sand Lane, Northill, Biggleswade, Beds. SG18 9AD, England. Those planning to attend `Irfan Colloquium and Seminar are requested to contact Mrs. Mirta Lopez

    Please note that there will also be a Persian-language `Irfan Colloquium: 18-24 June, Instituto Permanente di Insegamento Bahá'í via Capodimonte 49, 03010 Acuto (FR), Italy. For registration please contact the Institute <> Those interested in presenting papers at this Persian-language Colloquium are requested to send their proposals to Dr. Iraj Ayman, Bahá'í National Center, 1233 Central Street, Evanston, IL 60201, USA:


    Publications in 1998


    Internet Reports


    Bahá'í Faith Index

    The Bahá'í Faith Index, online since 1995, is a Bahá'í-oriented search engine containing almost 3,000 links to Bahá'í addresses and mailing lists all over the world. It is divided into 24 categories, and there is special emphasis laid on the availability of non-English materials, in the form of 33 language names at the top of the main site, at

    The aim of the Bahá'í Faith Index is to link to all Bahá'í sites in a manner making it convenient for visitors to retrieve the information they desire, and to provide a venue for special internet-based resources for the Bahá'í Faith, such as an online version of "The Dawnbreakers" and "Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era," as well as several Russian items, the "Kitab'i'Aqdas," "The Hidden Words," and "God Loves Laughter" included.

    Because of the Index's international emphasis, it also provides news for Bahá'ís, covering human rights issues pertaining to Iran and its persecution of the Bahá'ís there. Similarly, a venue for public discussion of various issues is provided in the form of a semi-moderated discussion forum, and a chatroom for live conversation. The Bahá'í Faith Index also hosts the Bahá'í Ring, a collection of over 200 Bahá'í web sites around the world, linked together sequentially, allowing the visitor to go from one to the other, or to choose one of the over 200 at random. The Bahá'í Ring is intended to help emphasise the Bahá'í Faith's international presence by including as many sites as possible from around the world, demonstrating the diversity within the Bahá'í Faith.

    Besides maintaining a central repository for Bahá'í links, news, discussions, online publications or republications, and the Bahá'í Ring, the Index includes a monthly Bahá'í Internet Update mailing list to keep subscribers up to date on the latest new developments in the Bahá'í Internet world.

    I hope that provides a general overview of what the Bahá'í Faith Index is and does. The site will continue to grow as it has in the last four years, usually with the most active periods of addition and change being in the summers.

    Casper Voogt



    H-Bahai is an academic listserv sponsored by H-Net, a consortium of academic email lists housed at Michigan State University and supported by that institution as well as the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities. All the digital publications listed below may be reached via its web site at

    H-Bahai runs an academic discussion list, for membership in which graduate training in the humanities or social sciences is usually recommended. H-Bahai subscribers and contributors constitute a rich assemblage of dozens of over 150 professors, graduate students, exceptional undergraduates, and professionals with expertise in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, hailing from all over the world, from the U.S. to Australia and from Israel to Uzbekistan. In 1998 the discussions ranged very widely indeed and involved several non-Bahá'í academics as well as Bahá'ís.

    In addition, H-Bahai continued a very ambitious digital publication program that involved placing large amounts of material on the World Wide Web.

    In 1998, H-Bahá'í digitally published six "Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies," including:

    William Garlington. "Bahá'í Bhajans: An example of the Bahá'í Use of Hindu Symbols." vol. 2, no. 1 (January, 1998).

    Negar Mottahedeh. "Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-`Ayn- Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht." vol. 2, no. 2 (February, 1998).

    R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram. The Use of Generative Imagery in Shoghi Effendi's The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." vol. 2, no. 3 (March 1998).

    John Walbridge. "Document and Narrative Sources for the History of the Battle of Zanjan." vol. 2, no. 4 (May 1998).

    Christopher Buck. "The Kitab-i Iqan: An Introduction to Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude with Two Digital Reprints of Early Lithographs." vol. 2, no. 5 (June, 1998).

    Peter Smith. "The Routinization of Charisma? Some Comments on "Motif Messianique et Processus Social dans le Bahaisme"", (Special Reprint Edition) vol. 2, no. 6 (November, 1998).

