Chronology of the Bahá'í Faith

This chronology is an updated, expanded version of A Basic Baha'i Chronology by
Glenn Cameron and Wendi Momen. To help add or correct entries, contact Glenn.
Canada 1700s 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s
 

Earliest 100 entries sort newest first, descending

date event tags
1753 Birth of Shaykh Ahmad Ahsá'í in the village of Mutayrafí in the Ahsá region, the hinterland of Bahrayn. (Bahrain)
  • See Episodes by Marzieh Gail in World Order Volume 5 Issue 3 p6.
  • Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Births and deaths; Mutayraff; Bahrain
    1771 Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. He ruled from 1797 (or 1798) to 1834. Fath-`Alí Sháh; - Shahs; Births and deaths; Qajar dynasty; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    c. 1778 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Riday-i-Shírází, the father of the Báb. Mírzá Muhammad Rida; Births and deaths; Báb, Family of; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    c. 1783 Birth of Mírzá `Abbás-i-Irivání, later Prime Minister Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, in Máh-Kú. - Prime Ministers of Iran; - Prime Ministers; Hájí Mírzá Aqasi; Births and deaths; Mah-Ku, Iran; Iran
    1797 Birth of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, in Rasht. Shaykhism; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Births and deaths; Rasht, Iran; Iran
    1797 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, (b. 5 September, 1772, d. 23 October, 1834) proclaimed himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. He ruled until the 23rd of October, 1834. [AY213, Wikipedia]

    The Qajar dynasty lasted until 1925. [Wikipedia]

    Aqa Muhammad Khan; Qajar dynasty; - Shahs; - Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1797 c. Aug Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumed leadership of Persia. (1797 (or 1798) to 1834) Fath-`Alí Sháh; - Shahs; - Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1798 21 Mar Fath-`Alí Khán was crowned second Qájár Sháh during Naw-Rúz festival. Fath-`Alí Sháh; - Shahs; - Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1798 1 Jul The start of the French invasion of Egypt. It ended in a military disaster for France, albeit a political springboard for the 29-year old future emperor but it was a cultural and scientific enterprise that played a crucial role in the development of modern Egypt. The objectives were to free Egypt from the tyranny of the Mamluk ruling warrior class and to cut off Britain's trade route to India. It was the first major incursion of a European power into a central country of the Islamic world since the Crusades.

    Although the plan to colonize Egypt failed it did inaugurate an era of intensive and prolonged rivalry between Britain and France, soon to be joined by Russia. The Age of Colonization had begun. In 1814 35% of the world was ruled by the colonial powers. By 1914 it was 85%.

    The French captured Alexandria easily and were victorious in the Battle of the Pyramids, however the British under Horatio Nelson sunk the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile in August. The British and the Ottomans laid siege to Acre in May of 1799 at the same time a plague epidemic struck the French soldiers. Napoleon fled back to dance in August of 1799 abandoning his troops to an eventual surrender in August of 1801.

    After the expulsion of Napoleon's troops from Egypt by a combined British-Ottoman operation in 1801, Egypt underwent, under Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805-48). a period of comprehensive reforms. The elimination of the Mamluk feudal lords, the confiscation of their lands and the establishment of a state-controlled monopoly of the chief products, mainly cotton, enabled the enlightened ruler to initiate an extensive program of socio-economic change. Industries flourished, military and medical academies were established, students were sent abroad to study in Paris. A modern army was built up and the Egyptian navy soon surpassed the Ottoman navy which controlled the Eastern Mediterranean. [Wikipedia; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p26-27; Napoleon and the Scientific Expedition to Egypt]

    Egypt
    1799 in the year Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Acre.