    The following "Research Notes" were published (under the editorship of Negar Mottahedeh):

    Robert Stockman. "Notes on the Thornton Chase Papers." Vol. 2, no. 1 (March 1998)

    Robert Stockman. "Notes on the Chicago House of Spirituality archives, 1901-1912", Vol. 2, no. 2 (April, 1998)

    John Walbridge. " "The Bab's Panj Sha'n (Five Modes)" Vol. 2, no. 3 (April, 1998).

    R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram. " "Early Irish Bahá'ís: Issues of Religious, Cultural, and National Identity," Vol. 2, no. 4 (July, 1998).

    A.W. Samii. "Falsafi, Kashani and the Bahá'ís." Vol. 2, no. 5 (August 1998).

    Juan R. I. Cole "Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions" Vol. 2, no. 6 (August 1998).

    Ahang Rabbani Dating Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude, Vol. 2, no. 7 (September 1998).

    Robert Stauffer "Summary of Julie Chanler's From Gaslight to Dawn New History Foundation, NY 1956," Vol. 2, no. 8 (November 1998).

    Juan R. I. Cole "Bahá'u'lláh's Tablets to the Rulers", Vol. 2, no. 9 (November 1998).

    Sepehr Manuchehri Brief analysis of the features of the Babi resistance at Shaykh Tabarsi," Vol. 2, no. 10 (December 1998).

    The following Documents were digitally published:

    Thomas Linard, ed. "Materials for the Geneva Bahá'í Bureau's History." Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Movements, Vol. 2, no. 1 (January, 1998)

    Dialogue Editors. "A Modest Proposal." Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Movements, Vol. 2, no. 2 (January, 1998).

    National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the U.S. "Membership Statistics of the U.S. Bahá'í Community, 1978-1979." Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Movements, Vol. 2, no. 3 (January, 1998).

    Los Angeles Study Class on the Bahá'í Faith. Newsletter, 1976-1983. Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Movements, Vol. 2, no. 4 (November 1998).

    dialogue Magazine. 1986-1988.. Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Movements, Vol. 2, no. 5 (December, 1998).

    The following new translation was put up by Todd Lawson:

    "The Bab's 'Journey towards God': Translation and Text." Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 1 (January 1998).

    and Juan Cole contributed the following:

    "`Abdu'l-Bahá's 'Treatise on Leadership': Text, Translation, Commentary." Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 2 (May 1998).

    "Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Ibn-i Asdaq decrying Absolutism." Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 3 (May 1998).

    "A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh apostrophizing Tsar Alexander III." Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 4 (June 1998).

    "Two Letters of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Mirza Haydar `Ali Usku'i of Tabriz"." Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 5 (August, 1998).

    "`Abdu’l-Baha on the Establishment of Civil Courts in Iran as a Prelude to the inauguration of the first Iranian Parliament (Jan. 1906?)". Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 6 (October 1998).

    "`Abdu'l-Bahá Lauds the Establishment of the First Iranian Parliament, 1906". Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts vol. 2, no. 7 (October, 1998).

    H-Bahai published one book review:

    Sen McGlinn. "Review of Juan R.I. Cole, Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth Century Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998." Reviews of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies no. 2 (May, 1998).

    With regard to Arabic, Persian and Turkish sources, H-Bahai digitally published or republished the following works:

    `Abdu'l-Bahá. Risalih-'i Siyasiyyih ("Treatise on Leadership"). (Tehran: Muhammad Labib, 1933 or 1934. Reprinted, H-Bahai: Lansing, Mi., 1998).

    --------. "Tafsir 'Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan' " (Commentary on the Saying, "I was a Hidden Treasure"). In `Abdu'l-Bahá, Makatib Hadrat `Abdu'l-Bahá Vol. 2 (Cairo: Kurdistan `Ilmiyyah Press, 1330 /1912), pp. 2-55. Reprinted, H-Bahai: Lansing, Mi., 1998.

    Bab, Sayyid `Ali Muhammad Shirazi. Dala'il-i Sab`ih (The Seven Proofs) (Tehran, n.d.; Lansing: H-Bahá'í, 1998).

    --------. Sahifih-'i `Adliyyih. (The Book of Justice) (Tehran: 1950?; reprinted, Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1998).