    At this juncture the French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet under Commodore Sir Sidney Smith, while a Turkish army was assembling in Syria. Napoleon's object was to compel the Ottoman Government to come to terms with France. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jezreel, and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed; but he failed to capture Acre after a two month siege and the loss of most of his best soldiers, gallantly defended by Sidney Smith. By the beginning of June, 1799, Napoleon had withdrawn from Palestine. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23]

    Napoleon I; History (general); War; Akka, Israel; Israel; Palestine
    1799 21 Mar Fath-`Alí Sháh's son, `Abbás Mírzá (aged 9), was designated Crown Prince of Persia. Fath-`Alí Sháh; - Shahs; Abbas Mírzá; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1804 - 1813 Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize. With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia. Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War; History (general); Iran, General history; Gulistan; Aslan Duz, Iran; Iran; Russia
    c. 1806 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Khán-i-Farahání, later Prime Minister of Persia, in Hizávih. Mírzá Muhammad Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; - Prime Ministers of Iran; - Prime Ministers; Births and deaths; Hizavih; Iran
    1807 25 Mar The Bill to abolish the Atlantic slave trade received Royal Assent in the British Parliament. The Act took effect on 1 May 1807. [UK Parliament]
  • The night of 22 to 23 August 1791, in Santo Domingo (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic) saw the beginning of the uprising that would play a crucial role in the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade. It is against this background that the International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition is commemorated on 23 August each year. [UNESCO]
  • Slavery; London, England; United Kingdom; Haiti; Dominican Republic
    1808 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Muhammad Sháh; Abbas Mírzá; Fath-`Alí Sháh; - Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran
    c. 1812 Birth of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat. Hujjat; Births and deaths; Iran
    c. 1813 Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn).
  • See Light of Faith: A collection of stories by Paris Sadeghzadeh and Behnam Golmohammadi p20-29.
  • Mulla Husayn; Births and deaths; - Letters of the Living; Bushrúyih, Iran; Iran
    1815 (Dates undetermined) Early history of the House of the Báb

  • RoB4p240 states that the Báb's father, Áqá Mírzá Muhammad Ridá bought the House, however, the family records show that it was an inheritance. [MBBA162]
  • The Báb (Alí Muhammad) was born there 20th of October, 1819.
  • With the passing of His father He and his mother, Fatimah Bagum, relocated to the home of her brother Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí, possibly about 1824 or later.
  • Báb, House of (Shiraz); Aqa Mírzá Muhammad Rida; Fatimih Bagum; Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Ali; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1817 (In the year) Shaykh Ahmad traveled to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He was in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahá'u'lláh, Birth of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Shíráz, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Hájí Amin (Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani); - Hands of the Cause; Births and deaths; Ardikan, Iran; Yazd, Iran; Iran
    1817 (In the year) The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75; DB81note2]
  • In BBRSM16 her name was given as Fátimih Bigum Baragháni and birth year is 1814.
  • See Light of Faith: A collection of stories by Paris Sadeghzadeh and Behnam Golmohammadi p67-78.
  • Tahirih; Births and deaths; - Letters of the Living; Qazvin, Iran; Iran
    1817 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh) in Tehran, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá). [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
  • He was of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He was a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He was born in Tihrán in the district t know as Darvázih-Shimran (Shimran Gate). This district has become know as Mahalyih Arabhá (the Arab quarter.) His father was Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father was also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother was Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He was born at dawn. [LOG353; DB12]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Birth of; Bahá'u'lláh, Childhood of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Twin Holy days; Holy days; Mírzá Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; Births and deaths; Zoroaster; Abraham; Tehran, Iran; Núr, Iran; Iran
    1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Najaf, Iranabad, Iran; Iran
    1819 (In the year) Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considered this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24] Shaykh Ali; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Births and deaths; Sacrifice; Shaykhism; Iran
    1819–1831 `Abdu'lláh Páshá became the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians took `Akká he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5] `Abdu'lláh Páshá; - Governors; History (general); Akka, Israel; Palestine; Israel; Egypt
    1819 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB14, 72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother was Fátimih-Bagum. [Bab33, 46; KBWB20; RB2:382]
    • In the latter years of her life while she was living in Iraq, Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His devoted followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírází, to acquaint her in the principles of the Faith and she became aware of the bountiful gifts which God had conferred upon her. [DB191]
  • His father was Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He was a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See Bab32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • Also see Light of Faith: A collection of stories by Paris Sadeghzadeh and Behnam Golmohammadi p15-18.
  • Báb, Birth of; Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Mírzá Muhammad Rida; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Báb, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1820 (In the year) Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Báb); Báb, Family of; Births and deaths; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1820 (In the year) Birth of Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb), first wife of Bahá'u'lláh, in Yálrúd. The only daughter of Mírzá Ismá'íl. Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Births and deaths; Yalrud; Iran
    1821 (In the year) `Abdu'lláh Páshá built the Mansion at Bahjí. [BBD5, 42] `Abdu'lláh Páshá; House of Bahá'u'lláh (Bahji); Bahji, Israel; Akka, Israel
    1822 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living in Barfurush (now called Babol). Quddus; - Letters of the Living; Births and deaths; Babul (Barfurush), Iran; Iran; Babul (Barfurush), Iran
    c. 1823 Bahá'u'lláh's father dreamed that his son was swimming in a sea with multitudes of fish clinging to the strands of His hair. He related this dream to a soothsayer, who prophesied that Bahá'u'lláh will achieve supremacy over the world. [DB199–20] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Childhood of; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mírzá Buzurg; Dreams and visions; Hair (general); Fishes (metaphor); Seas and oceans (metaphor); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Iran
    c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Mishkin-Qalam; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1826 27 Jun Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2,; M16; H20]
  • At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí became his designated successor. [BBD12; DB9-11]
  • BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
  • See MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
  • See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life. Says he lived from 1753 to 1826.
  • See DB1-18 for a brief history of his life.
  • DB18 says he died in 1268 A.H. (4 August, 1826 to 25 July, 1827)
  • See MH22 for a picture.
  • KA239n171 says Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá'í lived from 1753 to 1831. He was the founder of the Shaykhí School and the first of the "twin luminaries that heralded the advent of the Faith of the Báb".
  • See Sheikh Ahmad al-Ahsai by Moojan Momen for a brief history of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá'í and the Shaykhí School and his continuing influence today.
  • See Ahsá'í, Shaykh Ahmad by Denis MacEoin (Encyclopedia Iranica).
  • See BBRSM8-13 for a history of Shaykhism.
  • See GPB92 for his predictions regarding the Twin Manifestations. iiiii
  • Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haddiyyih; Medina, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1828 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
  • The Báb was placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He was a leading merchant of Shíráz and was the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He was one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