    --------. Súrah fi's-Sulúk" ("The Journey towards God"). Tehran Bahá'í Archives Ms. 6006. C., pages or folios 73-74. reprinted, Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1998.

    --------. Tafsir Surah Wa'l-`Asr (Commentary on the Surah of the Afternoon). Digital publication of manuscript facsimile. (Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1998).

    --------. Tasbih Fatimah (In Praise of Fatimah). Digital publication of manuscript facsimile. (Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1998).

    Baghdadi, Muhammad Mustafa. Ar-Risalah al-Amriyyah. (Treatise on the Cause).. Appended to Ahmad Suhrab. Ar-Risalah at-Tis` `Ashariyyih. Cairo: Matba`at as-Sa`adah, 1919/1338. Pp. 102-128. Reprinted, Lansing: Mi.: H-Bahai, 1998

    Bahá'u'lláh: Kitab-i Iqan [The Book of Certitude]: Bombay, 1882 edition and Bombay, 1893 editions.

    --------. "Majmu`ih-'i Athar-i Qalam-i A`la" ("Collected Letters of Bahá'u'lláh"). Volume 23. Iran National Bahá'í Archives Private Printing: Tehran, 1976. Reprinted, H-Bahai: Lansing, Mi., 1998.

    Gulpaygani, Mirza Abu'l-Fadl and Mirza Mihdi Gulpaygani. Kashf al-Ghitá' (Tashkent, 1919). Reprinted. (Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1997-1998).

    Malik Khusravi, Muhammad `Ali, Manabi`-i Tarikh-i Amr Ahang-i Badi`, No. 326 (1974-75/131 B.E.):11-35. Reprinted. (Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1998).

    Mazandarani, Hand of the Cause Fadil. Tarikh-i Zuhur al-Haqq (History of the Manifestation of Truth) Volumes 3 and 4. (Lansing, MI: H-Bahai, 1998).

    The year 1998 was therefore an extremely busy and successful one for H-Bahai, and it is hoped that the wide range of materials published, as well as the useful discussions, will build a foundation for further research into and understanding of the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í religions.


    Juan Cole

    H-Bahai Web Page Editor


    The Leiden list

    This is a list of List of Bahá'u'lláh's Tablets. The new version, resident at covers about 500 tablets, and lists commentaries on the Aqdas and Hidden Words by individual paragraphs of these works, as well as listing general commentaries. Its compiler Sen McGlinn has also started to put in current Persian-language scholarship, eg from Pazhuheshnameh and Muhadirat, and the coverage of the English-language scholarship is much improved, thanks mainly to Jonah Winters. The weak point is still the location of Persian and Arabic originals, and past Persian-language scholarship.).

    Bibliography of publications in Bábí and Bahá’í Studies, 1997-1998

    An ever-increasing body of literature on the Bahá’í Faith is being produced by Bahá’í publishers, and such other bodies as Associations for Bahá’í Studies. A list of current Bahá’í Publishers can be found in editions of The Bahá’í World. Systematic posting of essays on the world wide web is also widely regarded as "publication". Significant references to the Faith appear in the literature of religious studies and the social sciences generally, as well as in current affairs literature. The following is a partial listing of recent literature that either refers to, or focuses on, the Bahá’í Faith. It is compiled through searches in bibliographic reference available on cd-rom and on the internet.

    Reference services

    The rapid emergence of electronic information services is revolutionising access to information on the Bahá'í Faith. Electronic sources range from websites that are freely accessible, to databases available only by subscription (eg Lexis), to discussion groups that allow researchers to communicate back and forth. By combining these sources the researcher may learn not only of such traditional sources of scholarly information as books and academic papers, but of such other sources as news services and newspaper articles. Judicial and other official records such as those of the United Nations Organisation are also becoming available, as are book lists supplied by book sellers. A search at the on-line bookstore "", for example, finds 264 references to "Bahá'í". A CD ROM from Newsbank called REDEX has an "Index to UN Documents" which when searched in March 1999 yielded 209 references to "Bahá'í". A search in the EBSCO database, in the "World Magazine Bank" file, yielded 107 references to Bahá'í.

    Project Muse, a full text retrieval of 46 journals in history, sciences, philosophy, literature, provides an example of journals having "full-text" search and retrieval capacity, which allows a search on a keyword such as "Bahá'í" to be successful where-ever the term is in the text.

    The vast quantity of data that is searchable on some subscription databases is breathtaking. UMI, for instance, includes eight sub-databases, each of which includes a constellation of information.

    A Database named Emerald comprises fulltext access to approximately forty titles in marketing, general management, human resources, quality, property, operations, production & economics, library & information services, information management, training & education and engineering.

    An electronic reference service even identified a microfiche collection of materials with Bahá'í content from India deposited in the US Library of Congress. A subscription called FirstSearch grants access to a large number of databases. The database area of arts and humanities the general database " worldcat" gained 1723 records for "Bahá'í". This amount included 26 records in English fur 1998. The general database "article1st" found 36 refs, (including 1 for 1998). The firstsearch database called "Papers first" includes "Papers included in every congress, conference, exposition, workshop, symposium, and meeting received at The British Library." A search on "Bahá'í" yielded eleven references, including one in 1998.

    The netfirst database consists of "Bibliographic citations including abstracts, subject headings, and classification codes." It includes a variety of Internet accessible resources including World Wide Web pages and Listservs, and will soon also encompass Usenet newsgroups, FTP sites, Gopher servers, and electronic publications in other formats. A search in March yielded 212 records for "Bahá'í".

    The database "Index to Theses accepted for higher degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland" yielded no references to "Bahá'í", but under Babism lists From Shaykhism to Babism: a study in charismatic renewal in Shi'i Islam by D. M. MacEoin, (1979, Ph.D., Cambridge).

    General and Reference

    "United States: Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 And 1989", International Legal Materials, 27(3), May, 1988, Section: Other Documents: [Reproduced from U.S. Public Law 100-204 of December 22, 1987.] Title XII - Regional Foreign Relations Matters, Part D - Middle East, Sec. 1235. Iran human rights violations, Sec. 1236. Iranian persecution of the Bahá'ís.

    (1998). The Bahá'í World 1996-97. Haifa, World Centre Publications.

    Adamson, H. C. and P. Hainsworth (1997). Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith, Scarecrow Pr. Reviewed Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, Oct 1998 v36 n2, p286(1). by C.J. Busick

    Appleby, R. S. (1998). "Religion and Global Affairs: Religious "Militants for Peace"." SAIS Review 18(2): 38-44.

    Bahá'í International Community (1998). "Valuing Spirituality in Development: Initial Considerations Regarding the Creation of Spiritually Based Indicators for Development. A Paper presented by the BIC to the meeting of religions and the World Bank, Lambeth Place, London, 18-19 February."

    Boyles, A. (1998). World Watch. The Bahá'í World 1996-1997. Haifa, World Centre Publications: 197-220.

    Busick, C. J. (1998). "Historical dictionary of the Bahá'í faith." Choice 36(2).

    Dole, P. P. (1998). "Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals." School Library Journal (Feb)

    Fenner, F. (1998). "Modern worship." Architecture Australia 87(4): 40-48.

    Garrett, L. (1998). Lots of choices for "people of the book". Publishers Weekly. New York.

    Klein, R. (1998). "Shirine: a thousand and one nights." Chicago Review 44(1): 58-80.

    Maceion, D. (1984). Bahá'ísm. A Handbook of Living Religions. J. Hinnells. Great Britain, Penguin.

    Richards, C. (1997). "The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of World Religions." Reference Reviews 12(2).

    Rickard, S. (1998). "Religion and Global Affairs: Repression and Response." SAIS Review 18(2): 52-58.

    Shoghi Effendi. (1998). Messages to Canada. Toronto, Bahá'í Canada Pub.


    Bahá'í Community

    Hassall, G. and W. Barnes (1998). "Bahá'í Communities in the Asia-Pacific: Performing Common Theology and Cultural Diversity on a 'Spiritual Axis'." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Kurzius-Krug, C. (1998). Daybreak: studying the Bahá'í teachings day by day. Oxford, George Ronald.

    Kalkins, P. and B. Girard (1998). "The Bahá'í Village Granary: Spiritual Underpinnings and Applications to North America." Journal of Bahá'í Studies 8(3): 1-18.