  • In the household was an Ethiopian servant named Mubarak who nurtured and tutored Him throughout His later childhood and adolescence. "the Bab, in fact, places Mubarak on the same plane as his father." [The Ethiopian King by Nader Saiedi translated by Omid Ghaemmaghami Baha'i Studies Review, Volume 17 p181-186] This servant was not, in fact, the Hají Mubarak who later accompanied Him to Mecca.
  • According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
  • Mírzá Muhammad Rida; Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Ali; Báb, Family of; Báb, Uncles of; - Uncles; Báb, Life of (chronology); In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Báb, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Russo-Persian War; War; History (general); Iran, General history; Tabríz, Iran; Turkmenchay, Iran; Iran
    1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. He died on the 5th of July 1892 in Bukhara, Russian Turkistan (now Uzbekistan). He was referred to as a Hand of the Cause by 'Abdu'l-Bahá posthumously. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project; MoFp1] Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by `Abdu'l-Bahá; Naw-Firist; Birjand, Iran; Iran
    c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. [TB25] Weddings; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi; Iran
    1830 Jan c. Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád. Hájí Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Báb, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Ishqabad; Births and deaths; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan
    c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Mírzá Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Births and deaths; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Mazandaran, Iran; Iran
    1831 – 1840 Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p3, 20]
  • 'Abdu'lláh Páshá was the governor of 'Akká from 1819 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
  • History (general); `Abdu'lláh Páshá; Akka, Israel; Palestine; Israel; Egypt; Turkey
    1831 (In the year) At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. Mashhad is where the remains of the Eighth Imám, 'Alí Ibn Musa'r-Ridá are enshrined in the holiest Shi'ih site in Iran. [MH7-8; MH113] Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq; Mashhad, Iran; Bushihr, Iran; Iran
    1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Nasirid-Din Sháh; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran
    1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. ["Nabil-e Aʿẓam Zarandi, Mollā Moḥammad," by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Nabil-i-Azam; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Zarand; Iran
    1832 (In the year) The first of the American missionaries went to Persia to explore the possibility of establishing a base for the activities of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. The work of many others who succeeded him continued until 1934 when the government imposed regulations that drastically restricted the nature of their educational work in Iran. Although the missionaries were successful in educational and medical work they failed in their main objective, which was to evangelize not only Persia, but all of Asia. However, their schools, colleges and hospitals had contributed to the diffusion of western ideals and the standard of education. They established an educational system from the primary to the college level in a country that had no secular education system. [American Missionaries in Iran, 1834-1934 by Mansoori, Ahmad] iiiii Missionaries; Iran
    1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survived Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executed the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who had raised him to the throne. He then installed his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the position (1835). During his first year in office Hájí Mírzá Áqásí succeeded in removing most of the supporters of the previous prime minister from power, filling their positions with his own appointees from Máh-Kú. Among those removed from power was Mírzá Buzurg Núrí, Bahá'u'lláh's father. [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
  • For an example of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí's machinations against Bahá'u'lláh and others see DB120-122.
  • Fath-`Alí Sháh; Muhammad Sháh; - Shahs; - Grand Viziers; - Prime Ministers of Iran; - Prime Ministers; Hájí Mírzá Aqasi; Iran, General history; Iran
    1835 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mírzá Aqa Jan; Amanuensis; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths
    1835 (In the year) Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1835 Oct Marriage of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí (Bahá'u'lláh) to Ásíyih Khánum. [BKG23; RB1:382]
  • She was the daughter of a nobleman Mirza Isma'il-l-Vazie from Yalrud. [CoB117, BKG23, RoB1p382, BPP44, SoG6]
  • Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Wives of; Weddings; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1835 - 1836 Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad (the Báb) moved to Bushihr to manage his uncles' business interests in that city. He stayed there for five or six years. [HotD19, DB77note1, Bab39-41] Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Shop of; Business; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bushihr, Iran; Iran
    1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the former tutor of the Shah became the Prime Minister of Persia. His inexperience in administration and finance combined with entrenched corruption, incompetence and a soaring budget deficit in the government nearly bankrupted the country making it ripe for revolution.
  • Seefor a brief history of this man.
  • - Prime Ministers of Iran; - Prime Ministers; Hájí Mírzá Aqasi; Iran
    1836 (In the year) The Carmelite Monastery and church were constructed near the cave of Elijah. It was influential in attracting Christians to Haifa. [SYHp9] Carmelite monastery, Israel; Stella Maris monastery, Haifa; Haifa, Israel; Mount Carmel MERGE
    1837 (In the year) Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Muhammad Mustafa Baghdadi; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Iraq
    1838 (In the year) Manúchihr Khán was appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167] Manuchihr Khan; - Governors; Isfahan, Iran; Iran
    1839 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body was taken to Najaf, Iraq where he was interred. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4]
  • In 1957 the remains of Mírzá Buzurg were located and transferred. [MBW175]
  • Mírzá Buzurg; Bahá'u'lláh, Family of; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Najaf, Iran; Iraq
    1839 (In the year) Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] War; British history; History (general); Iran, General history; Iran
    1839 As the eldest son, after the passing of Mírzá Buzurg, Bahá'u'lláh assumed His place as the head of the family. According to the custom He was expected to succeed to His father's position in the Ministry but He refused.