    Mitchell, G. E. (1998). Shoghi Effendi: Guide for a New Millennium. The Bahá'í World 1996-1997. Haifa, World Centre Publications: 163-196.

    McMullen, M. (1998). The religious construction of a global identity: an ethnographic look at the Atlanta Bahá'í community. Contemporary American religion: an ethnographic reader. P. E. Becker and N. L. Eiesland. Walnut Creek, CA, AltaMira Press.

    Prosterman, A. (1998). Creating a Participatory Social Movement Community: The Bahá'ís of Evanston (Illinois), Loyola University of Chicago.

    Thoresen, L. (1998). Unlocking the gate of the heart: keys to personal transformation: a Bahá'í approach. Oxford, George Ronald.


    Bahá'í Studies

    Dunbar, H. C. A companion to the study of the Kitab-i-Iqan. Oxford, George Ronald.

    Easton, P. Z. (1998). The Brilliant Proof. Los Angeles, Kalimat Press.

    Fotos, S. S. (1998). "Commentary on "Conversive Relationality in Bahá'í Scholarship: Centering the Sacred and Decentering the Self"." Journal of Bahá'í Studies 8(3): 81-85.

    Friberg, S. R. (1998). "Commentary on "Conversive Relationality in Bahá'í Scholarship: Centering the Sacred and Decentering the Self"." Journal of Bahá'í Studies 8(3): 86-91.

    Los Angeles Bahá'í Study Class (1998). "Los Angeles Bahá'í Study Class Newsletter, 1976-." Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Movements 2(4).

    Salisbury, V. "An Examination of Suppression and Distortion in 20th Century Bahá'í Literature."

    van den Hoonard, W. C. (1998). "The Social Organization of Mentorship in Bahá'í Studies." Journal of Bahá'í Studies 8(3): 19-38.

    Zarqani, M. (1998). Mahmud's diary: the diary of Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani, chronicling `Abdu'l-Bahá's journey to America. Oxford, George Ronald.


    Bradley-DeTally, E. (1998). Without a Net: A Sojourn in Russia. Los Angeles, Kalimat Press.

    Chapman, A. I. (1998). Leroy Ioas : hand of the cause of God. Oxford, George Ronald.

    Jones, D. (1998). "Canada's real adoption crisis." Chatelaine 71(5): 44.

    McGregor, A. (1998). Cathy Freeman, A Journey Just Begun, Random House Australia.

    Ruhe-Schoen, J. (1998). A Love Which Does not Wait. Reviera Beach, Florida, Palabra Publications.

    Comparative Religion

    A-Khavari, A. (1998). Reflections on the Bahá'í parallels to the Sunnah and Ijtihad in Islam. The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Five Papers Exploring the Most Holy Book. Rosebery, Association for Bahá'í Studies - Australia. 2: 74-82.

    Corduan, W. (1998). Neighboring faiths: a Christian introduction to world religions. Downers Grove, Ill., InterVarsity Press.

    Dole, P. P. (1998). "The Encyclopedia of World Religions." School Library Journal November.

    Dole, P. P. (1998). "Reference Books." School Library Journal 44(2): 1134. Reviews the book `Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions and Festivals,' by Elizabeth Breuilly, Joanne O'Brien and Martin Marty.

    Breuilly, Elizabeth, Joanne O'Brien, & Martin Marty. Religions of the World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions & Festivals. 160p.

    Eck, D. L. (1998). "On Common Ground: World Religions in America." Electronic Resources Review 2(1).

    Galtung, J. (1997-1998). "Religions, hard and soft", Cross Currents 4(4): 437-451.

    Hatcher, John S., " Bahá'í Faith", in C.J. Johnson, and M. G. McGee, Eds. (1998). How different religions view death & afterlife. Philadelphia, PA, Charles Press.

    Khursheed, A. (1998). The Bahá'í Faith and Christianity. Singapore, Anjam Khursheed.

    Lampman, J. (1998). World faiths put down roots in US. Christian Science Monitor. 90: B1.

    Matthews, G. L. Bahá'ís and the Bible Stonehaven Press 1998

    Matthews, G. L. Secret of the Second Coming: Christ's Glorious Return Stonehaven Press 1998.

    McCourt, F. (1998). "God in America." Life 21(13): 60-74.