    One of His first acts as the head of the family was to free the slaves who were engaged in serving the household. All took the liberty to leave but Isfandíyár and one woman elected to remain in service. [SoW Vol IX, April 28, 1918 p38-39, CH41]

    Isfandiyar; Slavery; Mírzá Buzurg; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Iran
    1840 (In the year) The British fleet took `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] History (general); Akka, Israel; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom
    1841 (In the year) Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) went Karbalá where He attended the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. From Karbalá He went to Najaf before returning to Shíráz. [DB26-30; Bab42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
  • The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
  • BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Najaf, Iran; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1842 - 1843 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), (d. 4 March 1910 in Tehran) in Shahmírzád, near Semnān [Simnán]. He was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahá'í Encylopedia Project; EB266; MoF9-12] Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí); - Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Shahmirzad, Iran; Iran
    1842 Aug The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. She had been a childhood friend and sometimes playmate. Their family homes were adjacent. [Bab46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382; DoH107; DB76note3]
  • See Bab80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
  • He returned to live in the House after His marriage. [RoB4429]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Family of; Weddings; Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Báb); Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Báb, House of (Shiraz); Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1843 (In the year) Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passed away shortly after he was born (or was still-born). [Bab46-47; DB76note4; 77; KBWB6-9]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place. Also see KBWB7.
  • Ahmad (son of the Báb); Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1843 10 Jan The Báb dreamed that He drank a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He felt that the Spirit of God had taken possession of His soul. At this moment He received intimation that He was to be a Manifestation of God. [GPB92; BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24]
  • Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognized her Husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. He bade her to keep this knowledge concealed. He entrusted her with a special prayer to be used before she went to sleep, the reading of which would remove her difficulties and lighten the burden of her woes. [DB191–192; HotD27; KBWB9-14; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p21-22 by A. Rabbani]
  • There are several such prayers among the Bábí and Bahá'í Writings, one of them has become informally known as "the Remover of Difficulties Prayer": There is no evidence that the pray mentioned above was this prayer. Please see The Invocation 'Is There Any Remover of Difficulties Save God...' by Muhammad Afnan and translated by Adib Masumian.
  • See as well Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth- Century Qur'an Commentary? A Comparison of the Bab's Qayyūm al- asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses p113 by Todd Lawson.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Dreams and visions; Blood; Imam Husayn; Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Báb); Remover of Difficulties (invocation); - Invocations; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1843 10 Jan The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those who had taken refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36-37] Ottoman Empire; War; History (general); Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1843 5 Feb Great March Comet or Great Comet of 1843 was first "discovered". It passed closest to Earth on March 6, 1843, and was at its greatest brilliance the following day. When at its greatest brilliance, it was visible only from southern latitudes. For a few hours on February 28, it outshone any comet seen in the previous seven centuries. The tail of the comet holds the record for actual extent. It is estimated to have stretched 300 million kilometres (or 2 astronomical units). It was last observed on April 19, 1843. At that time this comet had passed closer to the Sun than any other known object. [Great Comet in History; Notes from Baha'i History; Academic; Wikipedia; Thief in the Night p193-196]

    Another comet seemed to reappear at significant times in history. The first recorded sighting for the comet that came to be known as Biela's Comet was made in 1772 with a second appearance in 1805. In 1826 Wilhelm von Biela and others contributed to work to determine that it was indeed the same comet making reappearances in elliptical orbit with an orbital period of 6.6 years.

    In the 1845-1846 appearance astronomers were surprised to see that the comet had split into two pieces. By 1852 only one nucleus remained visible. The 1859 apparition was very unfavourable but that of 1865-1866 was more visible. Astronomers believed that the comet had broken up and accounted for an unusual number of meteor showers. At the comet's next return in 1872 a major meteor storm occurred on the 27th of November with hourly rates of 3,000 per hour. Intense meteor displays were also noted in 1885 (15,000/hr), and 1892 (6,000/hr). [Cometography; Thief in the Night p195-196; Release the Sun p217-219]

    Comets; Falling stars and comets; Signs
    1843 31 Dec Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165; RoB1p331-335]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
  • See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Hájí Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1844 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Gulpaygan, Iran; Iran
    1844 10 Jan The arrival of Táhirih in Karbilá. She had learned of the views of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim and had corresponded with the latter from whom she received her name, Qurratu'l-Ayn, meaning "Solace of the Eyes". Against the wishes of her family she had left her home to join the circle of his students but arrived in Karbilá ten days after his passing. Convinced that the Promised One would soon appear she stayed on in that city as Siyyid Kázim's disciples were departing in their search. To one of them, her brother-in-law, Mírzá Muhammad-i-Alíy-i-Qazvíní, she gave a sealed letter and told him to deliver it to the One Sought. This he did and the Báb recognized her as one of the Letters of the Living. [B25-26; DB81note2]
  • She had had a dream in which a youth, a Siyyid wearing a black cloak and a green turban, appeared to her in the heavens, who with upraised hands was reciting certain verses, one of which she noted down in her book. Later on, when she had a copy of the Báb's Súrih of Joseph, she discovered that same verse which she had heard in her dream. [DB81note2]
  • Tahirih; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Mullá Muhammad-i-`Alíy-i-Qazvíní; - Letters of the Living; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1844 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
  • See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
  • Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Karbala, Iraq; Isfahan, Iran; Mashhad, Iran; Najaf, Iran; Bushihr, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iraq; Iran
    1844 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; - Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh; Births and deaths; Qazvin, Iran; Iran
    1844 21 Mar Edict of Toleration was issued by the Sultan of Turkey: The Muslim government of the Ottoman Empire was compelled by the Western Powers, notably Britain and France, to grant religious tolerance to all nations within its borders. Broader questions of religious tolerance, such as might presumably involve Jewish land rights and Jewish immigration are not mentioned in the Edict. [Sours (below) p9]

    To set the context, this came during the period known as "Tanzimat" (lit. Reorganization) 1838 to 1876. The Tanzimat era was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire and attempted to stem the tide of the rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire. During the Tanzimat period, the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories. The Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Istanbul in 1840. [Wikipedia]

    The fulfillment of the prophecies of Christ and of the Bible has been over a period of a hundred years or more matter of common knowledge and remark in the West. But the full extent of that fulfillment is only seen in Bahá'u'lláh. The proclamation of His Faith was made in 1844, the year when the strict exclusion of the Jews from their own land enforced by the Muslims for some twelve centuries was at last relaxed by the Edict of Toleration and "the times of the Gentiles" were "fulfilled." [GPBiv Introduction by George Townshend]

  • See The 1844 Ottoman "Edict of Toleration" in Bahá'í Secondary Literature by Michel W. Sours and published in the Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol 8 no 3 1998 pp 53-80.

    Michael Sours makes the point that there have been some Christian notions that have been adopted uncritically by a number of Bahá'í apologists that cannot be supported: 1. That Jews were strictly excluded from Palestine for 1,260 years prior to 1844 2. That Muslim Authorities were responsible for this exclusion 3. That the 1844 Edict ended the exclusion and enabled Jews to immigrate to Palestine 4. That the Edict brought about the fulfilment of the prophecy concerning the "times of the Gentiles". By extension it was the Christian maltreatment of Jews in Europe and elsewhere that prompted the large migration in the 19th and particularly in the 20th century. [Sours p77]

  • Edict of Toleration; Jews; - Judaism; History (general); Prophecies; Israel; Palestine; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey
    1844 3 Apr In Kitáb Fihrist, the Báb stated that the first descent of Spirit on Him was on 15th of the third month (Rabi ul Awal) of AH 1260 [3 April 1844]. [The Genesis of the Bâbí-Baháʼí Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs pp. 20–22] Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Declaration of; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1844 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

    Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í in the upper room of His House. [DB52-65]

    "I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person." [DB315-316]

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru'i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
  • For more information about Mubarack see Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'U'Llah p21-22.
  • He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
    • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
    • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu'l-Asma'.
    • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
    • Images of the Qayyum al-asma' ('Maintainer of the names') can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. [ZK320]
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Declaration of; Holy days; * Báb, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Báb, Life of (chronology); Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Báb, Basic timeline; Mubarak; - Letters of the Living; Fiddih; Báb, House of (Shiraz); 1844; Prophecies; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1844 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He was known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gave Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) was a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Báb, Declaration of; Births and deaths; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; `Abdu'l-Bahá, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Names and titles; Tehran, Iran; Iran
    1844 24 May F.B. Morse sent the first telegraphic message over an experimental line from Washington D.C. to Baltimore; the message said: "What hath God wrought?" which is a verse from The Book of Numbers 23:23. Also see The Book of Job 38:35 where it says "Canst thou send lightnings, that they may go and say unto thee, Here we are?" [Thief in the Night or The Strange Case of the Missing Millennium by William Sears p3-4]

    See History of Information.