    Masuchika, G. (1998). The Elements of World Religions. Library Journal.

    Moani, H. (1998). "Ratana Religion and The Bahá'í Faith." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Mordechai, C. (1998). Weddings: dating & love customs of cultures worldwide, including royalty. United States, Nittany Press.

    Sivan, E. (1998). "The holy war tradition in Islam." Orbis, Spring 42(2): 171-194.

    Winston, K. (1998). The word for other faiths. Publishers Weekly.

    Wittner, J. (1998). "Contemporary American Religion: An Ethnographic Reader." Sociology of Religion 59(4): 416-418.


    Economics & Ethics

    Applegate, J. (1998). Respect faith of employees. Triangle Business Journal. 13: 15.

    Applegate, J. (1998). Religious issues often find their way into business. Austin Business Journal. 17: A22.

    Applegate, J. (1998). "Be sensitive to workers' diverse religious beliefs." Washington Business Journal, 16(40): 37.

    Digh, P. (1998). "Religion in the Workplace: Make a Good-Faith Effort to Accommodate." HR Magazine 43(13): 84-92.

    Sexty, R. W. (1998). "Teaching business ethics in transitional economies: Avoiding ethical missionary." Journal of Business Ethics (Sep).

    Varqa, A.-M. (1998). Huququ'llah: the Socio-Economic and Spiritual Law of the Kitab-i-Aqdas. The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Five Papers Exploring the Most Holy Book. Rosebery, Association for Bahá'í Studies - Australia. 2: 7-19.



    (1998). Conference focuses on fighting racism, bias in Charlotte. Business Journal Serving Charlotte & the Metropolitan Area. 13: 23.

    Allen, D. W. (1998). "Education, Values And Human Prosperity." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Barnes, W. (1998). "Over the Barriers: The Daystar Council in Consultation." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Bond, M. H. (1998). "Unity in Diversity: Orientations and Strategies for Building a Harmonious, Multicultural Society." "Multiculturalism: Diversity in Action", University of Tartu in Tartu, Estonia, May 6.

    Jones, C. (1998). "Examining the Bahá'í Model of Moral Development: A Covenant Centered Approach." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Lew, B. (1998). "Tests and Difficulties or Changing Fire and Vengeance into Light and Mercy." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Mohamed, M. (1998). "The Virtues Project - A Powerful Tool for Moral Development." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Saberi, H. (1998). "A possible spiritual paradigm for education in the third millennium." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Winston, D. (1998). Campuses are a bellwether for society's religious revival. The Chronicle of Higher Education.


    Family and gender

    Khan, J. A. and P. Khan (1998). Advancement of Women: A Bahá'í Perspective, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

    Miller, B. W. (1998). "Seneca Falls First Women's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation." Journal of Bahá'í Studies 8(3): 39-52.

    Sevidvash, M. (1998). Coral and Pearls. Some Thoughts on the Art of Marriage. Oxford, George Ronald.

    Mojab, S. (1998). ""Muslim" women and "Western" feminists: The debate on particulars and universals." Monthly Review 50(7): 19-30.

    Zemke-White, K. and W. L. Zemke-White (1998). "Rethinking Bahá'í Perspectives on Gender: Are the differences between men and women all in our minds?" Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.


    Ahmed, S. S. (1995). "Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance Of Babism In Persia", Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43(4): 395-406.

    Armstrong-Ingram, R. J. (1998). Written in light: a Bahá'í family album: Abdu'l-Bahá and the American Bahá'í community, 1895-1921. Los Angeles, Kalimát Press.

    Armstrong-Ingram, R. J. (1998). "Early Irish Bahá'ís: Issues of Religious, Cultural, and National Identity." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(4).

    Cole, J. (1998). Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-Century Middle East. New York, Columbia University Press. Distributed by Kalimat Press as Volume Nine of Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Reviewed for H-Bahai by Sen McGlinn http://www.h-

    Maude, R. and D. Maude (1998). The Servant, the General and Armageddon. Oxford, George Ronald.

    Mottahedeh, N. (1998). "Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-`Ayn Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht." Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(2).

    Roe, Jill, Dayspring: Australia and New Zealand as a setting for the 'New Age', from the 1890s to Nimbin. Australian Cultural History, no.16 1997/ 1998: (170)-187.