    Communication; Telegraph; Morse code; Firsts, other; History (general); Washington, DC, USA; Baltimore, MD; USA
    1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, had a vision that led him to Mullá Husayn and he accepted the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always came at night and stayed until dawn. [HotD41; Bahá'í Encyclopedia].
  • Sixteen others recognized Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 were later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See Bab26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 ; Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy) for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih. See DB81-82 for the story of how Tahirih was recognized as a Letter of the Living by the Báb.
  • The Báb was the 19th Letter of the Living. [LW5.2]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams and visions; Mulla Husayn; - Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Iran
    1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
  • Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
  • Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
  • He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
  • In Tihrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
  • See Bab53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
  • Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [Bab56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); * Báb, Writings of; Báb, Speech to the Letters of the Living; - Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh; - Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Sháh; Sultán `Abdu'l-Majid; First believers; - Letters of the Living; Báb, Basic timeline; Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Kull-i-Shay; Kashan, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Isfahan, Iran; Tehran, Iran; Mazandaran, Iran; Khurásan, Iran; Qom, Iran; Iran; Turkey
    1844 Jul - Aug To promote the Cause of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh immediately journeyed to the village of Tákur in the province of Mázindarán, His native province. As a result Mázindarán in general and Núr in particular were the first among the provinces and districts of Persia to embrace the new Cause. [DB109-117] Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); Bahá'u'lláh, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Takur, Iran; Iran
    1844 11 Aug The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [Bab27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, other; Trials; Court cases; - Persecution, Court cases; - Letters of the Living; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad, Iraq; Najaf, Iran; Karbala, Iraq
    1844 10 Sep The Báb left Shiraz for Bushihr and arrived on the 19th of September. [The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani] Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Shíráz, Iran; Bushihr, Iran
    1844 30 Sep The Báb received the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted. See DB126-128 for information on the letter and the affect it had on the Báb.
  • Nabíl indicated that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [Bab57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter. IIII
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahá'u'lláh, Life of (chronology); - Letters of the Living; Shíráz, Iran; Bushihr, Iran; Iran
    1844 Oct Pigrimage of the Báb