    Sims, B. R. (1998). Unfurling the Divine Flag in Tokyo: An Early Bahá'í History. Tokyo, Bahá'í Publishing Trust of Japan.

    Sours, M. W. (1998). "The1844 Ottoman "Edict of Toleration" in Bahá'í Secondary Literature." Journal of Bahá'í Studies 8(3): 53-80.

    Stauffer, R. (1998). "Summary of Julie Chanler's From Gaslight to Dawn New History Foundation, NY 1956." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(8).

    Stockman, R. (1998). "Notes on the Chicago House of Spirituality archives, 1901-1912." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(2).

    Stockman, R. (1998). "Notes on the Thornton Chase Papers." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(1).


    Human Rights

    (1998). "Symposium: Shifting Grounds for Asylum: Female Genital Surgery and Sexual Orientation." Columbia Human Rights Law Review 29(467).

    U.S. Dept. of State. Department of State Human Rights Country Reports (1998). Human Rights Country Reports, 1996. Laos Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996.

    Weinberg, M. (1998). The Human Rights Discourse: A Bahá'í Perspective. The Bahá'í World 1996-1997. Haifa, World Centre Publications: 247-274.



    Anne Q. Connaughton, Factoring U.S. Export Controls And Sanctions Into International Trade Decisions", Stetson Law Review, Spring, 1998, vol 27.

    Bollag, B. (1998). 36 professors arrested in Iranian crackdown on underground Bahá'í University. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

    Hoveyda, F. (1998). The Broken Crescent: The 'Threat of Militant Islamic Fundamentalism. Wesport, Conncticut & London, Praeger.

    Samii, A. W. (1998). "Falsafi, Kashani and the Bahá'ís." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(5).


    An-Na'im, A. A. (1998). "Round Table Discussion on international Human Rights Standards in the United States: The Case Of Religion Or Belief." Emory International Law Review 12: 973-.

    Backer, L. C. (1998). "Religion as Object and the Grammar of Law." Marquette Law Review 81(229).

    Epps, G. (1998). " What We Talk About When We Talk About Free Exercise." Arizona State Law Journal 30(563).

    Lapidoth, Ruth (1998). "Symposium: The Fundamental Agreement Between the Holy See and the State of Israel: A Third Anniversary Perspective: Freedom of Religion and of Conscience in Israel." Catholic University Law Review 47(Winter): 441-.

    Pearce, R. G. (1998). "Symposium: The Relevance Of Religion to a Lawyer's Work: an Interfaith Conference: Forward: The Religious Lawyering Movement: An Emerging Force In Legal Ethics And Professionalism" Fordham Law Review 66: 1075-.

    Ringwood, P. (1998). "The Law And Morals - Uneasy Bedfellows?" Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Sharma, K. M. (1998). " What's in a name? Law, Religion, and Islamic Names." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 26(151).

    Simpson, H. (1998). "Law and Justice: Uneasy Bedfellows?" Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.


    Media and Communications

    Bibel, B. (1998). "Bahá'í." Booklist 95(3): 353.

    Daugherty, M. (1998). "Mass Media and Moral Development." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Hillier, L. and R. Jere-Malanda (1998). "Journalism - Iran; Jameah (Newspaper); Rouhani, Ruhulla -- Death & burial; Zaeri, Mohammed -Trials, litigation, etc." Index on Censorship 27(5): 88-9.

    Lynem, J. N. (1998). " Charity Voice-Mail Program Connects Homeless to The World." San Francisco Chronicle(Nov 23): SEC,PG:COL: A, 18:1.

    Winters, J. (1998). "Communicative Interaction: Notes on Relating Habermasian Universalism to Bahá'í Consultation."


    News services

    BBC Summary of World Broadcasts." References in 1998: July 28, October 7.

    Canada NewsWire July 22, 1998

    PR Newswire: January 19, July 23, July 29, October 1, 1998

    Business Wire July 28, 1998

    Gannett News Service July 28, 1998

    Universal News Services July 22, 1998

    M2 Presswire March 27, Apr 1, Apr 17, Jul 24, July 27, September 7, October 2, October 5, October 30, November 5, 1998

    Newspapers and Magazines

    Atlanta Constitution March 5, 1998

    Birmingham Post July 27, 1998

    Boston Globe June 8, 1998

    Bristol Evening Post, October 14, 1998

    The Calgary Sun July 24, 1998

    Chicago Tribune May 14, July 24, 1998

    The Christian Science Monitor, June 18 1998

    Denver Post April 14, April 20, 1998

    Evening News (Edinburgh), October 1, 1998

    Express & Echo (Exeter) July 23, 1998

    Focus Magazine August 24, 1998

    The Guardian 20 February 1998

    The Independent (London) August 26, 1998

    The Irish Times, June 22, July 17, July 31, September 22, September 23, October 2, October 10 1998

    Los Angeles Times Jan 17, Jan 24 1998

    Le Monde July 25, 1998

    Leicester Mercury July 2, September 16, 1998

    New Straits Times - Management Times July 1, 1998,

    New York Times, July 24, July 31, August 1, August 2, August 7, October 29, 1998

    The Northern Echo: October 6, 1998

    Nottingham Evening Post August 7, 1998

    San Francisco Chronicle Apr 19, 1998

    St Louis Post-Dispatch, Feb 28, 1998

    Sunday Times, May 31, 1998

    Tonga Chronicle, 1998 November 14

    Washington Post Oct 25, 1998

    Western Daily Press, October 17, 1998


    Psychology and Mental Health

    Herzog, L. M. (1998). "A Preliminary Analysis of the Bahá’í Concept of Mental Health." A Clinical Research Project submitted to the faculty of the Illinois School of Professional Psychology/Chicago Campus in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology, Chicago, Illinois, May, 1998.

    Ingersoll, R. E. (1998). "Refining Dimensions of Spiritual Wellness: A Cross-Traditional Approach." Counseling & Values 42(3): 156.

    Peterson, P. (1998). Assisting the traumatized soul: healing the wounded talisman. Wilmette, Ill., Bahá'í Publishing Trust.



    Cole, J. R. I. (1998). "The Bahá'í Faith in America as Panopticon, 1963-1997." Journal for the scientific study of religion 37(2): 234-249.

    Piff, D. and M. Warburg (1998). Enemies of the Faith: Rumours and anecdotes as self-definition and social control in the Bahá'í religion. New Religions and New Religiosity. M. Warburg and E. Barker, Aarhus University Press: 66-82.

    Smith, P. (1998). "The Routinization of Charisma? Some Comments on "Motif Messianique et Processus Social dans le Bahaisme"." Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, (Special Reprint Edition) 2(6).

    Philosophy and Theology

    Abu'l-Fadl, M. (1998). The Brilliant Proof. Los Angeles, Kalimat Press.

    Buck, C. (1998). "The Kitab-i Iqan: An Introduction to Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude with Two Digital Reprints of Early Lithographs." Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(5).

    Cole, J. (1998). "Bahá'u'lláh's Tablets to the Rulers." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(9).

    Cole, J. R. I. (1998). "Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(6).

    Hatcher, J. (1998). The Divine Art of Revelation. Wilmette, Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

    Khazrai, H. (1998). The Concept of liberty in the Bahá'í Faith. The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Five Papers Exploring the Most Holy Book. Rosebery, Association for Bahá'í Studies - Australia. 2: 32-45.

    Khazrai, H. (1998). The Concept of Justice in the Bahá'í Faith. The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Five Papers Exploring the Most Holy Book. Rosebery, Association for Bahá'í Studies - Australia. 2: 46-73.

    Naraqi, S. (1998). Edited Transcript of presentation at the conference on the Kitab-i-Aqdas. The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Five Papers Exploring the Most Holy Book. Rosebery, Association for Bahá'í Studies - Australia. 2: 20-32.

    Rabbani, A. (1998). " Dating Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, Vol. 2, no. 7 (September 1998)." 2(7).

    Sinclair, G. (1998). "The Three Stages of Revelation." Proceedings of the Joint Conference, ABS Australia and ABS New Zealand, Auckland.

    Sours, M. W. (1998). The station and claims of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Ill., Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

    Walbridge, J. (1998). "The Bab's Panj Sha'n (Five Modes)." Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies 2(3).

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