    The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, left Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey took ten days. [Bab57; DB129; MH119]
  • DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14 October to 11 November, 1844).
  • SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
  • Balyuzi, Bab57 says "in the month of September.
  • The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani says He left port on the 2nd of October.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Servants; Mubarak; - Letters of the Living; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shíráz, Iran; Bushihr, Iran; Mecca, Saudi Arabia
    1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departed from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [Bab57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
  • He instructed His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He had been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah was probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [Bab69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
  • It was slow, stormy and unsteady sailing and the passengers were in constant dispute amongst themselves. [DB129note2]
  • The Báb, recognizing the difficulty in sea-travel, prayered that conditions might be improved. Nabil noted on page 131 "Within a short space of time, since that prayer was offered, maritime transport have greatly multiplied, and the Persian gulf, which in those days hardly possessed a single steam-driven vessel, now boast a fleet of ocean liners...". He goes on to attribute the Industrial Revolution to the impulse of the Revelation.
  • After twelve days the vessel made a rest-stop in Mascate for several days. The Báb attempted to convert a religious man of high rank but was unsuccessful. [DB129note2; [DB130note1]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships; Industrial Revolution; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia; Muscat, Oman
    1844 (In the year) A senior cleric, a convert to the new faith of the Báb, arrived in Yemen through the then internationally renowned Al-Mokha port. [Arab News 20/11/2020] Yemen
    1844 c. Dec The Báb and His companions arrived in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [Bab71; DB129, 132]
  • See Bab69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
  • Quddús walked from Jiddah to Mecca. [Bab71, DB132, GPB9]
  • See DB132 for the story of the theft of his saddlebag by a Bedouin.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Ships; Camels; Saddlebag (novel); - Missing, lost or destroyed Writings; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia; Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1844 12 Dec The Báb arrived in Mecca and performed the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
  • See Bab70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1844 20 - 21 Dec The Báb offered 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, nine in His own name, seven in the name of Quddús and three in the name of Mubarak, His Ethiopian servant, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133] Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Mubarak; Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1844 c. 20 Dec The Báb made a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
  • On the last day of His pilgrimage, the 24th of December, He made an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school promising him that He would answer any questions he might pose on the condition that he either refute His Cause or bear allegiance to it. He fled for Medina before honouring his promise to submit questions. The Báb, while in transit to Medina, wrote a reply to the questions which had perplexed Mírzá Muhít (The Epistle between the Two Shrines) and had it delivered to him in Karbilá. He remained unmoved by the precepts inculcated, his attitude to the Faith was one of concealed and persistent opposition. [DB137-138; SBBR5p103-104; Bab73–4; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
  • See DB137-138 for Mírzá Muhít's dealings with Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The Báb sent Quddus with an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca acquainting him with the new Revelation. The Sharíf was too busy to respond. Years later he recognized his error in ignoring the epistle. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB138-140; GPB9, 89] iiiii
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Kaaba (Kabih); Qaim; Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Mírzá Muhit; Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Báb, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; * Báb, Writings of; Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1845 c. Jan Crowds gathered in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them was Táhirih. [BabI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Báb, Life of (chronology); Tahirih; Karbala, Iraq; Iraq
    1845 7 Jan The Báb departed Mecca. [The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani] Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Mecca, Saudi Arabia
    1845 10 Jan The beginning of the Islamic new year. Messianic fervour grew, particularly among Shaykhís. [BBRSM15] Prophecies; Shaykhism; - Islam; - Interfaith dialogue; - Middle East; Iran; Iraq
    1845 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád. A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [Bab64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Trials; Mulla Ali Bastami; Fatwa; Persecution, Iraq; - Persecution, Court cases; - Persecution; Court cases; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1845 16 Jan The Báb arrived in Medina from Mecca.
  • DB140 says He arrived January 10, 1845.
  • He stayed for 27 days. [MS2] From there He proceeded to Jiddah where He took a boat bound for Búshihr. [Bab75]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Epistle between Two Shrines; Medina, Saudi Arabia; Mecca, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1845 12 Feb The Báb left Medina for Jiddah arriving on the 24th of February. [MS2; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani] Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Medina, Saudi Arabia; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia
    1845 27 Feb The Báb left Jiddah. [MS2]
  • He disembarked at Muscat and remained there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
  • He sent a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
  • SBBH23 and The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani] say the ship with the Báb left Jiddah on the 4th of March.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; * Báb, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; - Persecution, Court cases; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Saudi Arabia; Muscat, Oman; Oman
    1845 Feb - Mar The Báb returned to Búshihr. He sent Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who, upon receiving it, embraced his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so in Shíráz. The Báb also entrusted Quddús with a treatise for him entitled Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promised him his impending martyrdom. Later he gave his life as one of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb. [Bab77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
  • To the departing Quddus He promised intense suffering in Shíráz and eventual martyrdom. [DB142-143]
  • Bab77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that had gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering was perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changed His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructed them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Báb, Pilgrimage of; Báb, Family of; Báb, Uncles of; - Uncles; Quddus; Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Deaths; - Persecution; First believers; * Báb, Writings of; Bushihr, Iran; Iran; Shíráz, Iran
    1845 c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí was removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he was sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey; Baghdad, Iraq; Iraq
    1845 c. Jun After expelling Mullá Husayn and Mullá Sádiq the governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán-i-Irváni ordered that the Báb, the instigator of the commotion, be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [Bab84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
    - Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Báb, Life of (chronology); - Persecution; Bushihr, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran
    1845 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov was appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Constantinople. He arrived in Tihrán in January 1846.
  • See Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran by Moojan Momen where it says "Prince Dolgoruki....was Russian Minister in Tehran from 1845 to 1854".
  • Prince Dolgorukov; Ambassadors; History (general); Iran, General history; Istanbul, Turkey; Turkey; Tehran, Iran; Iran; Russia
    1845 30 Jun At Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the Búshíhr, the Báb met the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him. He was escorted to Shíráz. [Bab84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35-36 by A. Rabbani]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest upon arrival.
  • Báb, Life of (chronology); Persecution, Iran; - Persecution, Arrests; - Persecution; Dalaki; Fars, Iran; Shíráz, Iran; Iran

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